To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
The Piscataqua River is a 12-mile-long tidal river forming the boundary of the U. S. states of New Hampshire and Maine from its origin at the confluence of the Salmon Falls River and Cocheco River. The drainage basin of the river is 1,495 square miles, including the subwatersheds of the Great Works River and the five rivers flowing into Great Bay: the Bellamy, Lamprey and Winnicut; the river runs southeastward, with New Hampshire to the south and west and Maine to the north and east, empties into the Gulf of Maine east of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The last 6 miles before the sea are known as Portsmouth Harbor and have a tidal current of around 4 knots; the cities/towns of Portsmouth, New Castle, Newington and Eliot have developed around the harbor. Named by the area's original Abenaki inhabitants, the word Piscataqua is believed to be a combination of peske with tegwe; the first known European to explore the river was Martin Pring in 1603. Captain John Smith placed a spelling similar to "Piscataqua" for the region on his map of 1614.
The river was the site of the first sawmill in the colonies in 1623, the same year the contemporary spelling "Piscataqua" was first recorded. Once salmon, oysters, scallops, mussels, eels and many others species of marine life were common in the river, evidenced by such tributaries as the Salmon Falls River, Sturgeon Creek and Seal Rock in Eliot, the Oyster River in Durham, New Hampshire, the Lamprey River in Newmarket, New Hampshire. All but the salmon and sturgeon remain, with fishing for striped bass and bluefish common recreational sports. In the mid 1630s some of the region's earliest settlers built a sawmill in what is today's Berwick, Maine, on a tributary above the head of tide of the Piscataqua. Thought to be the first over-shot water-powered site in America, it became known as the "Great Works", giving name to today's Great Works River. After the Allies' European victory in the Second World War, four surrendered German U-boats traveled upriver to the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, with their captains and crews interned as POWs at Portsmouth Naval Prison.
U-805 was the first to arrive, towed up the river to a rendezvous with U. S. officials on a tugboat off the Navy Yard on May 15, 1945. U-873 and U-1228 arrived the next day. U-234, by far the greatest prize, arrived on May 19, seized off Nova Scotia by the U. S. destroyer escort Sutton. It had left Germany with a cargo bound for Japan of a disassembled Messerschmitt Me 262 jet plane, the most sophisticated fighter of World War II. While this was enough to create a media sensation, it was decades before the U. S. government revealed that the sub carried a top secret load of uranium oxide produced by the German atomic weapons program bound for a last-ditch Japanese effort. Instead, the valuable nuclear material was diverted to the U. S.' Top secret Manhattan Project, ended up part of the bomb the U. S. Army Air Corps dropped over Hiroshima to hasten the end of the Pacific war; the shipyard is located on Seavey's Island in Kittery, near the Piscataqua's mouth. Long regarded by some as being in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the yard was claimed by that state into the 2000s.
However, the Piscataqua River border dispute over ownership of Seavey's Island was settled based upon a 2001 U. S. Supreme Court decision which cited a 1977 decision affirming New Hampshire's claim that the state borders met at the center of the river's navigable channel as described in a 1740 decree, thus placing the island in Maine; the Piscataqua River and its tributaries, including Great Bay, form a substantial estuarine environment. Two rivers, the Salmon Falls and Cocheco, join to form the Piscataqua on the eastern edge of Dover, New Hampshire, at the northwest corner of Eliot, Maine. Five rivers with tidal stretches flow into Great Bay: the Bellamy, Lamprey and Winnicut, the Great Works River drains into the tidal portion of the Salmon Falls. Badger's Island Great Bay Little Bay Bridge List of rivers of Maine List of rivers of New Hampshire Memorial Bridge Piscataqua River Bridge Point of Graves Burial Ground Prescott Park Sarah Mildred Long Bridge MaineRivers.org Piscataqua River History as Border of New Hampshire Seacoast Forts of Portsmouth Harbor from American Forts Network Port of New Hampshire Ports of Piscataqua, William Gurdon Saltonstall, Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, 1941
Streatham is a district in south London, England in the London Borough of Lambeth but with some areas to the west stretching out into the neighbouring London Borough of Wandsworth, some areas to the south stretching out into the neighbouring London Borough of Croydon. It is centred 5 miles south of Charing Cross; the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Streatham means "the hamlet on the street"; the street in question, the London to Brighton Way, was the Roman road from the capital Londinium to the south coast near Portslade, today within Brighton and Hove. It is that the destination was a Roman port now lost to coastal erosion, tentatively identified with'Novus Portus' mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia; the road is confusingly referred to as Stane Street in some sources and diverges from the main London-Chichester road at Kennington. After the departure of the Romans, the main road through Streatham remained an important trackway. From the 17th century it was adopted as the main coach road to Croydon and East Grinstead, on to Newhaven and Lewes.
In 1780 it became the route of the turnpike road from London to Brighton, subsequently became the basis for the modern A23. This road have shaped Streatham's development. Streatham's first parish church, St Leonard's, was founded in Saxon times but an early Tudor tower is the only remaining structure pre-dating 1831 when the body of the church was rebuilt; the mediaeval parish covered a wider area including Tooting Bec. Streatham appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Estreham, it was held by Bec-Hellouin Abbey from Richard de Tonbrige. Its domesday assets were: 2 hides, 1 virgate and 6½ ploughlands of cultivated land and 4 acres of meadow and herbage. Annually it was assessed to render £4 5s 0d to its overlords; the village remained unchanged until the 18th century, when its natural springs, known as Streatham Wells, were first celebrated for their health-giving properties. The reputation of the spa, improved turnpike roads, attracted wealthy City of London merchants and others to build their country residences in Streatham.
In spite of London's expansion, a limited number of developments took place in the village in the second half of the nineteenth century, most notably on Wellfield Road and Sunnyhill Road. These roads are today considered an important part of what remains of the historic Streatham village. Wellfield Road, known as Leigham Lane, was renamed to reflect its role as the main route from the village centre to one of the well locations. Another mineral well was located on the south side of Streatham Common, in an area that now forms part of The Rookery. In the 1730s, Streatham Park, a Georgian country mansion, was built by the brewer Ralph Thrale on land he bought from the Lord of the Manor - the fourth Duke of Bedford. Streatham Park passed to Ralph's son Henry Thrale, who with his wife Hester Thrale entertained many of the leading literary and artistic characters of the day, most notably the lexicographer Samuel Johnson; the dining room contained 12 portraits of Henry's guests painted by his friend Joshua Reynolds.
These pictures were wittily labelled by Fanny Burney as the Streatham Worthies. Streatham Park was leased to Prime Minister Lord Shelburne, was the venue for early negotiations with France that led to the Peace Treaty of 1783. Streatham Park was demolished in 1863. One large house that survives is Park Hill, on the north side of Streatham Common, rebuilt in the early 19th century for the Leaf family, it was latterly the home of Sir Henry Tate, sugar refiner, benefactor of local libraries across south London, including Streatham Library, founder of the Tate Gallery at Millbank. Development accelerated after the opening of Streatham Hill railway station on the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway in 1856; the other two railway stations followed within fifteen years. Some estates, such as Telford Park to the west of Streatham Hill, were spaciously planned with facilities like tennis clubs. Despite the local connections to the Dukes of Bedford, there is no link to the contemporary Bedford Park in west London.
Another generously sized development was Roupell Park, the area near Christchurch Road promoted by the Roupell family. Other streets adopted more conventional suburban layouts. Three more parish churches were built to serve the growing area, including Immanuel and St Andrew's, St Peter's and St Margaret the Queen's. There is now a mixture of buildings from all architectural eras of the past 200 years. After the First World War Streatham developed as a location for entertainment, with Streatham Hill Theatre, three cinemas, the Locarno ballroom and Streatham Ice Rink all adding to its reputation as "the West End of South London". With the advent of electric tram services it grew as a shopping centre serving a wide area to the south. In the 1930s large numbers of blocks of flats were constructed along the High Road; these speculative developments were not successful. They were only filled when émigré communities began to arrive in London after leaving countries under the domination of Hitler's Germany.
In 1932 the parish church of the Holy Redeemer was built in Streatham Vale to commemorate the work of William Wilberforce. In the 1950s Streatham had the busiest shopping street in south London. Streatham became the site of the UK's first supermarket, when Express Dairies Premier Supermarkets opened its first 2,500 square feet store in 1951.
The Squamscott River is a 6-mile-long tidal river in Rockingham County, southeastern New Hampshire, in the United States. It rises at Exeter, fed by the Exeter River; the Squamscott runs north between Newfields and Stratham to Great Bay, a tidal estuary, connected to the Piscataqua River, a tidal inlet of the Atlantic Ocean. More after rising at the Great Bridge adjacent to the former "Loaf & Ladle" restaurant in downtown Exeter, the Squamscott River passes the "Wooden Wave" tends north alongside the Swasey Parkway, through the haymarshes, passing by the town's water purification plant and under State Route 101, a major east-west arterial road in New Hampshire; the river next passes under Route 108 at the site of the former "Singing Bridge", a metal bridge, replaced. The river debouches into Great Bay, a broad and shallow tidal estuary, just south of the mouth of the Lamprey River, arriving at the bay from Newmarket; the Squamscott spelled Swampscott and Swamscott, gets its name from the Squamscott Indians who called it Msquam-s-kook translated as'at the salmon place' or'big water place.'
Plentiful game, the marshes and lush river-fed vegetation, an abundance of fish supported the northeast Native American Indians who were present in the region for thousands of years until English settlers displaced them in the early 17th century. The Native American tribes of New Hampshire were most from the Abenaki nation, but independent of the Maine-based tribes; the name “Abenaki” and its derivatives originated from a Montagnais word meaning "people of the dawn" or "easterners". In the eastern part of New Hampshire were the Pequaquaukes, the Ossipees, the Minnecometts, the Piscataquas and the Squamscotts; the Phillips Exeter Academy crew team holds its practices on the Squamscott River in Exeter. List of rivers of New Hampshire Exeter Squamscott River Local Advisory Committee
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Lindt & Sprüngli
Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprüngli AG, more known as Lindt, is a Swiss chocolatier and confectionery company founded in 1845 and known for its chocolate truffles and chocolate bars, among other sweets. The origins of the company date back to 1836, when David Sprüngli-Schwarz and his son Rudolf Sprüngli-Ammann bought a small confectionery shop in the old town of Zürich, producing chocolates under the name David Sprüngli & Son. Before they moved to Paradeplatz in 1845, they established a small factory where they produced their chocolate in solidified form in 1838; when Rudolf Sprüngli-Ammann retired in 1892, he gave two equal parts of the business to his sons. The younger brother David Robert received two confectionery stores that became known under the name Confiserie Sprüngli; the elder brother Johann Rudolf received the chocolate factory. To raise the necessary finances for his expansion plans, Johann Rudolf converted his private company into "Chocolat Sprüngli AG" in 1899. In that same year, he acquired the chocolate factory of Rodolphe Lindt in Bern, the company changed its name to "Aktiengesellschaft Vereinigte Berner und Züricher Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprüngli".
In 1994, Lindt & Sprüngli acquired the Austrian chocolatier, Hofbauer Österreich, integrated it, along with its Küfferle brand, into the company. In 1997 and 1998 the company acquired the Italian chocolatier Caffarel and the American chocolatier Ghirardelli, integrated both of them into the company as wholly owned subsidiaries. Since Lindt & Sprüngli has expanded the once-regional Ghirardelli to the international market. On 17 March 2009, Lindt announced the closure of 50 of its 80 retail boutiques in the United States because of weaker demand in the wake of the late-2000s recession. On 14 July 2014, Lindt bought Russell Stover Candies, maker of Whitman's Chocolate, for about $1 billion, the company's largest acquisition to date. In November 2018, Lindt opened its first American travel retail store in JFK Airport's Terminal 1 and its flagship Canadian shop in Yorkdale Shopping Centre, Toronto. Lindt & Sprüngli has twelve factories: Switzerland; the factory in Gloggnitz, manufactures products under the Hofbauer & Küfferle brand in addition to the Lindt brand.
Caffarel's factory is located in Luserna San Giovanni and Ghirardelli's factory is located in San Leandro, California, in the United States. Furthermore, there are four more factories of Russell Stover in the United States. Lindt has opened over shops all over the world; the cafés' menu offers focuses on chocolate and desserts. They sell handmade chocolates, macaroons and ice cream. Lindor was introduced as a bar in 1949 and in 1967 in form of a ball. Lindor is a type of chocolate produced by Lindt, now characterized by a hard chocolate shell and a smooth chocolate filling, it comes in a bar variety, as well as in a variety of flavours. Each flavour listed below has its own wrapper colour: Most of the US Lindor truffles are manufactured in Stratham, New Hampshire. In 2009, Swiss tennis star Roger Federer was named as Lindt's "global brand ambassador", began appearing in a series of commercials endorsing Lindor. Lindt produces the Gold Bunny, a hollow milk chocolate rabbit in a variety of sizes available every Easter since 1952.
Each bunny wears a small coloured ribbon bow around its neck identifying the type of chocolate contained within. The milk chocolate bunny wears a red ribbon, the dark chocolate bunny wears a dark brown ribbon, the hazelnut bunny wears a green ribbon, the white chocolate bunny wears a white ribbon. Other chocolates are wrapped to look like chicks, or lambs; the lambs are packaged with one black lamb. During the Christmas season, Lindt produces a variety of items, including chocolate reindeer, snowmen figures of various sizes, bells, advent calendars, chocolate ornaments. Various tins and boxes are available in the Lindt stores, the most popular colour schemes being the red and blue. Other seasonal items include Lindt chocolate novelty golf balls. For Valentine's Day, Lindt sells a boxed version of the Gold Bunny, which comes as a set of two kissing bunnies. Other Valentine's Day seasonal items include a selection of heart-shaped boxes of Lindor chocolate truffles. Lindt sells a variety of chocolate bars.
Flavours from the Excellence range include: Mint Intense: dark chocolate infused with mint Orange Intense: dark chocolate infused with orange essence and almond flakes Black Currant: dark chocolate infused with pieces of black currant and almond slivers White Coconut: white chocolate with crisp flakes of fine coconut Coconut: dark chocolate with crisp flakes of coconut Almond: white chocolate with whole roasted almonds and caramelised almond pieces Poire Intense: pear flavoured chocolate with almond flakes Pineapple: dark chocolate with pineapple pieces and caramelised hazelnut pieces Cherry Intense Regular Dark Chocolate: available in 50%, 60%, 70%, 78%, 85%, 90%, or 99% cocoa varieties Extra Creamy: milk chocolate Toffee Crunch: crunchy toffee bits wrapped in milk chocolate Caramel Crunchy: studded with crunchy caramel Lindor: the famous balls but in cube form Wasabi: an East Asian-inspired dark chocolate mixed with wasabi Pistachio: milk chocolate with creamy pistachio filling Mandarin: milk chocolate with creamy mandarin filling Strawberry: milk chocolate with creamy white chocolate strawberry filling Strawberry Margarita: capsule form with strawberry and margarita filling White S
Samuel Shute was an English military officer and royal governor of the provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. After serving in the Nine Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession, he was appointed by King George I as governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire in 1716, his tenure was marked by virulent disagreements with the Massachusetts assembly on a variety of issues, by poorly conducted diplomacy with respect to the Native American Wabanaki Confederacy of northern New England that led to Dummer's War. Although Shute was responsible for the breakdown in negotiations with the Wabanakis, he returned to England in early 1723 to procure resolutions to his ongoing disagreements with the Massachusetts assembly, leaving conduct of the war to Lieutenant Governor William Dummer, his protests resulted in the issuance in 1725 of the Explanatory Charter confirming his position in the disputes with the assembly. He did not return to New England, being replaced as governor in 1728 by William Burnet, refused to be considered for reappointment after Burnet's sudden death in 1729.
Thomas Hutchinson, in his history of Massachusetts, described Shute's tenure as governor as the most contentious since the Antinomian Controversy of the 1630s. Samuel Shute was born in London, England on January 12, 1662, he was the eldest of six children of a London merchant. His mother, identified in sources as Elizabeth, Patience, or Mary, was the daughter of Joseph Caryl, a dissenting Presbyterian clergyman, his brother John, afterward Lord Barrington, became an influential member of parliament, political leader of religious Dissenters, confidant of King George I. Shute was educated by Rev. Charles Morton. Shute attended the Leiden University in Holland and subsequently entered the English army, serving under William III. In the War of the Spanish Succession Shute served in the campaigns of the Duke of Marlborough in the 3rd Dragoon Guards, he was a captain of that cavalry regiment. Upon the accession of King George I in 1714, Colonel Elizeus Burges was commissioned as Governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire.
Massachusetts agents Jeremiah Dummer and Jonathan Belcher, representing opponents of a land bank proposal that Burges had promised to support, bribed him £1,000 to resign before he left England. Dummer and Belcher were instrumental in promoting Shute as an alternative to Burges, believing among other things that he was to be well received in New England because he was from a prominent Dissenting family. Shute arrived in Boston on October 4, 1716, where he began a difficult and contentious tenure in office, he signaled his partisanship by first taking up residence with Paul Dudley, son of the last-appointed governor Joseph Dudley and a land bank opponent, rather than Acting Governor William Tailer. Shute's administration of New Hampshire was not as troublesome as that of Massachusetts, but issues began early. Lieutenant Governor George Vaughan, acting as governor for a year before Shute's arrival, insisted on claiming full authority to act when Shute was not present in that province. Against direct orders from Shute, Vaughan, in Shute's absence, dissolved the assembly and dismissed councillor Samuel Penhallow.
In September 1717 Shute, with the concurrence of his council, suspended Vaughan, recalled the assembly, reinstated Penhallow. Vaughan was afterward formally replaced as lieutenant governor by John Wentworth. One positive event connected with the administration of Governor Shute was the resettlement of a large number of Scotch emigrants from the north of Ireland. In early 1718 Reverend William Boyd arrived from Ulster to petition for land on behalf of a number of Presbyterian families seeking to emigrate. Shute favorably received the emissary, several ships with migrants arrived in August 1718, they settled in New Hampshire, where they founded the town of Londonderry. This was the beginning of a major wave of Scotch-Irish migration to both New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Shute made other grants of townships in land, part of the modern state of New Hampshire. However, much of southwestern New Hampshire was at the time disputed between the two provinces Shute governed, grants he made in that area went to Massachusetts interests.
This upset a number of New Hampshire politicians, notably Lieutenant Governor Wentworth. Wentworth used discontent over these grants, combined with competing ones that he issued himself under New Hampshire authority, to build a power base that would successfully lobby for the separation of the governorships. Shute engaged in a wide array of disputes with the Massachusetts General Court concerning the royal prerogative and other issues. During his administration the assembly expanded its authority at the expense of the governor's, which permanently affected relations between governors and the assembly until independence. Currency was a major issue which divided the province politically: a large populist faction supported the inflationary issuance of paper currency, while two economically powerful groups supported competing proposals for dealing with the currency problem; the faction that had secured Burges' appointment supported a private land bank proposal that would issue bills secured by private property, while the Dudleys and their supporters, who backed Shute, favored the idea of paper, backed by gold.
A major opponent representing the popular factions in the province