Snow tires—also called winter tires—are tires designed for use on snow and ice. Snow tires have a tread design with larger gaps than those on summer tires, increasing traction on snow and ice; such tires that have passed a specific winter traction performance test are entitled to display a "Three-Peak Mountain Snow Flake" symbol on their sidewalls. Tires designed for winter conditions are optimized to drive at temperatures below 7 °C; some snow tires have metal or ceramic studs that protrude from the tire to increase traction on hard-packed snow or ice. Studs abrade dry pavement, creating wear in the wheel path. Regulations that require the use of snow tires or permit the use of studs vary by country in Asia and Europe, by state or province in North America. Related to snow tires are those with an M+S rating, which denotes an "all-season" capability—quieter on clear roads, but less capable on snow or ice than a winter tire. Snow tires operate on a variety of surfaces, including pavement, ice, or snow.
The tread design of snow tires is adapted to allow penetration of the snow into the tread, where it compacts and provides resistance against slippage. The snow strength developed by compaction depends on the properties of the snow, which depend on its temperature and water content—wetter, warmer snow compacts better than dry, colder snow up to a point where the snow is so wet that it lubricates the tire-road interface. New and powder snow have densities of 0.1 to 0.3 g/cm3. Compacted snow may have densities of 0.45 to 0.75 g/cm3. Snow or ice-covered roadways present lower braking and cornering friction, compared to dry conditions; the roadway friction properties of snow, in particular, are a function of temperature. At temperatures below −7 °C, snow crystals are harder and generate more friction as a tire passes over them than at warmer conditions with snow or ice on the road surface. However, as temperatures rise above −2 °C, the presence of free water lubricates the snow or ice and diminishes tire friction.
Hydrophilic rubber compounds help create friction in the presence of ice. Dry and moist snow conditions on roadways Attributes that can distinguish snow tires from "all-season" and summer tires include: An open, deep tread, whose void ratio between rubber and spaces between the solid rubber is comparatively high Shoulder blocks—specialized tread design at the outside of the tire tread to increase snow contact and friction A narrower aspect ratio between the diameter of the tire and the tread width to minimize resistance from the plowing effect of the tire through deeper snow Hydrophilic rubber compounds that improve friction on wet surfaces Additional siping, or thin slits in the rubber, that provide more biting edges and improve traction on wet or icy surfaces. Wet-film conditions on hard-compacted snow or ice require chains. Many jurisdictions in Asia and North America seasonally allow snow tires with metal or ceramic studs to improve grip on packed snow or ice; such tires are prohibited in other jurisdictions or during warmer months because of the damage they may cause to road surfaces.
The metal studs are fabricated by encapsulating a hard pin in a softer material base, sometimes called the jacket. The pin is made of tungsten carbide, a hard high performance ceramic; the softer base is the part. As the tire wears with use, the softer base wears so that its surface is at about the same level as the rubber, whereas the hard pin wears so that it continues to protrude from the tire; the pin should protrude at least 1 millimetre for the tire to function properly. Snow tires do not eliminate skidding on ice and snow, but they reduce risks. Studdable tires are manufactured with molded holes on the rubber tire tread. There are 80 to 100 molded holes per tire for stud insertion; the insertion is done by using a special tool that spreads the rubber hole so that a stud jacket can be inserted and the flange at the bottom of the jacket can be fitted nicely to the bottom of the hole. The metal studs come in specific heights to match the depths of the holes molded into the tire tread based on the tread depths.
For this reason, stud metals can only be inserted. A proper stud insertion results in the metal jacket, flush with the surface of the tire tread having only the pin part that protrudes; when studs come into contact with pavements they abrade concrete surface. This can wear in the wheel path that prevents proper drainage. For this reason, studded tires are banned, at least seasonally, in many jurisdictions; the compacted snow develops strength against slippage along a shear plane parallel to the contact area of the tire on the ground. At the same time, the bottom of the tire treads compress the snow on which they are bearing creating friction; the process of compacting snow within the treads requires it to be expelled in time for the tread to compact snow anew on the next rotation. The compaction/contact process works both in the direction of travel for propulsion and braking, but laterally for cornering; the deeper the snow that the tire rolls through, the higher the resistance encountered by the tire, as it compacts the snow it encounters and plows some of it to either side.
At some point on a given angle of uphill pitch, this resistance becomes greater than the resistance to slippage achieved by the tread's contact with the snow and the tires with power begin to slip and spin. Deeper snow means. However, the plowing/compaction effect aids in braking to the extent that it c
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country. Statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statutes are rules made by legislative bodies. In all countries, newly enacted statutes are published in a Government gazette, distributed so that everyone can look up the statutory law. A universal problem encountered by lawmakers throughout human history is how to organize published statutes; such publications have a habit of starting small but growing over time, as new statutes are enacted in response to the exigencies of the moment. Persons trying to find the law are forced to sort through an enormous number of statutes enacted at various points in time to determine which portions are still in effect; the solution adopted in many countries is to organize existing statutory law in topical arrangements within publications called codes ensure that new statutes are drafted so that they add, repeal or move various code sections. In turn, in theory, the code will thenceforth reflect the current cumulative state of the statutory law in that jurisdiction.
In many nations statutory law is subordinate to constitutional law. The term statute is used to refer to an International treaty that establishes an institution, such as the Statute of the European Central Bank, a protocol to the international courts as well, such as the Statute of the International Court of Justice and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Statute is another word for law; the term was adapted from England in about the 18th century. In the Autonomous Communities of Spain, the autonomy statute is a legal document similar to a state constitution in a federated state; the autonomies statutes in Spain have the rank of "Ley Organica", a category of special laws reserved only for the main institutions and issues and mentioned in the Constitution. Leyes Organicas rank between ordinary laws; the name was chosen, among others. In biblical terminology, statute refers to a law given without any justification; the classic example is the statute regarding the Red Heifer. The opposite of a chok is a mishpat, a law given for a specified reason, e.g. the Sabbath laws, which were given because "God created the world in six days, but on the seventh day He rested".
That which upholds, supports or maintains the regulatory order of the universe meaning the Law or Natural Law. This is a concept of central importance in Indian religion. Constitution Legislation Legislature Organic statute Statutory law Super statute
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Porsche 911 GT1
The Porsche 911 GT1 is a car designed and developed by German automobile manufacturer Porsche AG to compete in the GT1 class of sports car racing, which required a street legal version for homologation purposes. The limited-production street-legal version developed as a result was named the 911 GT1 Straßenversion. With the revival of international sportscar racing in the mid-1990s, though the BPR Global GT Series Porsche expressed interest in returning to top level sports car racing and went about developing its competitor for the GT1 category. Cars in this category were heavily modified versions of road cars, such as the McLaren F1 and the Ferrari F40. However, when the 911 GT1 was uneveiled in 1996, Porsche exploited the rule book to the full and stunned the sports car fraternity. Rather than developing a race version of one of their road going models, what they created was a purpose built sports-prototype but in order to comply with regulations a street legal version was developed called the 911 GT1 Straßenversion - a road-going racing car.
In spite of its 911 moniker, the car had little in common with the 911 of the time, only sharing the front and rear headlamps with the production sports car. However its frontal chassis was shared with the 911, while the rear of the chassis was derived from the 962 along with its water-cooled, twin-turbocharged and intercooled, 4 valves per cylinder 3,164 cc flat-six engine fuel fed by Bosch Motronic 5.2 fuel injection, longitudinally-mounted in a rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, compared to the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout of a conventional 911. The engine was generated a power output of about 600 PS. In comparison, the 993 generation 911 GT2, otherwise the company's highest-performance vehicle at the time, used an air-cooled engine with only two valves per cylinder; the 911 GT1 made its debut in the BPR Global GT Series at the Brands Hatch 4 hours, where Hans-Joachim Stuck and Thierry Boutsen won comfortably, although they were racing as an invited entry and were thus ineligible for points.
They followed up by winning at Spa and Ralf Kelleners and Emmanuel Collard triumphed for the factory team at Zhuhai. The 1996 911 GT1 clocked at a top speed of 330 km/h on the legendary Mulsanne Straight in the practice sessions of the 1996 Le Mans 24 Hours Race. Towards the end of the 1996 season, Porsche made revisions to the 911 GT1 in preparation for the 1997 season; the front end of the car was revised including new bodywork which featured headlamps that previewed the all-new generation of the Porsche 911 which would be unveiled in 1997. The revised car was known as the 911 GT1 Evo; as far as performance goes, the car had the same engine as the previous version, but new aerodynamic elements allowed the 1997 version to be faster than the 1996 version - acceleration was better, although the top speed was still around 330 km/h on the La Sarthe Circuit. However, the works cars did not last the full race distance. For the 1998 season, Porsche developed an all-new car, the 911 GT1-98. Designed to match the new Toyota GT-One and Mercedes-Benz CLK-GTR, the 911 GT1-98 featured bodywork which bore more of a resemblance to traditional sports-prototypes than the previous two models.
A new sequential gearbox was installed to reduce shift time. As per the regulations, a street-legal version of the 911 GT1-98 was spawned but it is believed that only one variant was produced, still sufficient to satisfy the new regulations. During the 1998 FIA International GT season the 911 GT1-98 struggled to match the pace of the Mercedes, improved, with the main reason being down to the air-restrictor rules which were regarded as unfavourable to the turbocharged engine; the Michelin tyres of the factory team and the Pirelli of the private Zakspeed team were considered inferior to the Bridgestone tyres of the Mercedes. At the 1998 Le Mans however, it was a different story; the BMW V12 LM retired with wheel bearing trouble, the Mercedes CLK-LM cars had oil pump troubles in the new V8 engines that replaced the former V12. The Toyota GT-One, considered to be the fastest car suffered gearbox reliability problems; the 911 GT1-98, despite being slower than the Toyota or the Mercedes, fulfilled Porsche's slim hopes, taking both first and second place overall thanks to reliability, giving Porsche its record-breaking 16th overall win at Le Mans, more than any other manufacturer in history.
At the Petit Le Mans race in Road Atlanta, the 911 GT1-98 of Yannick Dalmas made a spectacular backward flip and landed rear first before hitting the side barriers, as did the BMW V12 LMR at the same race in 2000, most infamously the Mercedes-Benz CLR at Le Mans in 1999. The GT1'98 was set up with higher downforce in the race than the previous two years, which reduced its maximum speed to 310 km/h. However, in the 1998 Le Mans 24 Hours test days, the car hit 330 km/h on the Mulsanne Straight on a lower downforce setup. With Mercedes dominating FIA GT1 in 1998, all other entries including Porsche withdrew for the 1999 season; the GT1 class was cancelled, the FIA GT Championship was contested with GT2 cars. Porsche could have entered at Le Mans, but chose not to try to defend the win of 1998 against the new entrants from other manuf
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
A bumper is a structure attached to or integrated with the front and rear ends of a motor vehicle, to absorb impact in a minor collision, ideally minimizing repair costs. Stiff metal bumpers appeared on automobiles as early as 1904 that had a ornamental function. Numerous developments, improvements in materials and technologies, as well as greater focus on functionality for protecting vehicle components and improving safety have changed bumpers over the years. Bumpers ideally protect pedestrians from injury. Regulatory measures have been enacted to reduce vehicle repair costs, more impact on pedestrians. Bumpers were at first just rigid metal bars; the first bumper appeared on a vehicle in 1897, it was installed by Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, a Czech carmaker. The construction of these bumpers was not reliable as they featured only a cosmetic function.. Early car owners had the front spring hanger bolt replaced with ones long enough to be able to attach a metal bar. G. D. Fisher patented a bumper bracket to simplify the attachment of the accessory.
The first bumper designed to absorb impacts appeared in 1901. It was made of rubber and Frederick Simms gained patent for this invention in 1905. Bumpers were added by automakers in the mid-1910s, but consisted a strip of steel across the front and back. Treated as an optional accessory, bumpers became more and more common in the 1920s as automobile designers made them more complex and substantial. Over the next decades, chrome plated bumpers became heavy and decorative until the late 1950s when US automakers began establishing new bumper trends and brand specific designs; the 1960s saw the use of lighter chrome plated blade-like bumpers with a painted metal valance filling the space below it. Multi-piece construction became the norm as automakers incorporated grilles and rear exhaust into the bumpers. On the 1968 Pontiac GTO, General Motors incorporated an "Endura" body-colored plastic front bumper designed to absorb low-speed impact without permanent deformation, it was featured in a TV advertisement with John DeLorean hitting the bumper with a sledgehammer and no damage resulted.
Similar elastomeric bumpers were available on the rear of the 1970-71 Plymouth Barracuda. In 1971, Renault introduced a plastic bumper on the Renault 5. Current design practice is for the bumper structure on modern automobiles to consist of a plastic cover over a reinforcement bar made of steel, fiberglass composite, or plastic. Bumpers of most modern automobiles have been made of a combination of polycarbonate and Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene called PC/ABS. Bumpers offer protection to other vehicle components by dissipating the kinetic energy generated by an impact; this energy is a function of vehicle velocity squared. The kinetic energy is equal to 1/2 the square of the speed. In formula form: E k = 1 2 m v 2 A bumper that protects vehicle components from damage at 5 miles per hour must be four times stronger than a bumper that protects at 2.5 miles per hour, with the collision energy dissipation concentrated at the extreme front and rear of the vehicle. Small increases in bumper protection can lead to weight loss of fuel efficiency.
Until 1959, such rigidity was seen as beneficial to occupant safety among automotive engineers. Modern theories of vehicle crashworthiness point in the opposite direction, towards vehicles that crumple progressively. A rigid vehicle might have excellent bumper protection for vehicle components, but would offer poor occupant safety. Bumpers are being designed to mitigate injury to pedestrians struck by cars, such as through the use of bumper covers made of flexible materials. Front bumpers have been lowered and made of softer materials, such as foams and crushable plastics, to reduce the severity of impact on legs. For passenger cars, the height and placement of bumpers is specified under both US and EU regulations. Bumpers do not protect against moderate speed collisions, because during emergency braking, suspension changes the pitch of each vehicle, so bumpers can bypass each other when the vehicles collide. Preventing override and underride can be accomplished by tall bumper surfaces. Active suspension is another solution to keeping the vehicle level.
Bumper height from the roadway surface is important in engaging other protective systems. Airbag deployment sensors do not trigger until contact with an obstruction, it is important that front bumpers be the first parts of a vehicle to make contact in the event of a frontal collision, to leave sufficient time to inflate the protective cushions. Energy-absorbing crush zones are ineffective if they are physically bypassed. Underride collisions, in which a smaller vehicle such as a passenger sedan slides under a larger vehicle such as a tractor-trailer result in severe injuries or fatalities; the platform bed of a typical tractor-trailer is at the head height of seated adults in a typical passenger car, can cause severe head trauma in a moderate-speed collision. Around 500 people are killed this way in the United States annually. Following the 1967 death of actress Jayne Mansfield in an auto/truck accident, the US government agency NHTSA recommended requiring a rear underride guard known as a "Man
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen