Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale, its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both. It is a systematically organized and executed attack from the air which can utilize strategic bombers, long- or medium-range missiles, or nuclear-armed fighter-bomber aircraft to attack targets deemed vital to the enemy's war-making capability. One of the strategies of war is to demoralize the enemy, so that peace or surrender becomes preferable to continuing the conflict. Strategic bombing has been used to this end; the phrase "terror bombing" entered the English lexicon towards the end of World War II and many strategic bombing campaigns and individual raids have been described as terror bombing by commentators and historians. Because the term has pejorative connotations, including the Allies of World War II, have preferred to use euphemisms such as "will to resist" and "morale bombings".
The theoretical distinction between tactical and strategic air warfare was developed between the two world wars. Some leading theorists of strategic air warfare during this period were the Italian Giulio Douhet, the Trenchard school in the United Kingdom, General Billy Mitchell in the United States; these theorists were influential, both on the military justification for an independent air force and in influencing political thoughts on a future war as exemplified by Stanley Baldwin's 1932 comment that the bomber will always get through. One of the aims of war is to demoralize the enemy; the proponents of strategic bombing between the world wars, such as General Douhet, expected that direct attacks upon an enemy country's cities by strategic bombers would lead to rapid collapse of civilian morale, so that political pressure to sue for peace would lead to a rapid conclusion. When such attacks were tried in the 1930s—in the Spanish Civil War and the Second Sino-Japanese War—they were ineffective.
Commentators observed the failures and some air forces, such as the Luftwaffe, concentrated their efforts upon direct support of the troops. Terror bombing is an emotive term used for aerial attacks planned to break enemy morale. Use of the term to refer to aerial attacks implies the attacks are criminal according to the law of war, or if within the laws of war are a moral crime. According to John Algeo in Fifty Years among the New Words: A Dictionary of Neologisms 1941–1991, the first recorded usage of "Terror bombing" in a United States publication was in a Reader's Digest article dated June 1941, a finding confirmed by the Oxford English Dictionary. Aerial attacks described as terror bombing are long range strategic bombing raids, although attacks which result in the deaths of civilians may be described as such, or if the attacks involve fighters strafing they may be labelled "terror attacks". German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and other high-ranking officials of the Third Reich described attacks made on Germany by the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces during their strategic bombing campaigns as Terrorangriffe – terror attacks.
The Allied governments described their bombing of cities with other euphemisms such as area bombing or precision bombing, for most of World War II the Allied news media did the same. However, at a SHAEF press conference on 16 February 1945, two days after the bombing of Dresden, British Air Commodore Colin McKay Grierson replied to a question by one of the journalists that the primary target of the bombing had been on communications to prevent the Germans from moving military supplies and to stop movement in all directions if possible, he added in an offhand remark that the raid helped destroy "what is left of German morale." Howard Cowan, an Associated Press war correspondent, filed a story about the Dresden raid. The military press censor at SHAEF made a mistake and allowed the Cowan cable to go out starting with "Allied air bosses have made the long awaited decision to adopt deliberate terror bombing of great German population centres as a ruthless expedient to hasten Hitler's doom." There were follow-up newspaper editorials on the issue and a longtime opponent of strategic bombing, Richard Stokes, MP, asked questions in the House of Commons on 6 March.
The controversy stirred up by the Cowan news report reached the highest levels of the British Government when on 28 March 1945 the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, sent a memo by telegram to General Ismay for the British Chiefs of Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff in which he started with the sentence "It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed...." Under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff and in response to the views expressed by Chief of the Air Staff Sir Charles Portal, the head of Bomber Command, Arthur "Bomber" Harris, among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one. This was completed on 1 April 1945 and started instead with the usual British euphemism for attacks on cities: "It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests....".
Many strategic bombing campaigns and individual raids of aerial warfare have been described as "terror bombing" by commentators and historians since the end of World War II, but because the term has pejorative connotations, others have denied that such bombing campaigns and raids are examples of "terror bombing". Defensive measures against air raids
The Servant of Two Masters is a comedy by the Italian playwright Carlo Goldoni written in 1746. Goldoni wrote the play at the request of actor Antonio Sacco, one of the great Truffaldinos in history, his earliest drafts had large sections that were reserved for improvisation, but he revised it in 1753 in the version that exists today. The play draws on the tradition of the earlier Italian commedia dell'arte; the play opens with the introduction of Beatrice, a woman who has traveled to Venice disguised as her dead brother in search of the man who killed him, her lover. Her brother forbade her to marry Florindo, died defending his sister's honor. Beatrice disguises herself as Federigo so that he can collect dowry money from Pantaloon, the father of Clarice, her brother's betrothed, she wants to use this money to help her lover escape, to allow them to wed. But thinking that Beatrice's brother was dead, Clarice has fallen in love with another man and the two have become engaged. Interested in keeping up appearances, Pantalone tries to conceal the existence of each from the other.
Beatrice's servant, the exceptionally quirky and comical Truffaldino, is the central figure of this play. He is always complaining of an empty stomach, always trying to satisfy his hunger by eating everything and anything in sight; when the opportunity presents itself to be servant to another master he sees the opportunity for an extra dinner. As Truffaldino runs around Venice trying to fill the orders of two masters, he is uncovered several times because other characters hand him letters, etc. and say "this is for your master" without specifying which one. To make matters worse, the stress causes him to develop a temporary stutter, which only arouses more problems and suspicion among his masters. To further complicate matters and Florindo are staying in the same hotel, are searching for each other. In the end, with the help of Clarice and Smeraldina and Florindo find each other, with Beatrice exposed as a woman, Clarice is allowed to marry Silvio; the last matter up for discussion is whether Truffaldino and Smeraldina can get married, which at last exposes Truffaldino's having played both sides all along.
However, as everyone has just decided to get married, Truffaldino is forgiven. Truffaldino asks Smeraldina to marry him; the most famous set-piece of the play is the scene in which the starving Truffaldino tries to serve a banquet to the entourages of both his masters without either group becoming aware of the other, while trying to satisfy his own hunger at the same time. The characters of the play are taken from the Italian Renaissance theatre style commedia dell'arte. In classic commedia tradition, an actor learns a stock character and plays it to perfection throughout his career; the actors had a list of possible scenarios, each with a basic plot, called a canovaccio, throughout would perform physical-comedy acts known as lazzi and the dialogue was improvised. The characters from The Servant of Two Masters are derived from stock characters used in commedia dell'arte. True commedia dell'arte is more or less improvised without a script, so The Servant of Two Masters is not true commedia; the stock characters were used as guides for the actors improvising.
Truffaldino Battochio – Servant first to Beatrice, afterward to Florindo. He is the love interest of Smeraldina. Beatrice Rasponi – Master to Truffaldino, a lady of Turin and disguised as her brother Federigo Rasponi, she is the love interest of Florindo. Florindo Aretusi – Master to Truffaldino, of Turin and the love interest of Beatrice Pantalone Dei Bisognosi – A Venetian merchant Smeraldina – Maidservant to Clarice and the love interest of Truffaldino Clarice – Pantalone's Daughter and the love interest of Silvio Silvio – Son of Dr. Lombardi and the love interest of Clarice Dr. Lombardi – Silvio's father Brighella – An Innkeeper First Waiter Second Waiter First Porter Second Porter There have been several adaptations of the play for the cinema and for the stage: Слуга двух господ – a 1953 Soviet adaptation Slugă la doi stăpâni – a Romanian National Radiophonic Theater production. C. Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. C
Tiantai Mountain, Mount Tiantai, or Tiantai Shan is a mountain in Tiantai County near the city of Taizhou, China. Its highest peak, reaches a height of 1,138 meters; the mountain was made a national park on 1 August 1988. One of nine remaining wild populations of Seven-Son Flower Heptacodium miconioides is located on Mount Tiantai. In Chinese mythology, the creator goddess Nüwa cut the legs off a giant sea turtle and used them to prop up the sky after Gong Gong damaged Mount Buzhou, which had supported the heavens. A local myth holds that Mount Tiantai was on the turtle's back before and Nüwa relocated it to its current position when she had to remove the turtle's legs. Guoqing Temple on the mountain is the headquarters of Tiantai Buddhism and a tourist destination. Tiantai, named for the mountain, focuses on the Lotus Sutra; the most prominent teacher of that school, was based at Guoqing Temple. Over many years it has been an important destination for pilgrims from Japan; the mountain was visited by Saichō in 805 who went on to found the related Japanese Buddhist school, Tendai.
AWStats is an open source Web analytics reporting tool, suitable for analyzing data from Internet services such as web, streaming media, FTP servers. AWStats analyzes server log files, producing HTML reports. Data is visually presented within reports by tables and bar graphs. Static reports can be created through a command line interface, on-demand reporting is supported through a Web browser CGI program. AWStats supports most major web server log file formats including Apache, WebStar, IIS, many other common web server log formats. Development was moved from SourceForge to GitHub in 2014. Written in Perl, AWStats can be deployed on any operating system, it is a server administration tool, with packages available for most Linux distributions. AWStats can be installed on a workstation, such as Microsoft Windows, for local use in situations where log files can be downloaded from a remote server. AWStats is licensed under the GNU General Public License. Proper web log analysis tool configuration and report interpretation requires a bit of technical and business knowledge.
AWStats support resources include documentation and user community forums The on-demand CGI program has been the object of security exploits, as is the case of many CGI programs. Organizations wishing to provide public access to their Web analytics reports should consider generating static HTML reports; the on-demand facility can still be used by restricting its use to internal users. Precautions should be taken against referrer spam. Referrer spam filtering functionality was added in version 6.5. List of web analytics software Official website
Ira Victor Morris or I. V. Morris was journalist. Morris was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1903 to a Jewish family, the son of Constance Lily and Ira Nelson Morris, his mother was the daughter of Victor Henry Rothschild. He graduated with a B. A. from Harvard University. As his father was a diplomat, named the Minister to Sweden, the younger Morris was raised abroad. Morris wrote both fiction and non-fiction works which focused on international politics and Americans living abroad. After visiting the countries devastated by World War II, Morris started writing many articles criticizing the conduct of the war and the cold war, his wife wrote The Flowers of Hiroshima which exposed the aftereffects of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They founded the Edita and Ira Morris Hiroshima Foundation for Peace and Culture which assisted victims of the bombings. In February 1925, he married Sweden-native Edita. In 1930, she began a long-term affair with fellow Swede and artist, Nils Dardel despite her marriage to Morris.
The modern constellation Vulpecula lies across one of the quadrants symbolized by the Black Tortoise of the North, Three Enclosures, that divide the sky in traditional Chinese uranography. The name of the western constellation in modern Chinese is 狐狸座, meaning "the fox constellation"; the map of Chinese constellation in constellation Vulpecula area consists of: Traditional Chinese star names Chinese constellations 香港太空館研究資源 中國星區、星官及星名英譯表 天象文學 台灣自然科學博物館天文教育資訊網 中國古天文 中國古代的星象系統