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Streamflow

Streamflow, or channel runoff, is the flow of water in streams and other channels, is a major element of the water cycle. It is one component of the runoff of water from the land to waterbodies, the other component being surface runoff. Water flowing in channels comes from surface runoff from adjacent hillslopes, from groundwater flow out of the ground, from water discharged from pipes; the discharge of water flowing in a channel is measured using stream gauges or can be estimated by the Manning equation. The record of flow over time is called a hydrograph. Flooding occurs. Streams and rivers play a critical role in the hydrologic cycle, essential for all life on Earth. A diversity of biological species, from unicellular organisms to vertebrates, depend on flowing-water systems for their habitat and food resources. Rivers are major aquatic landscapes for all manners of animals. Rivers help keep the aquifers underground full of water by discharging water downward through their streambeds. In addition to that the oceans stay full of water because rivers and runoff continually refreshes them.

Streamflow is the main mechanism by which water moves from the land to the oceans or to basins of interior drainage. Surface and subsurface sources: Stream discharge is derived from four sources: channel precipitation, overland flow and groundwater. Channel precipitation is the moisture falling directly on the water surface, in most streams, it adds little to discharge. Groundwater, on the other hand, is a major source of discharge, in large streams, it accounts for the bulk of the average daily flow. Groundwater enters the streambed where the channel intersects the water table, providing a steady supply of water, termed baseflow, during both dry and rainy periods; because of the large supply of groundwater available to the streams and the slowness of the response of groundwater to precipitation events, baseflow changes only over time, it is the main cause of flooding. However, it does contribute to flooding by providing a stage onto which runoff from other sources is superimposed. Interflow is water that infiltrates the soil and moves laterally to the stream channel in the zone above the water table.

Much of this water is transmitted within the soil some of it moving within the horizons. Next to baseflow, it is the most important source of discharge for streams in forested lands. Overland flow in forested areas makes negligible contributions to streamflow. In dry regions and urbanized areas, overland flow or surface runoff is a major source of streamflow. Overland flow is a stormwater runoff that begins as thin layer of water that moves slowly over the ground. Under intensive rainfall and in the absence of barriers such as rough ground and absorbing soil, it can mount up reaching stream channels in minutes and causing sudden rises in discharge; the quickest response times between rainfall and streamflow occur in urbanized areas where yard drains, street gutters, storm sewers collect overland flow and route it to streams straightaway. Runoff velocities in storm sewer piper can reach 10 to 15 feet per second. Rivers are always moving, good for environment, as stagnant water does not stay fresh and inviting long.

There are many factors, both natural and human-induced, that cause rivers to continuously change:Natural mechanisms Runoff from rainfall and snowmelt Evaporation from soil and surface-water bodies Transpiration by vegetation Ground-water discharge from aquifers Ground-water recharge from surface-water bodies Sedimentation of lakes and wetlands Formation or dissipation of glaciers and permafrostHuman-induced mechanisms Surface-water withdrawals and transbasin diversions River-flow regulation for hydropower and navigation Construction and sedimentation of reservoirs and stormwater detention ponds Stream channelization and levee construction Drainage or restoration of wetlands Land-use changes such as urbanization that alter rates of erosion, overland flow, or evapotranspiration Wastewater outfalls Irrigation wastewater return flow Streamflow is measured as an amount of water passing through a specific point over time. The units used in the United States are cubic feet per second, while in majority of other countries cubic meters per second are utilized.

One cubic foot is equal to 0.028 cubic meters. There are a variety of ways to measure the discharge of a canal. A stream gauge provides continuous flow over time at one location for water resource and environmental management or other purposes. Streamflow values are better indicators than gage height of conditions along the whole river. Measurements of streamflow are made about every six weeks by United States Geological Survey personnel, they wade into the stream to make the measurement or do so from a boat, bridge, or cableway over the stream. For each streamgaging station, a relation between gage height and streamflow is determined by simultaneous measurements of gage height and streamflow over the natural range of flows; this relation provides the current condition streamflow data from that station. For purposes that do not require a continuous measurement of stream flow over time, current meters or acoustic Doppler velocity profilers can be used. For small streams — a few meters wide or smaller — weirs may be installed.

One informal method that provides an approximation of the stream flow termed the Orange Method or Float Method is: Measure a length of stream, mark the start and finish points. The longest length without changing stream conditions is desired to obtain the most accu

Mattel, Inc. v. MCA Records, Inc.

Mattel v. MCA Records, 296 F.3d 894, was a series of lawsuits between Mattel and MCA Records that resulted from the 1997 Aqua song, "Barbie Girl". The case was dismissed. On December 5th 2000, Mattel sued MCA Records, the recording company of Aqua, saying the song violated the Barbie trademark and turned Barbie into a sex object, referring to her as a "Blonde Bimbo." They alleged the song had violated their copyrights and trademarks of Barbie, that its lyrics had tarnished the reputation of their trademark and impinged on their marketing plan. Mattel claimed that the cover packaging of the single used "Barbie pink", a trademarked color owned by Mattel. MCA contested Mattel's claims and countersued for defamation after Mattel had likened MCA to a bank robber; the lawsuit filed by Mattel was dismissed by the lower courts, this dismissal was upheld. Mattel requested review by the Supreme Court of the United States, but its petition for certiorari was denied. In 2002, Judge Alex Kozinski ruled the song was protected as a parody under the trademark doctrine of nominative use and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

He threw out the defamation lawsuit that Aqua's record company filed against Mattel. Kozinski concluded his ruling by saying, "The parties are advised to chill." This controversy was used by journalist Naomi Klein to make a political point in her book No Logo, where she stated that the monopolies created by copyrights and trademarks are unfairly and differently enforced based on the legal budgets of the conflicting parties and their ability to defend their expressions by hiring lawyers. Judge Alex Kozinski, writing for the panel, opened the opinion by saying: If this were a sci-fi melodrama, it might be called Speech-Zilla meets Trademark Kong. Mattel has since released a promotional music video of the song on the official Barbie web site in 2009, as part of a marketing strategy introduced to revive sales. Tom Forsythe, a Utah artist unsuccessfully sued by Mattel over his controversial works featuring Barbie dolls Mattel, Inc. v. MCA Records, Inc. 28 F. Supp.2d 1120 Mattel, Inc. v. MCA Records, Inc. 296 F.3d 894 Mattel, Inc. v. MCA Records, Inc. no.

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Peugeot 907

The Peugeot 907 was a concept car built by Peugeot. First revealed at the Paris Motor Show in 2004, the car was created by styling chief Gérard Welter and designer Jean-Christophe Bolle-Reddat to celebrate the closure of the firm's 40- year-old design centre at La Garenne, the opening of a new one at Vélizy; the car wasn't designed to go into production, instead it was intended to be a prototype featuring Peugeot's new design techniques. The engine is mounted just behind the front wheels and side exhausts exit behind each of the front wheels. Unlike many concepts, the 907 can be driven like a production car. Under the bonnet, two 3.0-litre V6 engines are joined together to form a 500bhp V12. The monocoque body is made of carbon fiber, the car uses a double-wishbone suspension all round, while a sequential-shift transmission distributes power to the rear wheels; the arcing windscreen continues upwards to form the roof, while the bonnet has a see-through perspex insert that reveals the engine's 12 intake trumpets.

Length: 4.37 metres Width: 1.88 metres Weight: 1,400 kg Estimated top speed: 360 km/h 0-60: 3.7 sec

Climate change (general concept)

Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that remain in place for an extended period of time. This length of time can be as short as a few decades to as long as millions of years. Scientists have identified many episodes of climate change during Earth's geological history; the climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun. The climate system gives off energy to outer space; the balance of incoming and outgoing energy, the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling; the energy moving through Earth's climate system finds expression in weather, varying on geographic scales and time. Long-term averages and variability of weather in a region constitute the region's climate. Climate change is a sustained trend of change in climate.

Such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter the distribution of energy. Examples include variability in ocean basins such as the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate change can result from external forcing, when events outside of the climate system's components nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar volcanism. Climate change has various consequences for sea level changes, plant life, mass extinctions; the most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of meteorological variables when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change; the term "climate change" is used to refer to anthropogenic climate change. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes.

In this sense in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming. Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term, "climatic change", was proposed by the World Meteorological Organization in 1966 to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, but regardless of cause. During the 1970s, the term climate change replaced climatic change to focus on anthropogenic causes, as it became clear that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Climate change is now used as both a technical description of the process, as well as a noun used to describe the problem. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth.

This energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions. Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcing mechanisms"; these include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing; some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. There are key threshold factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change. Climate change can either occur due to internal processes. Internal unforced processes involve changes in the distribution of energy in the ocean and atmosphere, for instance changes in the thermohaline circulation.

External forcing mechanisms can be either natural. The response of the climate system to a climate forcing might be slow, or a combination. Therefore, the climate system can respond abruptly, but the full response to forcing mechanisms might not be developed for centuries or longer. Scientists define the five components of earth's climate system to include atmosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Natural changes in the climate system result in internal "climate variability". Examples include the type and distribution of species, changes in ocean-atmosphere circulations. Climate change due to internal variability sometimes occurs in cycles or oscillations, for instance every 100 or 2000 years

Occidental Refinery

The Occidental Refinery was an oil refinery on Canvey Island, England. Located in the Thames Estuary, the partly-built, non-operational, six million tonne/year refinery was planned and constructed by Occidental Refineries Limited in 1970–5 and demolished in 1996–7. In 1970 Occidental Refineries Limited, a subsidiary of the American Occidental Petroleum Corporation, applied to build an oil refinery on a 323-acre marshland site on Canvey Island south of Northwick Road for the production of heavy fuel oils. Planning permission was refused by the local planning authorities, Occidental appealed against the refusal so the Department of the Environment held a public inquiry in November 1970 to determine the case. Occidental Refineries Limited was in partnership with United Refineries Limited although the latter withdrew from the project just prior to the inquiry. At the public inquiry objections were raised by opponents of the development about air and water pollution; the inquiry inspector recommended approval, endorsed by the Secretary of State for the Environment Peter Walker in November 1971.

Crude oil was to be delivered to the refinery from ocean-going vessels of up to 100,000 dwt via a 1.5 km long jetty extending into the deep water of the river Thames from Hole Haven creek. Crude oil storage capacity at the refinery was 3.75 million barrels in ten floating roof tanks together with 160,000 barrels of ship ballast water storage. The treatment and refining processes at the Occidental refinery were: Crude oil desalting Primary distillation Product desulphurisation Fixed bed catalytic reforming Liquefied Petroleum Gas distillation Hydrogen sulphide extraction Sulphur production Sour water stripping Oily water separation Refinery products were to include those shown in the table below. In addition to the above tanks, there were storage tanks for a range of intermediate products, recovered oil and oily slops. There was to be about 70 tanks on the refinery site; the original design for the refinery included a rail loading facility for the export of some petroleum products. In 1972 British Railways obtained legal powers to build a railway branch line from the main London and Southend railway onto Canvey Island to provide loading facilities for the Occidental and other refineries being planned on the island.

Occidental started construction of the refinery in 1972. It built about twenty oil and product storage tanks, a 137-metre high concrete chimney for the furnaces and a deep-water jetty. Construction work stopped in 1975 when, having invested £55 million, economic studies demonstrated that the proposed refinery was unlikely to be profitable; this was a consequence of the Middle East oil crisis of 1973-4 when the price of oil increased from $2 to $11 per barrel between 1970 and January 1974, the consequent slump in demand for petroleum products. The project went into abeyance and no further work was undertaken on the refinery site. Meanwhile, local residents formed the Refinery Resistance Group which campaigned to stop hazardous industrial developments; the local Member of Parliament Bernard Braine spoke in Parliament in 1974 about the dangers of the agglomeration of hazardous industry on Canvey. In May 1977, Occidental Refineries Ltd applied to adapt the refinery to produce high-octane fuels with a reduction in the production of heavy fuel oil.

The modified process plant included a hydrogen fluoride alkylation unit. Castle Point District Council refused planning consent in November 1977 on the basis that the Health and Safety Executive were undertaking an analysis of the overall industrial hazardous risks on Canvey; the HSE identified the hazardous inventory on the proposed refinery site to be the storage of more than 125,000 m3 of hydrocarbon liquids. In August 1978 Occidental announced it was not proceeding with this development because of the increased costs associated with HSE's report. In 1980 the Occidental Petroleum Corporation revised its plans and proposed to build a 60,000 barrel /day residue-upgrading refinery on the site; this aimed to'satisfy the requirements of the planning and safety authorities as well as our own economic criteria'. But this proposal too was not developed, a consequence of the Iranian revolution when the oil price increased from $13 to $34 per barrel between 1979 and 1981. No further work was undertaken by Occidental on the Canvey site.

The unused tanks and the chimney on the Occidental site were demolished in 1996–7, only the concrete foundations of the tanks and the jetty remain. Despite the expenditure of £55 million no oil or petroleum was stored or processed at the Occidental Canvey Refinery. Part of the refinery site is now Canvey Wick nature reserve designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 2005. In addition to the partly-built Occidental refinery several other refineries were proposed for Canvey Island. However, none proved to be economically viable and were not developed beyond the design and planning stage; the proposed developments included the following. In 1964 the Italian oil company AGIP, a subsidiary of the Italian state-owned Eni S.p. A. was granted an Industrial Development Certificate by the UK Board of Trade to build an oil refinery on a 94 ha site in the north-west of Canvey. The IDC was introduced in 1947 as a means of influencing the pat

Alan Igglesden

Alan Paul Igglesden is a former English Test cricketer. He played three Test Matches and four One Day Internationals for the England cricket team between 1989 and 1994 as a fast bowler, he played most of his first-class cricket career for Kent County Cricket Club. Igglesden was born in Farnborough, London in 1964, he first played for Kent County Cricket Club's Second XI in 1983 before making his first-class cricket debut of the county in July 1986 against Somerset at Maidstone. He went on to play for Kent until August 1998, making 276 appearances for the Kent First XI and taking 409 first-class wickets, he took 50 first-class wickets in a season for Kent four times and recorded 17 five wicket hauls and two ten wicket matches for the county. He played in South Africa for Western Province and Boland and finished his county career by appearing for Berkshire in the Minor Counties Championship in 1999. Igglesden made his international debut for England in the final Test of the 1989 Ashes series, his elevation to Test cricketer owed much to a catalogue of injuries to other players and came in the wake of one of the rebel tours to South Africa which denied England the opportunity to pick players, involved with the tour.

England manager, Micky Stewart, described Igglesden as being England's "seventeenth-choice" pace bowler. Igglesden took three wickets on his debut and was the England A team's leading bowler on their tour of Zimbabwe in 1989/90 but was not picked again by England until 1993. In 1993, Igglesden was picked for the first Test, again against Australia, it appeared he may have had a few games to prove his worth. In the end, he did not play in a single Test that summer, courtesy of a groin injury and a side strain, he did appear twice in Tests and in four ODIs against the West Indies in 1993/94, but took only three Test wickets and was not picked again. Igglesden suffered a seizure in 1999 and, after a routine MRI scan, doctors discovered a non-malignant but inoperable brain tumour, he was treated with radiotherapy and drugs and has seen a significant reduction in the size of the tumour. After his retirement from cricket, he became a sports centre manager, at Woodhouse Grove School, he has taught at Sutton Valence School in Kent.

Igglesden is now part of a charity supporting brain tumour sufferers. Alan Igglesden at ESPNcricinfo