A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Sunset District, San Francisco
The Sunset District is a neighborhood located in the west-central area of San Francisco, United States. It is the largest neighborhood in the West Of Twin Peaks Neighborhoods in San Francisco; the Sunset District is the largest neighborhood within the city and county of San Francisco, with a population of over 85,000 it is the most populous. Golden Gate Park forms the neighborhood's northern border, the Pacific Ocean forms its western border; the Sunset District's southern and eastern borders are not as defined, but there is a general consensus that the neighborhood extends no farther south than Sigmund Stern Grove and Sloat Boulevard and no farther east than Stanyan Street and Laguna Honda Hospital. Prior to the residential and commercial development of the Sunset District, much of the area was covered by sand dunes and was referred to by 19th century San Franciscans as the "Outside Lands."The Sunset District and the neighboring Richmond District are collectively known as The Avenues, because the majority of both neighborhoods are spanned by numbered north-south avenues.
When the city was laid out, the avenues were numbered from 1st to 49th, the east-west streets were lettered A to X. In 1909, to reduce confusion for mail carriers, the east-west streets and 1st Avenue and 49th Avenue were renamed; the east-west streets were named in ascending alphabetical order in a southward direction after prominent 19th-century American politicians, military leaders, or explorers. 1st Avenue was renamed Arguello Boulevard, 49th Avenue was renamed La Playa Street. Today, the first numbered avenue is 2nd Avenue, starting one block west of Arguello Boulevard, the last is 48th Avenue near Ocean Beach; the avenue numbers increase incrementally, with one exception: what would be 13th Avenue is known as Funston Avenue, named after Frederick Funston, a U. S. Army general famous for his exploits during the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War, for directing the U. S. Army response to the 1906 earthquake; the east-west streets in the Sunset appear in alphabetical order. These streets are: Lincoln Way, Irving, Kirkham, Moraga, Ortega, Quintara, Santiago, Ulloa, Wawona and Sloat Boulevard.
"X" was proposed to be Xavier, but was changed to Yorba due to a pronunciation controversy. The origin of the "Sunset" name is not clear. One claim indicates that Aurelius Buckingham, a developer who owned property in the area, coined the term in 1886. Another claim comes from the California Midwinter Exposition, held in Golden Gate Park in 1894 and known as "The Sunset City." Before construction of the Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1917, the Sunset was a vast, sparsely inhabited area of large sand dunes and coastal scrub land known as the "Outside Lands." Development was initiated in the 1870s and 1880s with construction of Golden Gate Park, but it did not reach a full scale until after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, when small lots of tract homes and row homes now characteristic of the neighborhood were built into the sand dunes. These tract homes would displace a smaller original settlement built into the dunes called Carville, so named for squatters that lived in abandoned horsecars and cable cars that were dumped in the sand dunes.
Development increased by the 1930s, as the Sunset was developed into a streetcar suburb. The post–World War II baby boom in the 1950s saw the last of the sand dunes leveled down and replaced with more single- and multifamily homes. In these developments, built by Henry Doelger, entire blocks consist of houses of the same general character, differentiated by variations in their stucco facades and mirrored floorplans, with most built upon 25-foot-wide lots with no free space between houses. Oliver Rousseau built more individualistic homes in the district; the Sunset's demographics were comprised of European Americans Irish and Italian. Beginning in the late 1960s the neighborhood saw a steady influx of Asian immigrants following the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 which lifted racial quotas allowing for more non-European nationals to immigrate to the United States. Additionally, the Handover of Hong Kong motivated many Chinese to immigrate to the U. S. due to the economic uncertainties.
Today the vast majority of the neighborhoods population is Asian with Chinese as the dominant ethnic group. There are still some small Irish enclaves however. For most of its history, the Sunset existed as a large individual area. In recent years, the neighborhood has been popularly divided into three parts with sometimes vague borders; the Inner Sunset is bordered by Lincoln Way to the north, 2nd Ave to the east, Quintara Street to the south, 19th Avenue to the west. This far-east section of the Sunset is located just west of Mount Sutro; the main commercial area is along Irving Street from 5th Avenue to 12th Avenue, dotted with a variety of restaurants and shops. The Inner Sunset is a unique part of San Francisco that hosts a variety of local businesses, including restaurants, breweries, book stores, coffee shops, ice cream parlors and shoe stores, a tattoo parlor, a wine bar. All these establishments are clustered around the intersection of Irving Street. There is a grea
A diner is a small restaurant found predominantly in the Northeastern United States and Midwestern United States, as well as in other parts of the US, parts of Western Europe and Lebanon. Diners offer a wide range of foods American cuisine, a casual atmosphere, characteristically, a combination of booths served by a waitstaff and a long sit-down counter with direct service, in the smallest by a cook. Many diners have extended hours, some along highways and areas with significant shift work may stay open 24 hours. Today many diners share an archetypal exterior form; some of the earliest were converted rail cars, retaining their streamlined structure and interior fittings. From the 1920s to the 1940s, diners, by commonly known as "lunch cars", were prefabricated in factories like modern mobile homes and delivered on site with only the utilities needing to be connected; as a result, many early diners were small and narrow in order to fit onto a rail car or truck. This small footprint allowed them to be fitted into tiny and inexpensive lots that otherwise were unable to support a larger enterprise.
Diners were small businesses operated by the owner, with some presence of restaurant chains evolving over time. Diners serve staples of American cuisine such as hamburgers, french fries, club sandwiches, other simple cooked, inexpensive fare, such as meatloaf. Much of the food is grilled. Coffee is a diner staple. Diners serve hand-blended milkshakes and desserts such as pies, which are displayed in a glass case. Comfort food cuisine draws from, is rooted in, traditional diner fare. Classic American diners have an exterior layer of stainless steel siding—a feature unique to diner architecture. In some cases, diners share nostalgic, retro style features found in some restored drive-ins and old movie theatres. A crude precursor of the diner was created in 1872 by Walter Scott, who sold food out of a horse-pulled wagon to employees of the Providence Journal, in Providence, Rhode Island. Scott's diner can be considered the first diner with walk-up service, as it had windows on each side of the wagon.
Commercial production of such "lunch wagons" began in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1887, by Thomas Buckley. Buckley became known for his "White House Cafe" wagons. Charles Palmer received the first patent for the diner, which he billed as a "Night-Lunch Wagon." He built his "fancy night cafes" and "night lunch wagons" in the Worcester area until 1901. As the number of seats increased, wagons gave way to pre-fabricated buildings made by many of the same manufacturers which had made the wagons. Like the lunch wagon, a stationary diner allowed one to set up a food service business using pre-assembled constructs and equipment; the Transfer Station neighborhood of Union City, New Jersey was the site, in 1912, of the first lunch wagon built by Jerry and Daniel O'Mahoney and John Hanf, bought for $800 and operated by restaurant entrepreneur Michael Griffin, who chose the location for its copious foot traffic. The wagon helped spark New Jersey's golden age of diner manufacturing, which in turn made the state the diner capital of the world.
In the decades that followed, nearly all major U. S. diner manufacturers, including Jerry O'Mahoney Inc. started in New Jersey. Jerry O'Mahony, who hailed from Bayonne, New Jersey, is credited by some to have made the first such "diner"; the O'Mahony Diner Company of Elizabeth, New Jersey, produced 2,000 diners from 1917 to 1952. Only twenty remain throughout the United States and abroad. Others more credibly credit Philip H. Duprey and Grenville Stoddard, who established the Worcester Lunch Car and Carriage Manufacturing Company in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1906, when O'Mahony was still just 16; until the Great Depression, most diner manufacturers and their customers were located in the Northeast. Diner manufacturing suffered with other industries during the Depression, though not as much as many industries, the diner offered a less expensive way of getting into the restaurant business as well as less expensive food than more formal establishments. After World War II, as the economy returned to civilian production and the suburbs boomed, diners were an attractive small business opportunity.
During this period, diners spread beyond their original urban and small town market to highway strips in the suburbs reaching the Midwest, with manufacturers such as Valentine. After the Interstate Highway System was implemented in the U. S. in the 1960s, diners saw a boom in business. In many areas, diners were superseded in the 1970s by fast food restaurants, but in parts of New Jersey, New York, the New England states and Pennsylvania, the independently-owned diner remains common. Since the 1970s, most newly constructed diners lack the original narrow, stainless steel, streamlined appearance, are much bigger buildings, though some are still made of several prefabricated modules, assembled on site, manufactured by the old line diner builders. A wide variety of architectural styles were now used for these diners, including Cape Cod and Colonial styles; the old-style single module diners featuring a long counter and a few small booths sometimes now grew additional dining rooms, lavish wallpaper, crystal chandeliers and Greek statuary.
The definition of the term "diner" began to blur as older, prefabricated diners received more conventional frame additions, sometimes leaving the original structure nearly unrecognizable as it was surrounded by new construction or a renovated facade. Busines
In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terrace house or townhouse is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings share side walls. They are known in some areas as row houses. Terrace housing can be found throughout the world, though it is in abundance in Europe and Latin America, extensive examples can be found in Australia and North America; the Place des Vosges in Paris is one of the early examples of the style. Sometimes associated with the working class and reproduction terraces have become part of the process of gentrification in certain inner-city areas. Though earlier Gothic ecclesiastical examples, such as Vicars' Close, Wells are known, the practice of building new domestic homes uniformly to the property line began in the 16th century following Dutch and Belgian models and became known in English as "row" houses. "Yarmouth Rows" in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk is an example where the building fronts uniformly ran right to the property line.
The term terrace was borrowed from garden terraces by British architects of the late Georgian period to describe streets of houses whose uniform fronts and uniform height created an ensemble, more stylish than a "row". Townhouses are two- to three-storey structures that share a wall with a neighbouring unit; as opposed to an apartment building, townhouses do not have neighbouring units below them. They are similar in concept to row houses or terraced houses, except they are divided into smaller groupings of homes; the first and last of these houses is called an end terrace, is a different layout from the houses in the middle, sometimes called mid-terrace. In Australia, the term "terrace house" refers exclusively to Victorian and Edwardian era terraces or replicas always found in the older, inner city areas of the major cities. Terraced housing was introduced to Australia from England in the nineteenth century, basing their architecture on those in the UK, France and Italy. Large numbers of terraced houses were built in the inner suburbs of large Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne between the 1850s and the 1890s.
Detached housing became the popular style of housing in Australia following Federation in 1901. The most common building material used was brick covered with cement render and painted. Many terraces were built in the "Filigree" style, a style distinguished through heavy use of cast iron ornament, it has a level paved area in front known as terrace on the balconies and sometimes depicting native Australian flora. In the 1950s, many urban renewal programs were aimed at eradicating them in favour of modern development. In recent decades these inner-city areas and their terraced houses have been gentrified; the suburbs in which terrace houses are found are sought after in Australia due to their proximity to the Central Business Districts of the major cities. They are therefore sometimes quite expensive though they are not the preferred accommodation style; the lack of windows on the side, the small gardens, the relative darkness of the rooms is at odds with the design principles for modern Australian homes.
The lack of off-street parking that most have is an issue for the majority of Australians. In Finland, an agrarian country where urbanism was a late phenomenon, the rivitalo has not been seen as a urban house type. What is regarded as the first terraced house to be built, Ribbingshof, in the new Helsinki suburb of Kulosaari was designed by renowned architect Armas Lindgren, was inspired by ideas from the English Garden City movement and Hampstead Garden Suburb, was seen as a low density residential area. A leafy suburban street of terraced houses was that of Hollantilaisentie in the suburb of Munkkiniemi, designed by architect Eliel Saarinen, they were envisioned as workers' housing, as part of a grand new urban scheme for the entirety of north-west Helsinki, but from the outset became a fashionable middle-class residential area. Terraced housing in Finland is associated with suburban middle-class living, such as the Tapiola garden city, from the 1950s. Terraced housing has long been a popular form in France.
The Place des Vosges was one of the earliest examples of the arrangement. In Parisian squares, central blocks were given discreet prominence. Terraced building including housing was used during Haussmann's renovation of Paris between 1852 and 1870 creating whole streetscapes consisting of terraced rows; the first streets of houses with uniform fronts were built by the Huguenot entrepreneur Nicholas Barbon in the rebuilding after the Great Fire of London. Fashionable terraces appeared in London's Grosvenor Square from 1727 onwards and in Bath's Queen Square from 1729 onwards; the Scottish architect Robert Adam is credited with the development of the house itself. Early terraces were built by the two John Woods in Bath and under the direction of John Nash in Regent's Park, London; the term soon became commonplace. It is far from being the case; this is true in London, where some of the wealthiest people in the country owned them in locations such as Belgrave Square and Carlton House Terrace. These townhouses, in the British sense, were the London residences of noble
Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s. It combined advanced engineering with an avowedly Communist social purpose. Although it was divided into several competing factions, the movement produced many pioneering projects and finished buildings, before falling out of favour around 1932, it has left marked effects on developments in architecture. Constructivist architecture emerged from the wider constructivist art movement, which grew out of Russian Futurism. Constructivist art had attempted to apply a three-dimensional cubist vision to wholly abstract non-objective'constructions' with a kinetic element. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 it turned its attentions to the new social demands and industrial tasks required of the new regime. Two distinct threads emerged, the first was encapsulated in Antoine Pevsner's and Naum Gabo's Realist manifesto, concerned with space and rhythm, the second represented a struggle within the Commissariat for Enlightenment between those who argued for pure art and the Productivists such as Alexander Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova and Vladimir Tatlin, a more socially-oriented group who wanted this art to be absorbed in industrial production.
A split occurred in 1922 when Gabo emigrated. The movement developed along utilitarian lines; the productivist majority gained the support of the Proletkult and the magazine LEF, became the dominant influence of the architectural group O. S. A; the first and most famous Constructivist architectural project was the 1919 proposal for the headquarters of the Comintern in St Petersburg by the Futurist Vladimir Tatlin called Tatlin's Tower. Though it remained unbuilt, the materials—glass and steel—and its futuristic ethos and political slant set the tone for the projects of the 1920s. Another famous early Constructivist project was the Lenin Tribune by El Lissitzky, a moving speaker's podium. During the Russian Civil War the UNOVIS group centered on Kasimir Malevich and Lissitzky designed various projects that forced together the'non-objective' abstraction of Suprematism with more utilitarian aims, creating ideal Constructivist cities— see El Lissitzky's Prounen-Raum, the'Dynamic City' of Gustav Klutsis.
After the Russian Civil War, the USSR was too impoverished to commission any major new building projects. Nonetheless, the Soviet avant-garde school Vkhutemas started an architectural wing in 1921, led by the architect Nikolai Ladovsky, called ASNOVA; the teaching methods were both functional and fantastic, reflecting an interest in gestalt psychology, leading to daring experiments with form such as Simbirchev's glass-clad suspended restaurant. Among the architects affiliated to the ASNOVA were El Lissitzky, Konstantin Melnikov, Vladimir Krinsky and the young Berthold Lubetkin. Projects from 1923 to 1935 like Lissitzky and Mart Stam’s Wolkenbügel horizontal skyscrapers and Konstantin Melnikov’s temporary pavilions showed the originality and ambition of this new group. Melnikov would design the Soviet Pavilion at the Paris Exposition of Decorative Arts of 1925, which popularised the new style, with its rooms designed by Rodchenko and its jagged, mechanical form. Another glimpse of a Constructivist lived environment is visible in the popular science fiction film Aelita, which had interiors and exteriors modelled in angular, geometric fashion by Aleksandra Ekster.
The state-run Mosselprom department store of 1924 was an early modernist building for the new consumerism of the New Economic Policy, as was the Vesnin brothers' Mostorg store, built three years later. Modern offices for the mass press were popular, such as the Izvestia headquarters; this was built in 1926–7 and designed by Grigori Barkhin A colder and more technological Constructivist style was introduced by the 1923/4 glass office project by the Vesnin brothers for Leningradskaya Pravda. In 1925 the OSA Group with ties to Vkhutemas, was founded by Alexander Vesnin and Moisei Ginzburg—the Organisation of Contemporary Architects; this group had much in common with Weimar Germany's Functionalism, such as the housing projects of Ernst May. Housing collective housing in specially designed dom kommuny to replace the collectivised 19th century housing, the norm, was the main priority of this group; the term social condenser was coined to describe their aims, which followed from the ideas of V. I. Lenin, who wrote in 1919 that the real emancipation of women and real communism begins with the mass struggle against these petty household chores and the true reforming of the mass into a vast socialist household.
Collective housing projects that were built included Ivan Nikolaev's Communal House of the Textile Institute, Ginzburg's Moscow Gosstrakh flats and, most famously, his Narkomfin Building. Flats were built in a Constructivist idiom in Kharkiv and Leningrad and in smaller towns. Ginzburg designed a government building in Alma-Ata, while the Vesnin brothers designed a School of Film Actors in Moscow. Ginzburg critiqued the idea of building in the new society being the same as in the old: treating workers' housing in the same way as they would bourgeois apartments...the Constructivists however approach the same problem with maximum consideration for those shifts and changes in our everyday life...our goal is the collaboration with the proletariat in creating a new way of life. OSA published a magazine, SA or Contemporary Architect
Aquatic Park Historic District
Aquatic Park Historic District is a National Historic Landmark and building complex located on the San Francisco Bay waterfront within San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park. The district includes a beach, municipal pier, concessions stand and two speaker towers; the District's San Francisco Maritime Museum building was built as a bathhouse in 1936 by the WPA. The Steamship Room illustrates the evolution of maritime technology from wind to steam, there are displays of lithographic stones and whaling guns and photo-murals of San Francisco's early waterfront. A visiting-attractions gallery hosts such exhibition as Sparks, which showcased shipboard radio and radioteletype equipment from over the years. In front of the Maritime Museum is a man-made lagoon on the site of the former Black Point Cove. To the west is the horseshoe-shaped Municipal Pier, voted SFWeekly's Best Place to Go Fish 2009; the lagoon is fronted by a stepped concrete seawall. To the south is a grassy area known as Victorian Park, which contains the Hyde Street cable car turnaround.
Hyde Street Pier, though part of the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, is not part of Aquatic Park Historic District. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987, added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 26, 1984; the park is located at the foot of Polk Street and is a minute's walk from the visitor center and Hyde Street Pier. Its beach is one of the cleanest in the state. Located in the park near the corner of Beach and Larkin Streets is California Historical Landmark marker No. 236, honoring the Spanish packet San Carlos, which on August 5, 1775, became the first ship to enter San Francisco Bay. South End Rowing Club List of beaches in California List of California state parks
Erich Mendelsohn was a German architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s, as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas. Mendelsohn is a pioneer of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne architecture, notably with his 1921 Mossehaus design. Erich Mendelsohn was born in Allenstein, East Prussia, now the Polish town of Olsztyn, his birthplace was at the former Oberstrasse 21, now no. 10 Staromiejska street. A plaque embedded on the wall on the side of Barbara street commemorates his place of birth, he was the fifth of six children. He continued with commercial training in Berlin. In 1906 he took up the study of national economics at the University of Munich. In 1908 he began studying architecture at the Technical University of Berlin. In Munich he was influenced by Theodor Fischer, an architect whose own work fell between neo-classical and Jugendstil, and, teaching there since 1907. From 1912 to 1914 he worked as an independent architect in Munich.
In 1915 he married the cellist Luise Maas. Between 1910 and 1953 they corresponded with each other. Through his wife, he met the cello-playing astrophysicist Erwin Finlay Freundlich. Freundlich was the brother of Herbert Freundlich, the deputy director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie. Freundlich wished to build a suitable astronomical observatory to experimentally confirm Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Through his relationship with Freundlich, Mendelsohn had the opportunity to design and build the Einsteinturm; this relationship and the family friendship with the Luckenwalde hat manufacturers Salomon and Gustav Herrmann helped Mendelsohn to an early success. From until 1918, what is known of Mendelsohn is, above all, a multiplicity of sketches of factories and other large buildings in small format or in letters from the front to his wife, Louise Mendelsohn; the 2011 documentary film by Duki Dror titled "Incessant Visions" is about Erich Mendelsohn and his wife, in which Dror animates the memoirs of Louise and the letters.
At the end of 1918, upon his return from World War I, he settled his practice in Berlin. The Einsteinturm and the hat factory in Luckenwalde established his reputation; the Hat Factory was commissioned in 1921, Mendelsohn's design included four production halls, a boiler, a turbine house, two gatehouses and a dyeing hall. The dyeing hall became a distinctive feature of the factory, the building was shaped with a modern, ventilation hood that expelled the toxic fumes used in the dyeing process; the structure ironically resembled a hat. As early as 1924 Wasmuths Monatshefte für Baukunst produced a booklet about his work. In that same year, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius, he was one of the founders of the progressive architectural group known as Der Ring, his practice employed as many as forty people, among them, as a trainee, Julius Posener an architectural historian. Mendelsohn's work encapsulated the consumerism of the Weimar Republic, most in his shops: most famously the Schocken Department Stores.
Nonetheless he was interested in the socialist experiments being made in the USSR, where he designed the Red Banner Textile Factory in 1926. His Mossehaus newspaper offices and Universum cinema were highly influential on art deco and Streamline Moderne. In 1926, he bought an old villa, in 1928, he designed Rupenhorn, nearly 4000 m², which the family occupied two years later. With an expensive publication about his new home, illustrated by Amédée Ozenfant among others, Mendelsohn became the subject of envy. In the spring of 1933, in the wake of growing antisemitism and the rise of the Nazis in Germany, he fled to England, his assets were seized by the Nazis, his name struck from the list of the German Architects' Union, he was excluded from the Prussian Academy of Arts. In England he formed an architectural practice with Serge Chermayeff, which continued until the end of 1936 and together they designed two important private houses - Cohen House and Shrubs Wood - and the De La Warr Pavilion, an entertainment and arts complex in the seaside town of Bexhill-on-Sea and paid for by the local landowner.
Mendelsohn had long known Chaim Weizmann President of Israel. At the start of 1934 he began planning on Weizmann's behalf a series of projects in Palestine during the British Mandate. In 1935, he opened an office in Jerusalem and planned Jerusalem stone buildings in the International Style that influenced local architecture. In 1938 he dissolved his London office. At that same time he and his wife received British citizenship and he changed his name to "Eric". In Palestine, Mendelsohn built many now-famous buildings: Weizmann House and three laboratories at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Anglo-Palestine Bank in Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus, R