Straw is an agricultural byproduct consisting of the dry stalks of cereal plants after the grain and chaff have been removed. It makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, rice and wheat, it has a number of different uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder and basket making. Straw is gathered and stored in a straw bale, a bale, or bundle, of straw bound with twine, wire, or string. Straw bales may be square, rectangular, or round, can be large, depending on the type of baler used. Current and historic uses of straw include: Animal feed Straw may be fed as part of the roughage component of the diet to cattle or horses that are on a near maintenance level of energy requirement, it has a low digestible nutrient content. The heat generated when microorganisms in a herbivore's gut digest straw can be useful in maintaining body temperature in cold climates. Due to the risk of impaction and its poor nutrient profile, it should always be restricted to part of the diet.

It may be fed as it chopped into short lengths, known as chaff. Basketry Bee skeps and linen baskets are made from coiled and bound together continuous lengths of straw; the technique is known as lip work. Bedding: humans or livestock The straw-filled mattress known as a palliasse, is still used in many parts of the world, it is used as bedding for ruminants and horses. It may be used as bedding and food for small animals, but this leads to injuries to mouth and eyes as straw is quite sharp. Biofuels The use of straw as a carbon-neutral energy source is increasing especially for biobutanol. Straw or hay briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal. Biogas Straw, processed first as briquettes, has been fed into a biogas plant in Aarhus University, Denmark, in a test to see if higher gas yields could be attained. Biomass The use of straw in large-scale biomass power plants is becoming mainstream in the EU, with several facilities online; the straw is either used directly in the form of bales, or densified into pellets which allows for the feedstock to be transported over longer distances.

Torrefaction of straw with pelletisation is gaining attention, because it increases the energy density of the resource, making it possible to transport it still further. This processing step makes storage much easier, because torrefied straw pellets are hydrophobic. Torrefied straw in the form of pellets can be directly co-fired with coal or natural gas at high rates and make use of the processing infrastructures at existing coal and gas plants; because the torrefied straw pellets have superior structural and combustion properties to coal, they can replace all coal and turn a coal plant into an biomass-fed power station. First generation pellets are limited to a co-firing rate of 15% in modern IGCC plants Construction material: In many parts of the world, straw is used to bind clay and concrete. A mixture of clay and straw, known as cob, can be used as a building material. There are many recipes for making cob; when baled, straw has moderate insulation characteristics. It can be used, alone or in a post-and-beam construction.

When bales are used to build or insulate buildings, the straw bales are finished with earthen plaster. The plastered walls provide some thermal mass and ductile structural strength, acceptable fire resistance as well as thermal resistance, somewhat in excess of North American building code. Straw is an abundant agricultural waste product, requires little energy to bale and transport for construction. For these reasons, straw bale construction is gaining popularity as part of passive solar and other renewable energy projects. Composite lumber: Wheat straw can be used as a fibrous filler combined with polymers to produce composite lumber. Enviroboard can be made from straw. Strawblocks are strawbales that have been recompressed to the density of woodblocks, for compact cargo container shipment, or for straw-bale construction of load-bearing walls that support roof-loads, such as a "living" or green roofs. Crafts Corn dollies Straw marquetry Straw painting Straw plaiting Scarecrows Japanese Traditional Cat's House Construction site sediment control Straw bales are sometimes used for sediment control at construction sites.

However, bales are ineffective in protecting water quality and are maintenance-intensive. For these reasons the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and various state agencies recommend use of alternative sediment control practices where possible, such as silt fences, fiber rolls and geotextiles. Burned area emergency response Ground cover In-stream check dams Drinking Straws HAY! Straws are 100% natural and compostable drinking straws made from dried wheat stems; the straws are gluten-free and intended for single-use. Available in tall and cocktail sizes. Hats There are several styles of straw hats. Many thousands of women and children in England, large numbers in the United States, were employed in plaiting straw for making hats. By the late 19th century, vast quantities of plaits were being imported to England from Canton in China, in the United States most of the straw plait was imported. A fiber analogous to straw is obtained from the plant Carludovica palmata, is used to make Panama hats.

Traditional Japanese rain protection consisted of a mino cape. Horticulture Straw is used for mushroom growing. In Japan, certain trees are wrapped with s

Afro-Caribbean music

Afro-Caribbean music is a broad term for music styles originating in the Caribbean from the African diaspora. These types of music have West African/Central African influence because of the presence and history of African people and their descendants living in the Caribbean, as a result of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Examples: Music of the Bahamas Music of Barbados Music of Belize Music of Colombia Music of Cuba Music of Dominica Music of the Dominican Republic Music of Guadeloupe Music of Guyana Music of Haiti Music of Jamaica Music of Martinique Music of Montserrat Music of Panama Music of Puerto Rico Music of Suriname Music of Trinidad and Tobago Music of VenezuelaIt is a subcategory of Latin music and/or Caribbean music. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom Music of the African diaspora Leymarie, Isabelle. La salsa et le Latin Jazz. Paris: PUF. ISBN 2130453171. Leymarie, Isabelle. Du tango au reggae: musiques noires d’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 2082108139. Leymarie, Isabelle.

La música latinoaméricana: Ritmos y danzas de un continente. Barcelona: BSA. ISBN 8440677057. Leymarie, Isabelle. Músicas del Caribe. Madrid: Akal. ISBN 8440677057. Leymarie, Isabelle. Cuba: La Musique des dieux. Paris: Éditions du Layeur. ISBN 2911468163. Leymarie, Isabelle. Cuban Fire: The Story of Salsa and Latin Jazz. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0826455867. Leymarie, Isabelle. La Música cubana: Cuba. Barcelona: Océano. ISBN 8449424097. Leymarie, Isabelle. Dizzy Gillespie. Paris: Vade Retro, Buchet Chastel. ISBN 2909828735. Leymarie, Isabelle. Jazz Latino. Barcelona: Robinbook. ISBN 8496222276

Pierre Dreyfus

Pierre Dreyfus was a high French civil servant who in 1955 became a wealthy businessman. Between 1947 and 1955, he occupied senior administrative positions in the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, in 1951 he became'directeur de cabinet' at the ministry. Bewtween 1948 and 1955, Dreyfus combined his civil service duties with the vice-presidency of the newly nationalised Renault auto business. In February 11, 1955, Pierre Lefaucheux died in a road accident, Dreyfus was appointed CEO of Renault, he retained the position until his retirement from the company in 1975. Like Lefaucheux, Dreyfus secured his reputation in the top job at Renault by overseeing the launch and production of a model developed under his predecessor: in this case the commercial success was that of the Renault Dauphine. By the end of 1958, with Dreyfus less than three years into his time at the top, a million Renault 4CVs and half a million Dauphines had been sold; the following year, Renault ranked as the world's sixth largest auto-maker.

The collapse of North American demand for the Dauphine triggered a crisis for the company, well-publicised in the United States, with unsold Dauphines on North American docksides adding to the half million unsold Detroit built products clogging the US auto-market by the end of 1960: for Renault salvation arrived just in time in the form of the Renault 4, developed under Dreyfus and built at the rate of 1,000 cars a day by the end of 1962. During Dreyfus's twenty years in charge, Renault went on to consolidate its position as France's top selling car maker, gaining particular recognition in the 1960s for popularizing front wheel drive, hatchback sedans across Europe, most notably the 4, 5 and 16 models. During the early years of the Mitterrand presidency, Dreyfus became active on the political scene, serving as Industry Minister between June 1981 and June 1982 under prime minister Pierre Mauroy. Pierre Dreyfus was not related either to Alfred Dreyfus, famous because of the'Dreyfus Affair' publicised by Émile Zola, nor to the race-driver Pierre Louis-Dreyfus.