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Stratford, London

Stratford is a district in the East End of London, in the London Borough of Newham, England. It is in East London. Stratford is part of the Lower Lea Valley and includes the localities of Maryland, East Village, Mill Meads, Stratford City and Forest Gate, it is part of the ancient parish and subsequent County Borough of West Ham, which became the western half of the modern borough within a Greater London in 1965. An agrarian settlement in the county of Essex, Stratford was transformed into an industrial suburb after the introduction of the railway in 1839; the late 20th century was a period of severe economic decline reversed by regeneration associated with the 2012 Summer Olympics, for which Stratford's Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park was the principal venue and with West Ham United F. C. and British Athletics moving to the London Stadium. Stratford, along with Ilford and Romford are East London's primary retail and leisure centres. Stratford has become the second most significant business location in the east of the capital.

Stratford's early significance was due to a Roman road running from Aldgate in the City, to Romford and Colchester, crossed the River Lea. At that time the various branches of the river were tidal and unchannelised, while the marshes surrounding them had yet to be drained; the Lea valley formed a natural boundary between Essex on the eastern bank and Middlesex on the west, was a formidable obstacle to overland trade and travel. The name is first recorded in 1067 as Strætforda and means'ford on a Roman road', it is formed from Old English'stræt' and'ford'. The former river crossing lay at an uncertain location north of Stratford High Street; the district of Old Ford in northern Bow – west of the Lea and now in Tower Hamlets – is named after the former crossing, while Bow itself was initially named Stratford, after the same ford, a variety of suffixes were used to distinguish the two distinct settlements. The settlement to the east of the Lea was known as Estratford referring to the location east of the other Stratford, Statford Hamme alluding to the location within the parish of West Ham, Abbei Stratford, referring to the presence of Stratford Langthorne Abbey. and Stretford Langthorne after a distinctive thorn tree, mentioned in a charter of 958 AD.

In 1110 Matilda, wife of Henry I, ordered a distinctively bow-shaped bridge to be built over the River Lea, together with a causeway across the marshes along the line now occupied by Stratford High Street. Reports state; the western Stratford become suffixed by “-atte-Bow” becoming known as Bow, while over time the eastern Stratford lost its “Langthorne” suffix. The bridge was repaired and upgraded many times over the centuries until demolished and replaced in the 19th century. In 1135 the Cistercian Order founded Stratford Langthorne Abbey known as West Ham Abbey; this became one of the largest and most wealthy monasteries in England, owning 1,500 acres in the immediate area and 20 manors throughout Essex. The Abbey lay between the Channelsea Marsh Lane. Nothing visible remains on the site, as after it dissolution by Henry VIII in 1538, local landowners took away much of the stone for their own buildings and the land was subsequently urbanised. A stone window and a carving featuring skulls – thought to have been over the door to the charnel house – remain in All Saints Church, West Ham.

The Great Gate of the abbey survived in Baker's Row until 1825. The doorway to the Old Court House, in Tramway Avenue, displays the Abbey's coat of arms; the chevrons from this device from the arms of the Mountfitchet family, together with an abbot's crozier were incorporated into the arms of the former County Borough of West Ham in 1887. The new London Borough of Newham adopted the same arms in 1965; the industrialisation of Stratford started and accelerated in the early Victorian era. The Stratford and national experience of the Industrial Revolution inspired scenes in the 2012 Olympic Opening Ceremony covering the traumatic transition from a ‘Green and Pleasant Land’ to the ‘Pandemonium’ of the revolution and the huge social and economic changes it brought. Stratford was an agricultural community, whose proximity to London provided a ready market for its produce. By the 18th century, the area around Stratford was noted for potato growing, a business that continued into the mid-1800s. Stratford became a desirable country retreat for wealthy merchants and financiers, within an easy ride of the City.

When Daniel Defoe visited Stratford in 1722, he reported it had "...increased in buildings to a strange degree, within the compass of about 20 or 30 years past at the most". He continues that "...this increase is speaking, of hansom large houses... being chiefly for the habitations of the richest citizens, such as either are able to keep two houses, one in the country, one in the city. An early industrial undertaking at Stratford was the Bow porcelain factory, which despite the name, was on the Essex side of the River Lea. Using a process, patented in 1744, Edward Heylin and Thomas Frye operated a factory near Bow Bridge called "New Canton" to produce some of the first soft-paste porcelain to be made in the country; the site of the fa

Cusco's speculum

Cusco's self-retaining bivalved speculum is a surgical instrument used for vaginal and cervical examination. It has a jaw; the instrument was named after French surgeon Édouard-Gabriel Cusco. It comes in three models: side screw, centre screw, special narrow virgin size. Cusco's speculum is 80 millimeters long and 22 millimeters broad; however and larger sizes are available. Cusco's speculum is used for introducing an intrauterine contraceptive device, taking a Pap smear, cauterization of vaginal erosion, colposcopic examination, it is preferred in cryosurgery because it protects the posterior vaginal wall. The advantage of Cusco's speculum is. Therefore, an assistant's help is not needed to keep the speculum in place, it acts as the vaginal wall retractor. However, it reduces the space in the vaginal cavity and therefore is not a preferred instrument for vaginal surgery; because it covers most of the vaginal wall, small lesions on the vaginal wall may be masked by the blades of the device

Mangalpur, Kanpur Dehat

Mangalpur is a town and a gram panchayat in Kanpur Dehat district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Mangalpur is situated on the banks of the Pata Canal. There are two major towns in the Kanpur Dehat district: Mangalpur, they are connected near by the Howrah-Delhi railway line and National Highway 2. Mangalpur is famous for its educational background, it has primary and secondary schools, six intermediate colleges, two degree colleges affiliated with Chhatrapati Sahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur to provide both sciences and arts education. Nearby cities include Etawah; the district headquarters is nearly 30 km away at Akbarpur-Matiis, a town and a nagar panchayat in the Kanpur Dehat district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Mangalpur is first noted in Indian political history in 1901 when the British came for the first time to Mangalpur from Bithur, they established. Many Mangalpur villagers took part in the Indian freedom fight. Development in Mangalpur has continued since India's freedom.

Many services are available in Mangalpur. This includes bus and train services, the Bank of Baroda, the Post Office, the Bank of India, Punjab National, water supplies, petrol, a telephone exchange, mobile towers, degree colleges, inter colleges, a police station. Ramnagar Chauraha is a crowded area of Managalpur, it is an economical zone of Mangalpur as well as a transport zone. It contains a main market for purchasing and selling goods, clothes, dry-fruits, furniture, medical equipment, mobile equipment, etc. Notable places in Ramnagar include the Bank of Baroda, New Sabji Mandi, Junior High School, Ramleela Maidan, Election Ground, Petrol Pump, Cricket Ground. Rakesh Trivedi's Shop was first shop and second shop arushi cyber point& mobile pro adesh kumar at Ramnagar Chauraha. There are a number of bus routes out of Ramnagar Chauraha:In derapur road First shop Is soni jewellers &clothanoused last shop IS ajay bartsn bhandar....... Towards Sandalpur, Bhogni, Kalpi and Jhansi. Towards Sandalpur, National Highway, Etawa, Tundla and Delhi.

Towards Sandalpur, National Highway, Kanpur and Kolkata. Towards Dilwal, Rura, National Highway and Kanpur. Towards Mangalpur Tiraha, Rasulabad, Bilhour and Farrukhabad.near by village - jasapur Shikshak Nagar Tiraha is a social area situated on the bank of the canal and on the main road towards Bilhour. Many services are available in Tiraha; the Transport Facility, for example, is a bus auto stand that can be found in Tiraha. Notable places in Ramnagar include a police station, a post office, a telephone exchange, a petrol pump; the police station covers all cases. It contains its own jail. All criminals are transferred to Mati afterwards. There are a number of bus routes out of Shikshak Nagar Tiraha: Towards Jhinjhak, Kakwan, Bilhour and Farrukhabad. Towards Thana, Purani Bazar, Lalpur and Auriya. Towards Chauraha,Jaitapur, sandalpur,Sikandra Derapur, Purani Bazar is an old area of Mangalpur, it has the highest population density of any area in Mangalpur. Chaturbhuj Baba and Great Pond are both situated near Purani Bazar.

Purani Bazar is situated near Jhinjhak-Tiraha/Mangalpur-Auriya Road, which contains small shops and daily food corners. Diwali Fair is celebrated in Purani Bazar. Notable places in old market includes Mangalpur Government Hospital, Smt. shivkali Devi Inter College, Gram Panchayat Building, water tank and electricity control room. Train routes out of Purani Bazar include: Towards Kanpur, Allahabad and Howrah. Towards Etawa, Tundla and Mathura. Towards Aligarh and New Delhi. Mangalpur is a cultured town; every festival is celebrated with great belief. There are more than 5 mosques in Mangalpur. Chaturbhuj Baba is most famous temple in Mangalpur, it is situated on the bank of the Great Pond near Purani Bazar. It is an ancient temple. During all festivals, Chaturbhuj Baba is decorated by all people with a great joy, it is the center of Hindus' pilgrimage. All the religious functions are organized on this temple's ground, named Chaturbhuj Manch. Chaturbhuj Baba is a large temple, divided into four parts: Center: Chaturbhuj Baba, Vishnu Bhagwan, Hanuman ji Left & Right: Shivlings and Shiv ji Back: Lalmathi Mandir LalMathi Mandir is in Chaturbhuj Baba.

People have a great belief in it. They decorate this temple on every Navratra; the Great Pond in Mangalpur is situated near Purani Bazar. It is well decorated Ghats, it has four Ghats around it and each and every ghat has its own temple over it. All piers are cleaned and decorated before festivals and are illuminated on Diwali. playing important role to improve educational development of Mangalpur