The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica; the Indian Ocean is named after India. Called the Sindhu Mahasagara or the great sea of the Sindhu by the Ancient Indians, this ocean has been variously called Hindu Ocean, Indic Ocean, etc. in various languages. The Indian Ocean was known earlier as the Eastern Ocean; the term was still in use during the mid-18th century. The borders of the Indian Ocean, as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization in 1953 included the Southern Ocean but not the marginal seas along the northern rim, but in 2000 the IHO delimited the Southern Ocean separately, which removed waters south of 60°S from the Indian Ocean, but included the northern marginal seas. Meridionally, the Indian Ocean is delimited from the Atlantic Ocean by the 20° east meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas, from the Pacific Ocean by the meridian of 146°49'E, running south from the southernmost point of Tasmania.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is 30° north in the Persian Gulf. The Indian Ocean covers 70,560,000 km2, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf but excluding the Southern Ocean, or 19.5% of the world's oceans. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow. An exception is found off Australia's western coast; the average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m. Its deepest point is Sunda Trench at a depth of 7,450 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze; the remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes; the major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca and the Palk Strait. Seas include the Gulf of Aden, Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Laccadive Sea, Gulf of Mannar, Mozambique Channel, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea and other tributary water bodies.
The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, accessible via the Red Sea. All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere, the 90th meridian east, passes through the Ninety East Ridge. Marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include: Several features make the Indian Ocean unique, it constitutes the core of the large-scale Tropical Warm Pool which, when interacting with the atmosphere, affects the climate both regionally and globally. Asia prevents the ventilation of the Indian Ocean thermocline; that continent drives the Indian Ocean monsoon, the strongest on Earth, which causes large-scale seasonal variations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current. Because of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation there is no continuous equatorial easterlies. Upwelling occurs near the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula in the Northern Hemisphere and north of the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Indonesian Throughflow is a unique Equatorial connection to the Pacific. The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April. In the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder, but summer storms near Mauritius can be severe; when the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, at about 0.7–1.2 °C during 1901–2012. Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, changes in the frequency and magnitude of El Niño events are a trigger to this strong warming in the Indian Ocean. South of the Equator the Indian Ocean is gaining heat from June to October, during the austral winter, while it is losing heat from November to March, during the austral summer.
Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi and Jubba in Africa. The ocean's currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, constitute the dominant flow pattern. During the winter monsoon, circulation is reversed north of 30°S and winds are weakened during winter and the transitional periods between the monsoons. Deep water circulation is controlled by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, Antarctic currents. North of 20 ° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures
A gas turbine called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine. There are three main components: An upstream rotating gas compressor. Above. A fourth component is used to increase efficiency, to convert power into mechanical or electric form, or to achieve greater power to mass/volume ratio; the basic operation of the gas turbine is a Brayton cycle with air as the working fluid. Fresh atmospheric air flows through the compressor. Energy is added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so the combustion generates a high-temperature flow; this high-temperature high-pressure gas enters a turbine, where it expands down to the exhaust pressure, producing a shaft work output in the process. The turbine shaft work is used to drive the compressor; the purpose of the gas turbine determines the design so that the most desirable split of energy between the thrust and the shaft work is achieved. The fourth step of the Brayton cycle is omitted, as gas turbines are open systems that do not use the same air again.
Gas turbines are used to power aircraft, ships, electrical generators, gas compressors, tanks. 50: Earliest records of Hero's engine. It most served no practical purpose, was rather more of a curiosity. 1000: The "Trotting Horse Lamp" was used by the Chinese at lantern fairs as early as the Northern Song dynasty. When the lamp is lit, the heated airflow rises and drives an impeller with horse-riding figures attached on it, whose shadows are projected onto the outer screen of the lantern. 1500: The Chimney Jack was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci: Hot air from a fire rises through a single-stage axial turbine rotor mounted in the exhaust duct of the fireplace and turning the roasting spit by gear-chain connection. 1629: Jets of steam rotated an impulse turbine that drove a working stamping mill by means of a bevel gear, developed by Giovanni Branca. 1678: Ferdinand Verbiest built a model carriage relying on a steam jet for power. 1791: A patent was given to John Barber, an Englishman, for the first true gas turbine.
His invention had most of the elements present in the modern day gas turbines. The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage. 1861: British patent no. 1633 was granted to Marc Antoine Francois Mennons for a "Caloric engine". The patent shows that it was a gas turbine and the drawings show it applied to a locomotive. Named in the patent was Nicolas de Telescheff, a Russian aviation pioneer. 1872: A gas turbine engine designed by Berlin engineer, Franz Stolze, is thought to be the first attempt at creating a working model, but the engine never ran under its own power. 1894: Sir Charles Parsons patented the idea of propelling a ship with a steam turbine, built a demonstration vessel, the Turbinia the fastest vessel afloat at the time. This principle of propulsion is still of some use. 1895: Three 4-ton 100 kW Parsons radial flow generators were installed in Cambridge Power Station, used to power the first electric street lighting scheme in the city. 1899: Charles Gordon Curtis patented the first gas turbine engine in the US.
1900: Sanford Alexander Moss submitted a thesis on gas turbines. In 1903, Moss became an engineer for General Electric's Steam Turbine Department in Lynn, Massachusetts. While there, he applied some of his concepts in the development of the turbosupercharger, his design used a small turbine wheel, driven by exhaust gases. 1903: A Norwegian, Ægidius Elling, built the first gas turbine, able to produce more power than needed to run its own components, considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about aerodynamics was limited. Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced 11 hp. 1906: The Armengaud-Lemale turbine engine in France with a water-cooled combustion chamber. 1910: Holzwarth impulse turbine achieved 150 kilowatts. 1913: Nikola Tesla patents the Tesla turbine based on the boundary layer effect. 1920s The practical theory of gas flow through passages was developed into the more formal theory of gas flow past airfoils by A. A. Griffith resulting in the publishing in 1926 of An Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design.
Working testbed designs of axial turbines suitable for driving a propellor were developed by the Royal Aeronautical Establishment proving the efficiency of aerodynamic shaping of the blades in 1929. 1930: Having found no interest from the RAF for his idea, Frank Whittle patented the design for a centrifugal gas turbine for jet propulsion. The first successful use of his engine occurred in England in April 1937. 1932: BBC Brown, Boveri & Cie of Switzerland] starts selling axial compressor and turbine turbosets as part of the turbocharged steam generating Velox boiler. Following the gas turbine principle, the steam evaporation tubes are arranged within the gas turbine combustion chamber. 1934: Raúl Pateras de Pescara patented the free-piston engine as a gas gener
A variable-pitch propeller or controllable-pitch propeller is a type of propeller with blades that can be rotated around their long axis to change the blade pitch. Reversible propellers—those where the pitch can be set to negative values—can create reverse thrust for braking or going backwards without the need to change the direction of shaft revolution. Propellers whose blade pitch could be adjusted while the aircraft was on the ground were used by a number of early aviation pioneers, including A. V. Roe and Louis Breguet. In 1919 L. E. Baynes AFRAeS patented the first automatic variable-pitch airscrew; the French aircraft firm Levasseur displayed a variable-pitch propeller at the 1921 Paris Airshow, which, it claimed, had been tested by the French government in a ten-hour run and could change pitch at any engine RPM. Dr Henry Selby Hele-Shaw and T. E. Beacham patented a hydraulically operated variable-pitch propeller in 1924 and presented a paper on the subject before the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1928, though it was received with scepticism as to its utility.
The propeller had been developed with Gloster Aircraft Company — as the Gloster Hele-Shaw Beacham Variable Pitch Propellor — and was demonstrated on a Gloster Grebe, where it was used to maintain a near-constant RPM. The first practical controllable-pitch propeller for aircraft was introduced in 1932. French firm Ratier pioneered variable-pitch propellers of various designs from 1928 onwards, relying on a special ball bearing helicoidal ramp at the root of the blades for easy operation. Several designs were tried, including a small bladder of pressurized air in the propeller hub providing the necessary force to resist a spring that would drive the blades from fine pitch to coarse pitch. At a suitable airspeed a disk on the front of the spinner would press sufficiently on the bladder's air-release valve to relieve the pressure and allow the spring to drive the propeller to coarse pitch; these "pneumatic" propellers were fitted on the DH88 Comet aircraft, winner of the famed long distance 1934 Mac Robertson race and in the Caudron C.460 winner of the 1936 National Air Races, flown by Michel Detroyat.
Use of these pneumatic propellers required presetting the propeller to fine pitch prior to take-off. This was done by pressurizing the bladder with a bicycle pump, hence the whimsical nickname Gonfleurs d'hélices given to the aircraft ground mechanics in France up to this day; such propellers are used in propeller-driven aircraft to adapt the propeller to different thrust levels and air speeds so that the propeller blades don't stall, hence degrading the propulsion system's efficiency. For cruising, the engine can operate in its most economical range of rotational speeds. With the exception of going into reverse for braking after touch-down, the pitch is controlled automatically without the pilot's intervention. A propeller with a controller that adjusts the blade pitch so that the rotational speed always stays the same is called a constant-speed propeller. A propeller with controllable pitch can have a nearly constant efficiency over a range of airspeeds. A common type of controllable-pitch propeller is hydraulically actuated.
This design led to the award of the Collier Trophy of 1933. de Havilland subsequently bought up the rights to produce Hamilton propellers in the UK, while the British company Rotol was formed to produce its own designs. The French company of Pierre Levasseur and Smith Engineering Co. in the United States developed controllable-pitch propellers. Smith propellers were used by Wiley Post on some of his flights. Another common type was developed by Wallace R. Turnbull and refined by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation; this electrically-operated mechanism was first tested in on June 6, 1927 at Camp Borden, Ontario and patented in 1929. It was favoured by some pilots in World War II, because when the engine was no longer running the propeller could be feathered. On hydraulically-operated propellers the feathering had to happen before the loss of hydraulic pressure in the engine; as experimental aircraft and microlights have become more sophisticated, it has become more common for such light aeroplanes to fit variable-pitch propellers, both ground-adjustable propellers and in-flight-variable propellers.
Hydraulic operation is too expensive and bulky, instead light aircraft use propellers that are activated mechanically or electrically. The Silence Twister prototype kitplane was fitted with the V-Prop, an automatic self-energising and electronically self-adjusting VP propeller. A variable-pitch propeller can be efficient for the full range of rotational speeds and load conditions, since its pitch will be varied to absorb the maximum power that the engine is capable of producing; when loaded, a vessel needs more propulsion power than when empty. By varying the propeller blades to the optimal pitch, higher efficiency can be obtained, thus saving fuel. A vessel with a VPP can accelerate faster from a standstill, can decelerate much more making stopping quicker and safer. A VPP can improve vessel maneuverability by directing a stronger flow of water onto the rudder. However, a fixed-pitch propeller is both cheaper and more robust than a VPP. An FPP is more efficient than a VPP for a single specific rotational speed and load condition.
Accordingly, vessels that operate at a standard speed will have an FPP optimized for that speed. At the other extreme, a canal narrowboat will have a FPP for two reasons: speed is
In general, a civilian is "a person, not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force". The definition distinguishes from persons whose duties involves risking their lives to protect the public at large from hazardous situations such as terrorism, conflagrations, or wars, it does not include "criminals" in the category, as authorities and the media wants to distinguish between those who are law-abiding and those who are not. Under the law of war, the term "civilian" is a person, not a combatant and is not a member of the military, it is different from a non-combatant, as some non-combatants are not civilians. Under international law, civilians in the territories of a party to an armed conflict are entitled to certain privileges under the customary laws of war and international treaties such as the Fourth Geneva Convention; the privileges that they enjoy under international law depends on whether the conflict is an internal one or an international one. The word "civilian" goes back to the late 14th century and is from Old French civilien, "of the civil law".
Civilian is believed to have been used to refer to non-combatants as early as 1829. The term "non-combatant" now refers to people in general who are not taking part of hostilities, rather than just civilians; the International Committee of the Red Cross 1958 Commentary on 1949 Geneva Convention IV Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War states: "Every person in enemy hands must have some status under international law: he is either a prisoner of war and, as such, covered by the Third Convention, a civilian covered by the Fourth Convention, or again, a member of the medical personnel of the armed forces, covered by the First Convention. There is no intermediate status. We feel that this is a satisfactory solution – not only satisfying to the mind and above all, satisfactory from the humanitarian point of view." The ICRC has expressed the opinion that "If civilians directly engage in hostilities, they are considered'unlawful' or'unprivileged' combatants or belligerents. They may be prosecuted under the domestic law of the detaining state for such action."Article 50 of the 1977 Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Conventions provides: 1.
A civilian is any person who does not belong to one of the categories of persons referred to in Article 4A, of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of this Protocol. In case of doubt whether a person is a civilian, that person shall be considered to be a civilian. 2. The civilian population comprises all persons. 3. The presence within the civilian population of individuals who do not come within the definition of civilians does not deprive the population of its civilian character; the definition is negative and defines civilians as persons who do not belong to definite categories. The categories of persons mentioned in Article 4A, of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of the Protocol I are combatants. Therefore, the Commentary to the Protocol pointed that, any one, not a member of the armed forces and does not take of hostilities is a civilian. Civilians cannot take part in armed conflict. Civilians are given protection under the Geneva Conventions and Protocols thereto. Article 51 describes the protection that must be given to the civilian population and individual civilians.
Chapter III of Protocol I regulates the targeting of civilian objects. Article 8 of the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court includes this in its list of war crimes: "Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking part in hostilities". Not all states have ratified 1977 Protocol I or the 1998 Rome Statute, but it is an accepted principle of international humanitarian law that the direct targeting of civilians is a breach of the customary laws of war and is binding on all belligerents; the actual position of the civilian in modern war remains problematic. It is complicated by a number of phenomena, including: the fact that many modern wars are civil wars, in which the application of the laws of war is difficult, in which the distinction between combatants and civilians is hard to maintain. Starting in the 1980s, it was claimed that 90 percent of the victims of modern wars were civilians; the claim was repeated on Wikipedia's Did You Know on 14 December 2010.
These claims, though believed, are not supported by detailed examination of the evidence that relating to wars that are central to the claims. In the opening years of the twenty-first century, despite the many problems associated with it, the legal category of the civilian has been the subject of considerable attention in public discourse, in the media and at the United Nations, in justification of certain uses of armed force to protect endangered populations, it has "lost none
Port Canaveral is a cruise and naval port in Brevard County, United States. It is one of the busiest cruise ports in the world with 4.5 million cruise passengers passing through during 2016. Over 6,000,000 short tons of bulk cargo moves through each year. Primary cargoes include slag, autos/trucks, petroleum, heavy equipment and aggregate; the port has conveyors and hoppers for loading products directly into trucks and facilities for bulk-cargo containers. The channel is about 44 feet deep; the port exports fresh citrus. The port receives lumber, salt for water-softening and steel sheet and plate, it transships items for land, sea and space. On average, ten ships enter the port each day; this includes ships from cruise lines such as Carnival, Royal Caribbean and more. The Canaveral Port Authority was established in 1953 by the State Legislature and consists of the Board of Commissioners and the Executive Management Team; the Board sets policies such as fiscal and operations, while the executives are responsible for administrative and operational duties.
In October 2015 the board voted unanimously to terminate embattled CEO John Walsh. Walsh clashed with residents over a controversial plan to build a cargo railway through a federally managed wildlife refuge. Walsh drew community outrage after calling opponents of his plan "Luddites" and "dogs chasing moving cars." Walsh lied about documentation from the United States Air Force, relating to building the Canaveral Rail through the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The five Commissioners of the Board are elected from the surrounding area by popular vote, they are elected by voters in all five districts. The races are partisan. District 1 - Jerry Allender District 2 - Micah Loyd District 3 - Wayne Justice District 4 - Bob Harvey District 5 - Robyn HattawaySalary is $10,083.72 annually. The Executive Management Team is headed by the Chief Executive Officer. In 2013, there were 162 full-time, 71 part-time. In FY 2017, the Canaveral Port Authority had 223 full time equivalent employees. A columnist grouped the history of the actual port into four eras paralleling the terms of the several directors: 1) initial construction and operation of the port with no clearcut separation of governance and management 1947–2004, 2) expansion of port facilities.
Port becomes second in cruise business worldwide 2004–2013, 3) political friction between governance and management 2013–2016, 4) modern era 2016–today. A post office in the area was built and listed in the US Post Office application as Artesia. and retained this name from 1893–1954. The idea of developing a port at this location was first conceived in the 1880s; the port was dredged between 1951 and 1955. Dedication occurred November 1953, with the Navy destroyer escort USS McClelland participating. Florida U. S. Senator Spessard Holland was the keynote speaker. Noah Butt, a former speaker of the Florida House of Representatives, was the first Chairman of the Canaveral Port Authority; the first port manager, George King, was announced in 1954. Commercial fishing had begun at the port, in the next year commercial shipping began, with a load of bagged cement delivered by the SS MormacSpruce. In 1955, the Tropicana Corporation began building a refrigerated warehouse for storing orange juice, a local agricultural product, prior to shipping.
Cruise traffic appeared at the port in 1964, with the SS Yarmouth Castle purchased by Yarmouth Cruise Lines from the Chadade Steamship Company. The ship was American owned, with registration from Panama; the ship burned at sea between Miami and Nassau, Bahamas in 1965, cruise traffic was limited until the 1980s. In 1965, a lock was dedicated as part of the Canaveral Barge Canal; the Canaveral Lock is still in operation and is maintained by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The focus of the port throughout the 1960s and 1970s remained commercial fishing and shipping, with three 400-foot cargo piers built on the north side of the Port in 1976, a succession of warehouses built in the port area. Port Canaveral has played a role in support of NASA projects out of nearby John F. Kennedy Space Center. During the Apollo program, segments of the Saturn V rocket transited through the lock. Most the Space Shuttle's external tanks were floated into Port Canaveral for each mission, the solid rocket boosters were towed back through Port Canaveral after being fished out of the Atlantic Ocean after each launch.
NASA contributed $250,000 for improvements in the lock in 1965. In 1990, Morton Salt began operations at the port. In 2018, it imported salt from The Bahamas and produced 200,000 short tons of pool, water softener, sea salt, agricultural salts. Prior to its disestablishment in 2000, Premier Cruise Line was headquartered in Cape Canaveral. In 2008, Sterling Casino Lines ceased doing business at the port, but just a week the Las Vegas Casino Line began operating gambling cruises. On March 25, 2009, the Las Vegas Casino Line filed for bankruptcy, joining the Sterling Casino on the list of failed'Casino Lines' to operate out of Port Canaveral. In 2009, a commissioner resigned and the Florida Department of Law Enforcement announced that it was conducting an investigation into possible corruption at the port. In 2009, the last cruise com
Defense Logistics Agency
The Defense Logistics Agency is a combat support agency in the United States Department of Defense, with more than 26,000 civilian and military personnel throughout the world. Located in 48 states and 28 countries, DLA provides supplies to the military services and supports their acquisition of weapons, repair parts, other materials; the agency disposes of excess or unusable equipment through various programs. Through other U. S. federal agencies, DLA helps provide relief supplies to victims of natural disasters, as well as humanitarian aid to refugees and internally displaced persons. DLA is headquartered in Fort Belvoir Virginia, near Washington, D. C. DLA Headquarters contains numerous offices responsible for supporting the overall agency, it has The agency has several major subordinate activities operating in the field: DLA Aviation, headquartered in Richmond, Virginia supplies aircraft parts and expertise. DLA Disposition Services, based in Battle Creek, helps the military dispose of excess items.
In addition to typical military materiel, such as vehicles and uniforms, Disposition Services helps the military donate computers to primary schools, through the DoD Computers for Learning program. Defense Logistics Agency Distribution, headquartered in New Cumberland, transports items for DOD and other customers. DLA Energy provides fuel for aircraft and the U. S. space program, as well as commercial space exploration. It has provided helium for the U. S. Border Patrol surveillance aerostats. DLA Troop Support, headquartered in Philadelphia, supplies uniforms, medical, construction equipment, other items to deployed military members, it supporting the U. S. Department of Agriculture, helps provide fresh fruits and vegetables for some U. S. primary schools and eligible Indian reservations. DLA Land and Maritime, headquartered in Columbus, provide parts and maintenance for military ground vehicles and some ships. DLA operates three full-time organizations embedded with three unified combatant commands of the U.
S. military: DLA CENTCOM & SOCOM, DLA Europe & Africa, DLA Pacific. The seeds of the Defense Logistics Agency were planted in World War II, when America's military needed to get vast amounts of munitions and supplies quickly. During the war, the military services began to coordinate more when it came to procurement of petroleum products, medical supplies and other commodities; the main offices of the Army and Navy for each commodity were collocated. After the war, the call grew louder for more complete coordination throughout the whole field of supply—including storage, distribution and other aspects of supply. In 1947, there were seven supply systems in the Army, plus an Air Technical Service Command, 18 systems in the Navy, including the quartermaster of the Marine Corps. Passage of the National Security Act of 1947 prompted new efforts to eliminate duplication and overlap among the services in the supply area and laid the foundation for the eventual creation of a single integrated supply agency.
The act created the Munitions Board, which began to reorganize these major supply categories into joint procurement agencies. Meanwhile, in 1949, the Commission on the Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, a presidential commission headed by former President Herbert Hoover, recommended that the National Security Act be amended so as to strengthen the authority of the Secretary of Defense so that he could integrate the organization and procedures of the various phases of supply in the military services; the Munitions Board was not as successful as hoped in eliminating duplication among the services in the supply area. Congress became disenchanted with the board, in the Defense Cataloging and Standardization Act of 1952, transferred the board's functions to a new Defense Supply Management Agency; the Eisenhower Reorganization Plan Number 6 abolished both this agency and the Munitions Board, replacing them with a single executive, an Assistant Secretary of Defense for Supply and Logistics.
Meanwhile, the Korean War led to several investigations by Congress of military supply management, which threatened to impose a common supply service on the military services from the outside. Integrated management of supplies and services began in 1952 with the establishment of a joint Army-Navy-Air Force Support Center to control identification of supply items. For the first time, all the military services bought and issued items using a common nomenclature; the Defense Department and the services defined the material that would be managed on an integrated basis as "consumables", meaning supplies that are not repairable or are consumed in normal use. Consumable items called commodities were assigned to one military service to manage for all the services; the pressure for consolidation continued. In July 1955, the second Hoover Commission recommended centralizing management of common military logistics support and introducing uniform financial management practices, it recommended that a separate and civilian-managed agency be created with the Defense Department to administer all military common supply and service activities.
The military services feared that such an agency would be less responsive to military requirements and jeopardize the success of military operations. Congress, remained concerned about the Hoover Commission's indictment of waste and inefficiencies in the military services. To avoid having Congress take the matter away from the military DoD reversed its position; the solution proposed and approved by the Secretary of Defense was to appoint "single managers" for a selected group of common supply and servic