Strathfield, New South Wales
Strathfield is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 12 kilometres west of the Sydney central business and is the administrative centre of Strathfield Council. A small section of the suburb north of the railway line lies within the City of Canada Bay, while the area east of The Boulevard lies within Burwood Council. North Strathfield and Strathfield South are separate suburbs to the south, respectively; the Strathfield district was occupied by the Wangal clan. European colonisation commenced in 1793 with the issue of land grants. In 1808, a grant was made to James Wilshire, which forms the largest part of the current suburb of Strathfield. In 1867, this grant was subdivided and sold as the'Redmire Estate', which promoted the residential development of the district under the suburb name of'Redmire'. By 1885, sufficient numbers of people resided in the district to enable incorporation of its own local government; the suburb of Redmire was renamed Strathfield c.1886.
The suburb was named after a house called'Strathfield House', called Stratfield Saye. In 1885, Strathfield Council was incorporated. James Wilshire was granted 1 square kilometre of land by Governor Macquarie in 1808 following representations from Lord Nelson, a relation by marriage of Wilshire. Ownership was transferred in 1824 to ex-convict Samuel Terry; the land became known as the Redmire Estate, which Michael Jones says could either be named after his home town in Yorkshire or could be named after the "red clay of the Strathfield area". Subdivision of the land commenced in 1867. An early buyer was one-time Mayor of Sydney, Walter Renny who built in 1868 a house they called Stratfieldsaye after the Duke of Wellington's mansion near Reading, Berkshire, it may have been named after the transport ship of the same name that transported many immigrants – including Sir Henry Parkes – to Australia, though the transport ship was also named after the Duke's mansion as it was built soon after his death and was named in his honour.
A plaque marking the location of Stratfield Saye can be found in the footpath of Strathfield Avenue, marking the approximate location of the original house. According to local historian Cathy Jones, "ownership of was transferred several times including to Davidson Nichol, who shortened the name to'Strathfield House', then'Strathfield'." Strathfield was proclaimed on 2 June 1885 by the Governor of NSW, Sir Augustus Loftus, after residents of the Redmyre area petitioned the New South Wales State government. Residents in parts of Homebush and Druitt Town formed their own unsuccessful counter-petition, it is that the region was named Strathfield to neutralise the rivalry between Homebush and Redmire. Strathfield Council was incorporated in 1885 and included the suburbs of Redmire and Druitt Town; the adjoining area of Flemington was unincorporated and was annexed to Strathfield Council in 1892, which increased the size of the Council area by about 50%. The Council formed three wards - Flemington,Homebush and Strathfield - and Aldermen was elected to represent their ward at Council.
Wards were abolished in 1916. Following the introduction of the Local Government Act in 1919, Strathfield Council was one of the first to proclaim the major part of its area a residential district by proclamation in 1920. On 17 August 1991, seven people were killed, when Wade Frankum stabbed a fifteen-year-old girl to death, before running amok with a rifle in the Strathfield Plaza shopping mall, turning the weapon on himself; this is known as the Strathfield Massacre. A Memorial plaque is located at Strathfield. Strathfield has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Great Southern and Western railway: Strathfield rail underbridges Great Southern and Western railway: Strathfield railway station 62 The Boulevarde: Trinity Uniting Church, Strathfield St Patrick's College is an independent, day school for boys. Santa Sabina College is a Roman Catholic, day school for girls K-12 and boys K-4; the primary school is known as Santa Maria Del Monte. Meriden Anglican School for Girls is an independent, day school for girls..
Trinity Grammar School Preparatory School campus is on The Boulevarde and has classes from Pre-Kindergarten to Year 6. St Martha's Primary School Strathfield Girls High Strathfield South Public School Strathfield South High School Chalmers Road Public School Marie Bashir Public School A campus of the Australian Catholic University, the former home of the Christian Brothers novitiate and Catholic Teachers' College; the Catholic Institute of Sydney, where priests for the Archdiocese of Sydney, other theologians and ministers, are trained, is located on the site of the old Australia Post training centre. Carrington Avenue Uniting Church St Anne's Anglican Church St David's Presbyterian Church St Martha's Catholic Church Sts Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Cathedral Ukrainian Autocephalic Orthodox Church of the Protection of the Theotokos Strathfield Korean Uniting Church Sydney Chinese Seventh-day Adventist Church Trinity Uniting Church, Strathfield Western Sydney Chinese Christian Church Strathfield's residential landscape is varied, ranging from country-style estates to high-rise apartments.
Many styles of architecture have been employed over past decades, with dwellings having been constructed in Victorian, Interwar period architecture, Californian Bungalow and contemporary periods. One of the oldest surviving houses built in the 1870s is
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Strathroy-Caradoc is a municipality located in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. It is 35 kilometres west of London. Strathroy-Caradoc is a rural municipality. Industries include turkey and chicken hatching and processing, tobacco and pharmaceutical; some industrial products are manufactured in Strathroy, the township's largest locality and its commercial and industrial centre. Strathroy's hatcheries have seen it referred to as the turkey capital of Canada and the world. Settlements within Strathroy-Caradoc grew up around the Sydenham River and the southwestern Ontario railways. Three major railway lines pass through the municipality: the CN Chatham Subdivision, the CP Windsor Subdivision, the CN Strathroy Subdivision. Municipally, Strathroy-Caradoc is within Middlesex County. At the federal and provincial levels of government it is represented by the riding of Lambton—Kent—Middlesex, it is part of the London census metropolitan area. Strathroy-Caradoc's two largest communities are Mount Brydges; the township contains the smaller communities of Cairngorm, Caradoc, Falconbridge, Glen Oak, Longwood and Muncey.
Strathroy is 35 kilometres west of the City of London, is the largest community in Middlesex County outside London. The community is situated next to Highway 402 between London and the border to Port Huron, Michigan, U. S. at Sarnia, Ontario. Strathroy's economy is diverse, major industries include automotive manufacturing and food processing; the township's administrative offices are located in Strathroy. Mount Brydges has a small commercial "downtown" featuring local businesses and shops. Local agriculture includes maize and wheat; the soil composition of the region is sandy as a result of deposits created on the bottom of the glacial Lake Whittlesey which covered the area 13,000 years ago. The village came into existence as a result of the construction of the western division of the Great Western Railroad from City of London, Ontario to Windsor, Ontario, at the point where it crossed the existing road from Delaware, Ontario to Strathroy; this crossing happened to be at the point of greatest elevation on this division, the railroad having just climbed out of the valley of the Thames River from London.
The station was named for Charles John Brydges the Managing Director of the Railroad. Contrary to a previous suggestion, the name had nothing to do with an early settler named Mount who left the area more than two decades earlier. Strathroy was first settled in 1832 by John Stewart Buchanan, accompanied by the explorer Sir Michael Jacques, at a location on the Sydenham River with flow and fall sufficient to power a grist mill. A general store opened in the settlement in 1840. Strathroy was incorporated as a village in 1860 and became a town in 1872 under the motto "We Advance". Buchanan named the settlement after his hometown of Strathroy in Ireland, now a suburb of Omagh in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. In 1866, The Age newspaper was established to compete with the already-established Western Dispatch newspaper; the Western Dispatch was purchased by The Age in 1923, which became The Age Dispatch. The newspaper is still published weekly. Sir Arthur Currie, who would become the commander of Canadian forces in Europe during World War I, was born here on December 5, 1875.
In the fall of 1876, Bixel Brewery opened in Strathroy, producing lager beer for a century before its closing. Other breweries in the town have included the "Western Steam Brewery", "Strathroy Brewing and Malting" and "West End Brewery". In 1896, the Strathroy Furniture Company opened its doors, was renowned for nearly a century for making residential furniture. On July 15, 1992, the company declared bankruptcy and a liquidation sale was held in October 1992. On February 14, 1914, the first patients were admitted to what would become Strathroy Middlesex General Hospital. At the time, the hospital was municipally-owned; the current building opened on June 1962 as a two-story structure with 82 beds. The hospital was the location at which Native Canadian Dudley George succumbed to the gunshot wound he suffered at the Ipperwash Standoff at nearby Ipperwash Provincial Park on September 7, 1995. On January 13, 1954, West Middlesex Memorial Arena opened in Strathroy. To commemorate the occasion, the NHL's Montreal Canadiens played an exhibition game at the arena, defeating the local Junior'B' team the Strathroy Rockets 14-3 in front of 3,100 spectators.
In 2001, Strathroy merged with the former township of Caradoc to created the town of Strathroy-Caradoc. On March 22, 2004, the town's 117-year-old train station was destroyed by a fire that took more than 35 firefighters to get under control. Adolescent boys were charged with starting the fire. In 2005, Strathroy was connected to the Lake Huron Water Pipeline; this ended the town's existing reliance on groundwater and wells. On August 10, 2016 an Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant supporter from Strathroy, Aaron Driver, was killed in a taxi outside his home, after being shot by Royal Canadian Mounted Police and detonating one of two homemade bombs; the taxi driver was injured. Police suspected. Population trend: Population in 2006: 19,977 Population in 2001: 19,114 Population total in 1996: 17,930 Caradoc: 6,248 Strathroy: 11,852 Population in 1991: Caradoc: 6
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Strath Taieri is a large glacial valley and river plateau in New Zealand's South Island. It is surrounded by the rugged hill ranges to the west of Otago Harbour. Since 1989 it has been part of the city of Dunedin; the small town of Middlemarch is located at its southern end. The name is a hybrid word, from Strath, meaning a broad river valley, the Māori name Taieri pronunciation of the river which runs through it. There are Archaic Māori sites on Strath Taieri downstream on the Taieri Gorge and at Deep Stream and Rocklands on the adjacent plateau to the south. A principal Māori route from the coast to the interior lay along the valley. A cave was found in the district with its entrance blocked containing the bodies of a Māori woman and child, it is not clear. The remains have been associated with the Classic period of which type there are several sites in the area. There are rock shelters with domestic articles, wooden bowls, material for garments and gear for hunting weka or fishing. Charles Kettle saw the area from the top of Maungatua in 1847 and was impressed by the land's pastoral potential.
Strath Taieri and its surrounding district lay beyond the limit of the coastal Otago Block which Kettle was surveying but, following the Otago Association's settlement on that land in 1848, horizons became broader. Kettle was one of the first Europeans known to have visited the Strath Taieri when he led an exploration party up the valley in February 1851; the Otago Provincial government was established in 1852. It seems Duncan Stewart, his wife and their children were living on the site of what was the Barewood homestead, on the Barewood run, by late 1853 or early 1854. John Sutton was granted the Barewood Run in 1854. Between 1857 and 1859 much of the land in and around Strath Taieri was taken up by pastoralists on lease from the Crown. One of these leaseholds, became the centre of several sheep stations put together by the Tasmanian Gellibrand family. A group of buildings, including a homestead, cottage, cook house, butcher's shop and large shearing shed were all built from the local stone.
They remain, fine examples of distinctively Australasian design. A number of the early European settlers came from Tasmania. From 1861 the Otago gold rushes saw the development of a stagecoach route, the Dunstan Trail leaving the coastal Taieri Plain near Outram advancing north and west across the plateau south of Strath Taieri proper, through Clark's Junction and on over the Rock and Pillar Range to the Maniototo. A new road north through Strath Taieri was proposed in 1863. In 1864 gold-bearing ground was reported at Hyde at the head of Strath Taieri and now the northern limit of Dunedin. There were two thousand people there. Goldfields to the east and north saw the'middle Taieri valley', as Strath Taieri was sometimes called, surrounded by prospering districts. Edward Wingfield Humphreys is credited with naming the valley'Strath Taieri'. Alice Humphreys moved to her husband's property in the valley soon after their marriage in 1869, she is credited with calling the private township laid out on their property'Middlemarch' after George Eliot's novel.
However this origin of the name has been disputed. From whatever source it got its name, the private township of Middlemarch on Humphrey's property of Garthmyl had been surveyed on land adjoining the projected railway and several sections were sold by 6 November 1880. A stone house was built and occupied by Mr. Kirk and his family by the winter of 1881. By 1891 there were a hotel, eight houses, two blacksmith shops, two stores, a school and twenty tents occupied by workers building the railway. Following the abolition of the New Zealand provinces in 1876 the Taieri County was formed whose Deep Stream Riding included Strath Taieri; the county improved the road traversing the plateau from the Taieri Plain, building a bridge over Deep Stream in 1880, a suspension bridge over the Taieri River at Sutton in 1885 and the same year another over the Taieri linking Middlemarch with the Cottesbrook station. The Sutton Stream, south of the township, was bridged in 1884. There was a long pause before the'centre road', now state highway 87, was extended north to Hyde and the Maniototo.
Construction of the Otago Central Railway from the South Island's main trunk line which lay along the coast, began in 1879. Its route was projected to cross the Taieri Plain and follow the Taieri Gorge upstream to Strath Taieri which it would traverse from south to north as the main route to Central Otago; the gorge presented formidable obstacles to which the existing bridges and tunnels are now picturesque testimony. The line reached Middlemarch in April 1891 spurring the township's development, it was extended to Hyde by 16 July 1894. The line's eventual terminus was Cromwell in the Upper Clutha catchment but it did not arrive there until 1921. To develop Middlemarch the March Creek had been diverted and for many years the township was flooded until channel work on the creek ameliorated the problem. A Presbyterian preacher covered the Strath Taieri district in 1886. Anglican and Roman Catholic churches were built in 1901 and a handsome church of the local schist stone was completed for the Presbyterians in 1906.
Gold mining in nearby areas such as Macraes Flat and Nenthorn buoyed up the development of the Strath Taieri and its townships but that stalled in the twentieth century. In the 1880s rabbits became a plague and it was only by strenuous efforts this was contained by the 1940s. Runs were broken up for closer settlement in 18
Kingdom of Strathclyde
Strathclyde Cumbric: Ystrad Clud or Alclud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England. The kingdom developed during the post-Roman period, it is known as Alt Clut, a Brittonic term for Dumbarton Castle, the medieval capital of the region. It may have had its origins with the Brythonic Damnonii people of Ptolemy's Geography; the language of Strathclyde, that of the Britons in surrounding areas under non-native rulership, is known as Cumbric, a dialect or language related to Old Welsh, in modern terms to Welsh and Breton. Scottish toponymy and archaeology points to some settlement by Vikings or Norse–Gaels, although to a lesser degree than in neighbouring Galloway. A small number of Anglian place-names show some limited settlement by Anglo-Saxon incomers from Northumbria prior to the Norse settlement. Owing to the series of language changes in the area, it is not possible to say whether any Goidelic settlement took place before Gaelic was introduced in the High Middle Ages during the 11th century.
After the sack of Dumbarton Rock by a Viking army from Dublin in 870, the name Strathclyde comes into use reflecting a move of the centre of the kingdom to Govan. In the same period, it was referred to as Cumbria, its inhabitants as Cumbrians. During the High Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the Goidelic-speaking Kingdom of Alba in the 11th century, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Scotland. However, it remained a distinctive Brythonic area into the 13th centuries. Ptolemy's Geographia – a sailors' chart, not an ethnographical survey – lists a number of tribes, or groups of tribes, in southern Scotland at around the time of the Roman invasion and the establishment of Roman Britain in the 1st century AD; as well as the Damnonii, Ptolemy lists the Otalini. In addition, a group known as the Maeatae in the area around Stirling, appear in Roman records; the capital of the Damnonii is believed to have been at Carman, near Dumbarton, but around five miles inland from the River Clyde. Although the northern frontier appears to have been Hadrian's Wall for most of the history of Roman Britain, the extent of Roman influence north of the Wall is obscure.
Roman forts existed north of the wall, forts as far north as Cramond may have been in long-term occupation. Moreover, the formal frontier was three times moved further north. Twice it was advanced to the line of the Antonine Wall, at about the time when Hadrian's Wall was built and again under Septimius Severus, once further north, beyond the river Tay, during Agricola's campaigns, each time, it was soon withdrawn. In addition to these contacts, Roman armies undertook punitive expeditions north of the frontiers. Northern natives travelled south of the wall, to trade, to raid and to serve in the Roman army. Roman traders may have travelled north, Roman subsidies, or bribes, were sent to useful tribes and leaders; the extent to which Roman Britain was romanised is debated, if there are doubts about the areas under close Roman control there must be more doubts over the degree to which the Damnonii were romanised. The final period of Roman Britain saw an apparent increase in attacks by land and sea, the raiders including the Picts and the mysterious Attacotti whose origins are not certain.
These raids will have targeted the tribes of southern Scotland. The supposed final withdrawal of Roman forces around 410 is unlikely to have been of military impact on the Damnonii, although the withdrawal of pay from the residual Wall garrison will have had a considerable economic effect. No historical source gives any firm information on the boundaries of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, but suggestions have been offered on the basis of place-names and topography. Near the north end of Loch Lomond, which can be reached by boat from the Clyde, lies Clach nam Breatann, the Rock of the Britains, thought to have gained its name as a marker at the northern limit of Alt Clut; the Campsie Fells and the marshes between Loch Lomond and Stirling may have represented another boundary. To the south, the kingdom extended some distance up the strath of the Clyde, along the coast extended south towards Ayr. Although referred to as the Dark Ages, the period after the end of Roman rule in southern Scotland, while poorly understood, is less dark than the Roman period.
Archaeologists and historians have offered varying accounts of the period over the last century and a half. The written sources available for the period are Irish and Welsh, few indeed are contemporary with the period between 400 and 600. Irish sources report events in the kingdom of Dumbarton. Excepting the 6th-century jeremiad by Gildas and the poetry attributed to Taliesin and Aneirin—in particular y Gododdin, thought to have been composed in Scotland in the 6th century—Welsh sources date from a much period; some are informed by the political attitudes prevalent in Wales after. Bede, whose prejudice is apparent mentions Britons, usually in uncomplimentary terms. Two kings are known from near contemporary sources in this early period; the first is Coroticus or Ceretic Guletic, known as the recipient of a letter from Saint Patrick, stated by a 7th-century biographer to have been king of the Height of the Clyde, Dumbarton Rock, placing h