House numbering is the system of giving a unique number to each building in a street or area, with the intention of making it easier to locate a particular building. The house number is part of a postal address; the term describes the number of any building with a mailbox, or a vacant lot. House numbering schemes vary by location, in many cases within cities. In some areas of the world, including many remote areas, houses are named but are not assigned numbers. A house numbering scheme was present in Pont Notre-Dame in Paris in 1512. However, the purpose of the numbering was to determine the distribution of property ownership in the city, rather than for the purpose of organization. In the 18th century the first street numbering schemes were applied across Europe, to aid in administrative tasks and the provision of services such as Mail delivery; the New View of London reported in 1708 that "at Prescott Street, Goodman's Fields, instead of signs, the houses are distinguished by numbers". Parts of the Paris suburbs were numbered in the 1720s.
Street numbering took off in the mid 18th century in Prussia, where authorities were ordered to "fix numbers on the houses... in little villages on the day before the troops march in". In the 1750s and 60s, street numbering on a large scale was applied in Madrid, London and Vienna, as well as many other cities across Europe. On 1 March 1768, King Louis XV of France decreed that all French houses outside of Paris affix house numbers for tracking troops quartered in civilian homes. In Australia and New Zealand, the current standard is directed at local governments that have the primary responsibility for addressing and road naming; the standard calls for lots and buildings on newly created streets to be assigned odd numbers and numbers when facing in the direction of increasing numbers reflecting common practice. It first came into force in 2003 under AS/NZS 4819:2003 – Geographic Information – Rural & Urban Addressing. Exceptions are where the road forms part of the boundary between different council cities.
For example, Underwood Road in Rochedale South, divided between the City of Brisbane. In New South Wales, the vast majority of streets were numbered before 2003, some with odd numbers assigned to houses on the right of the street when facing the direction along which numbers increase. There is no plan to reassign these numbers. On some long urban roads numbers ascend until the road crosses a council or suburb boundary start again at 1 or 2, where a street sign gives the name of the relevant area – these streets have repeating numbers. In semi-rural and rural areas, where houses and farms are spaced, a numbering system based on tens of metres or metres has been devised, thus a farm 2,300 metres from the start of the road, on the right-hand side would be numbered 230. Ballarat Central, Victoria uses the US system of increasing house numbers by 100 after a major cross street. Streets are designated South depending upon their relative position to Sturt Street; the number system will always start with No. 1 or No. 2 at the end, closer to the States GPO In Japan and South Korea, a city is divided into small numbered zones.
The houses within each zone are labelled in the order in which they were constructed, or clockwise around the block. This system is comparable to the system of sestieri used in Venice. Visitors to a large, complex city like Tokyo must resort to asking for directions at a local police substation. In Hong Kong, a former British colony, the British and European norm to number houses on one side of the street with odd numbers, the other side with numbers, is followed; some roads or streets along the coastline may however have numbering only on one side if the opposite side is reclaimed. These roads or streets include Ferry Street, Connaught Road West, Gloucester Road. Most mainland Chinese cities use the European system, with odd numbers on one side of the road and numbers on the opposite side. In high-density old Shanghai, a street number may be either a hao or nong, both of them being numbered successively. A hao refers a door rather than a building, for example, if a building with the address 25 Wuming Rd is followed by another building, which has three entrances opening to the street, the latter will be numbered as three different hao, from 27 to 29 Wuming Rd.
A nong, sometimes translated as "lane", refers to a block of buildings. So if in the above example the last building is followed by an enclosed compound, it will have the address "lane 31, Wuming Rd". A nong is further subdivided in its own hao, which do not correlate with the hao of the street, so the full address of an apartment within a compound may look like "Apartment 5005, no. 7, lane 31, Wuming Rd". The most common street address formats in Vietnam are: A number followed by the street name, for example "123 đường Lê Lợi"; this is the most common format. A number with an alphabetic suffix: "123A đường Lê Lợi", "123B đường Lê Lợi", etc; this format occurs when a property is numbered 123 but subdivided into two houses with different addresses. If the house lies on an alley, the alley number is combined with the house number: for example, in "123/3 đường Lê Lợi", 123 is the alley's address, 3 is the house number on that alley. More complex house numbers may occur on alleys
A streetcorner or street corner is the location which lies adjacent to an intersection of two roads. Such locations are important in terms of local planning and commerce being the locations of street signs and lamp posts, as well as being a prime spot to locate a business due to visibility and accessibility from traffic going along either of the adjacent streets. One source suggests that this is so for a facility combining two purposes, like an automotive showroom that provides repair services as well: "For all these types of buildings, property on a street corner is most desirable as separate entrances are most provided for."Due to this visibility, street-corners are the choice location for activities ranging from panhandling to prostitution to protests to petition signature drives, hence the term "street-corner politics". This makes street-corners a good location to observe human activity, for purposes of learning what environmental structures best fit that activity. Sidewalks at street corners tend to be rounded, rather than coming to a point, for ease of traffic making turns at the intersection.
A street corner can serve as a social meeting place. Street corner life is founded in low-income areas all around the world in urbanized structures. According to Jane Jacobs, the street-corner is an urban ecosystem that serves a structural function The city/street corners are a breathing system of different webs of structures that forms a whole which makes up the poor, drug dealers and users; the street-corner is an, ideology or urban slang from the term "Ghetto." Regarding sex and solicitation on the street corners of Mumbai, sex is a form of labor for some of the women of the urban streets of Mumbai. Prostitution has given the women of Mumbai a way to make money due to the displacement and the development of this cosmopolitan city. "Street Corner Society" is William Foote Whyte's account of street corners in Massachusetts. This portrayal of Italian American slums and street gangs holds the readers' attention with a colorful bird's eye view on the social structure of these "corner Boys" lives in Street Corner Society Elliot Liebow studies the African-American male behavior in reference to his poverty level in a compelling book called "Tally's Corner".
This book gives a sociological study of the black male. Elliot Liebow was the first to study the street corner in this magnitude. "Tally's Corner" is the first book published of it kind. This book was ground breaking and its information is still being studied today. "On The Road" is an anthropological narrative that gives the reader a colorful snapshot of the American culture street corners. Jack Kerouac shares his personal account of this sociological journey; this book expresses. Jack Kerouac said that road travel would give one a "chronotope"of the street corner"
David Guy Barnabas Kindersley MBE was a British stone letter-carver and typeface designer, the founder of the Kindersley Workshop. His carved plaques and inscriptions in stone and slate can be seen on many churches and public buildings in the United Kingdom. Kindersley was a designer of the Octavian font for Monotype Imaging in 1961, he and his third wife Lida Lopes Cardozo designed the main gates for the British Library. Kindersley was born at Codicote near Hitchin, the son of Major Guy Molesworth Kindersley and the grandson on his mother's side of the Arts and Crafts potter Sir Edmund Elton, he was educated at St Cyprian's School, where "he had a wonderful time", becoming head boy, the sharpness of his eye was shown by his outstanding skill at shooting. He claimed that "aiming at the centre has always been an inherent quality with him", his elder brother, died at Westminster School whilst Kindersley was still at St Cyprian's. Kindersley went on to Marlborough College, but left after three years because of rheumatoid arthritis.
After recovery, Kindersley was sent to Paris to learn French and study sculpture at the Academie St Julian and with the Iduni brothers in London. He read the books of Eric Gill, decided to become a stone-cutter, he became an apprentice to Gill in his workshop at Pigotts High Wycombe in December 1934, with the support of his father who, liking to do things the proper way, insisted on paying an apprenticeship indemnity. He worked on important commissions, including Bentall's store in Kingston upon Thames, St John's College and Dorset House. Kindersley left Gill's workshop in 1936 and set up his own workshop on the River Arun, where he still worked on commission for Gill, he married his first wife, Christina Sharpe, at the beginning of World War II and ran The Smith's Arms, a tiny pub with her in Godmanstone, Dorset. As a conscientious objector he refused to be put in a position where he would have to kill, although he applied for the Home Guard. On the death of Eric Gill in 1940, Kindersley spent time sorting out the affairs of Gill's workshop at Pigotts.
In 1945, Kindersley moved to Cambridgeshire and set up his first fully-fledged letter-cutting workshop at Dales Barn in the village of Barton. During this time, Kindersley developed his work and methods as he broke away from Gill, in his decorative embellishments of cutting, in his growing predilection for lettering on slate and the combination of lettering with heraldry. In the organisation of the workshop there was still a sense of dynastic inheritance. At this time he started teaching calligraphy at Cambridge Art School, having gone to enrol for the course, he had a major commission carving relief maps for the American War Cemetery and became a consultant for film titles through his cousin Sir Arthur Elton, in charge of film making at Shell Oil. Kindersley was preoccupied in the 1950s and 1960s by the survival of the workshop culture in a post-war climate of industrial expansion, he was the Crafts Council of Great Britain. He became Chairman of the Crafts Council for a while, but stepped down because of concerns about underfunding.
Kindersley invented a system for the accurate spacing of letters, which though praised, has not seen wide adoption. Kindersley's work in this area formed the basis of an artist's project by his former assistant the calligrapher Owen Williams called Testing David. In 1952 he submitted a design, MoT Serif, to the British Ministry of Transport, which required new lettering to use on United Kingdom road signs. Although the Road Research Laboratory found Kindersley's design more legible, the all-capitals design with serifs was passed over in favour of that of Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert. Many of the street signs in England in Cambridge, use Kindersley fonts. Among his apprentices of this period was his son Richard Kindersley, who has continued the lettering tradition from his own workshop in London since 1970. In 1967 Kindersley moved the workshop from Barton to the 14th-century Chesterton Tower in Cambridge in 1967 and ten years to the converted infants' school in Victoria Road where his widow Lida continues to run the workshop and take on apprentices.
Kindersley was not formally religious, but had a contemplative side. He had an spiritual view of the workshop and his ideas of wholeness as the integration of home and work was a development of Gill's "cell of good living in the chaos of our world". Kindersley was influenced by the writings of the Russian philosopher P. D. Ouspensky and for a time a member of the Walker Group, an Ouspenskyist self-help discussion group in London, his book Graphic Sayings shows plates bearing sayings of the Sufi mystics from the works of the writer Idries Shah. In January 2000 a memorial plaque designed by Kindersley's widow Lida was unveiled at Addenbrooke's Hospital, joining more than 20 other plaques and inscriptions created by the Cardozo Kindersley Workshop; the first plaque had commemorated the opening of the new hospital in 1962. Kindersley's children by his first marriage include Peter Kindersley, co-founder of Dorling Kindersley publishers. Kindersley's children with his last wife, Lida Lopes Cardozo Kindersley, include Hallam Jacob Cardozo Kindersley.
David Kindersley. Graphic Sayings. Cambridge: Kindersley & Skelton. No ISBN. David Kindersley. Optical letter spacing for new printing systems Lund Humphries, 2nd Edition. David Kindersley and Lida Lopes Cardozo. Letters Slate Cut: workshop practice and the making of letters. London: Lund Humphries. ISBN 0-85331-429
Street sign theft
Street sign theft occurs when street signs are stolen to be used as decorations, but sometimes to avoid obeying the law by claiming the sign was not there. Although the theft seems arbitrary, signs with unusual or amusing names tend to be stolen more frequently. Sometimes considered to be a prank by the perpetrators, the theft is costly and inconvenient for the municipality or agency that owns the sign. In the United States, each street sign costs between $100 and $500 to replace. In most jurisdictions, the theft of traffic signage is treated like any other theft with respect to prosecution and sentencing. If, the theft leads to an injury the thieves may be found criminally liable for the injury as well, provided that an injury of that sort was a foreseeable consequence of such a theft. In one notable United States case, three people were found guilty of manslaughter for stealing a stop sign and thereby causing a deadly collision; this was publicized in the novel Driver's Ed by Caroline B. Cooney.
Some jurisdictions place stickers on street signs warning of the legal punishment for their theft. Some cities use specially designed bolts to prevent removal. With some of the more popular street names such as Liverpool's famous "Penny Lane", authorities gave up the practice of replacing signs and resorted to painting the name of the street on the walls. Other jurisdictions offer replica street signs for sale to discourage theft. For route markers or mile markers that contain numbers with suggestive meanings, such as 69, 420, or 666, the number may be changed to avoid sign theft; the sign for South Park Street in Lawrence, Kansas has been stolen on several occasions, prompting the city to install theft-proof bolts on the sign. Brickyard Road, Florida. Fans stole the road sign because Lynyrd Skynyrd lead singer Ronnie Van Zant was living there before his death in 1977 and his brother, Johnny Van Zant, released an album and single called Brickyard Road in 1990; the county erected a concrete pillar with the street name painted on it, as opposed to a traditional road sign.
Leganés, Spain dedicated some streets to rock groups like Iron Maiden and Rosendo. The AC/DC sign was stolen days after inauguration. Leganés authorities now offer identical signs for sale. State, provincial or federal highways in many countries may face sign theft issues if their route number has popular culture connotations. Numbers prone to theft include 69 because of its use as a slang term for simultaneous oral sex, 420 because of its connection to marijuana culture, 666 because of its association with the Biblical Number of the Beast. Three highways numbered 69 in the United States had to be renumbered due to sign theft: Route 69 in New Jersey was renumbered to Route 31 in 1967, State Highway 69 in Texas was renumbered to State Highway 112 in 1992, State Route 69 in Utah was renumbered to State Route 38 in 1994. However, Interstate 69 and US-69 have not been altered. Sign theft was a factor that led to the renumbering of U. S. Route 666 to U. S. Route 491 in 2003, with a majority of the US 666 signs stolen following the announcement of the renumbering.
In addition, County Route 666 in Morris County, New Jersey was renumbered to County Route 665 due to sign theft. Signs for mile marker 66.6 on the New Jersey Turnpike and Garden State Parkway were stolen due to the Satanic associations with the number 666, prompting officials to consider changing the mile marker to 66.61. Signs for mile marker 420 along Interstate 70 in Colorado were stolen due to the marijuana reference especially because of its legalization of marijuana, leading the Colorado Department of Transportation to change the mile marker to 419.99. The states of Washington and Idaho have since begun implementing the same solution in response to incidents of "mile 420" sign theft. Idaho replaced mile marker 420 along U. S. Route 95 with 419.9. Richard Bong State Recreation Area, a state park in Wisconsin suffers from sign theft due to the association of the word "bong" with marijuana culture. U. S. Route 66 in the United States, the subject of a famous 1940s pop song sees frequent sign theft—signs are so stolen that in some places it can be difficult to navigate without knowing the route.
S. Highway System in 1985. In the United States and Canada, the sign for streets called "High St." are stolen for its connection to marijuana culture. In an episode of the TV series That'70s Show, several of the characters attempt to steal a High St. sign to give to Steven Hyde for his birthday. This is less common in the United Kingdom, as the term "high street" is a general term for a town's main shopping district, equivalent to Main Street in North America. Ragged Ass Road in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada saw such frequent sign thefts that the city welded the sign to the post and began to sell replica street signs. In the southernmost urbanized portion of Anchorage, near the Seward Highway, a neighborhood street was called Jackass Lane; the sign at its intersection with Huffman Road, a major thoroughfare in Anchorage, was stolen so during the 1970s and 1980s that the city government renamed the street to Silver Fox Lane. Signs leading to Bolinas, California were stolen or wrongly placed by its reclusive residents as a means to make it difficult for tourists to locate the beachside town.
The signs on Abbey Road in London, England were stolen by Beatles fans until the city council mounted them on buildings. The entry sign in Intercourse, Pennsylvania has been stolen or vandaliz
Huntington Avenue is a secondary thoroughfare in the city of Boston, beginning at Copley Square, continuing west through the Back Bay, Fenway and Mission Hill neighborhoods. Huntington Avenue is signed as Route 9. A section of Huntington Avenue has been designated the Avenue of the Arts by the city of Boston. In the Back Bay neighborhood, the avenue is dominated by the Mother Church and headquarters of the Church of Christ and the buildings of the Prudential Center shopping and office complex; the middle portion of Huntington Avenue designated the "Avenue of the Arts" is lined by many significant artistic venues and educational institutions in Boston, including Symphony Hall, Horticultural Hall, the New England Conservatory, Northeastern University, the Boston University Theatre, the Museum of Fine Arts, Wentworth Institute of Technology, the Massachusetts College of Art. The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum is only about a block from Huntington Avenue. Near the Longwood Medical Area, the street touches upon a number of medical research institutions and hospital complexes, including the Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.
H. Chan School of Public Health, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. At the point at which the street reaches the overpass of the Jamaicaway and the border of the town of Brookline, South Huntington Avenue runs south towards Jamaica Plain Center, while Route 9 continues west into Brookline as Boylston Street; the "E" Branch of the MBTA Green Line follows Huntington Avenue underground from Copley Square until it rises above ground at the Northeastern Portal. It operates in a dedicated median of Huntington Avenue between Northeastern University and the Brigham Circle stop, where trains begin street running in mixed traffic to a terminus at Heath Street; the MBTA #39 bus runs from Back Bay station via Huntington Avenue following the streetcar line, traveling beyond Heath Street to Forest Hills station. The bus route is considered one of the key bus routes in the system, with high ridership and enhanced levels of service. Huntington Avenue wended its way toward Brookline. By 1883, the square, named for the adjacent Museum of Fine Arts was renamed Copley Square.
The avenue began at the intersection of Clarendon and Boylston Streets, ran diagonally across the square past Trinity Church. In the 1960s this stretch was eliminated as part of a redesign of the square, now the avenue originates from the intersection of Dartmouth Street and St. James Avenue; the street had been called Western Avenue, was renamed after Ralph Huntington. Huntington was one of the men, he donated money to many of the institutions in the Back Bay, the Fenway. An existing system of horse-drawn streetcar lines was extended onto Huntington Avenue around 1883, running in a dedicated median from Francis Street to the Boston Public Library. From there it ran in general street traffic until turning onto Boylston Street. In 1894, the streetcar line was electrified. On February 16, 1941, the Tremont Street Subway opened a streetcar portal on Huntington Ave near Northeastern University; this allowed streetcars to avoid surface traffic from Copley to Northeastern, created two new subway stops: Symphony and Mechanics.
Huntington Avenue, near Northeastern University, was the site of the old Boston Red Sox stadium and site of the first World Series game in 1903. A statue of Cy Young stands on the current day Northeastern campus to commemorate the location of the pitcher's mound of the Huntington Avenue Grounds ballpark. City of Boston Archives. Electric street lights on Huntington Avenue, c. 1910
San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M
This article reflects practice in jurisdictions where vehicles are driven on the right. If not otherwise specified, "right" and "left" can be reversed to reflect jurisdictions where vehicles are driven on the left. An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more roads cross. Intersections may be classified by number of road segments, traffic lane design. One way to classify intersections is by the number of road segments. A three-way intersection is a junction between three road segments: a T junction when two arms form one road, or a Y junction – the latter known as a fork if approached from the stem of the Y. A four-way intersection, or crossroads involves a crossing over of two streets or roads. In areas where there are blocks and in some other cases, the crossing streets or roads are perpendicular to each other. However, two roads may cross at a different angle. In a few cases, the junction of two road segments may be offset from each when reaching an intersection though both ends may be considered the same street.
Five-way intersections are less common but still exist in urban areas with non-rectangular blocks. An example of this is the intersection. Six-way intersections involve a crossing of three streets at one junction. Seven or more approaches to a single intersection, such as at Seven Dials, are rare. Another way of classifying intersections is by traffic control technology: Uncontrolled intersections, without signs or signals. Priority rules may vary by country: on a 4-way intersection traffic from the right has priority. For traffic coming from the same or opposite direction, that which goes straight has priority over that which turns off. Yield-controlled intersections may not have specific "YIELD" signs. Stop-controlled intersections have one or more "STOP" signs. Two-way stops are common, while some countries employ four-way stops. Signal-controlled intersections depend on traffic signals electric, which indicate which traffic is allowed to proceed at any particular time. A traffic circle is a type of intersection.
Types of traffic circles include roundabouts,'mini-roundabouts','rotaries', "STOP"-controlled circles, signal-controlled circles. Some people consider roundabouts to be a distinct type of intersection from traffic circles. A box junction can be added to an intersection prohibiting entry to the intersection unless the exit is clear; some intersections employ indirect left turns to reduce delays. The Michigan left combines a U-turn. Jughandle lefts diverge to the right curve to the left, converting a left turn to a crossing maneuver, similar to throughabouts; these techniques are used in conjunction with signal-controlled intersections, although they may be used at stop-controlled intersections. Other designs include advanced stop lines, parallel-flow and continuous-flow intersections, hook turns, seagull intersections, slip lanes, staggered junctions, Texas Ts, Texas U-turns and turnarounds. A roundabout and its variants like turbo roundabouts and distributing circles like traffic circles and right-in/right-out intersections.
At intersections, turns are allowed, but are regulated to avoid interference with other traffic. Certain turns may be not allowed or may be limited by regulatory signs or signals those that cross oncoming traffic. Alternative designs attempt to reduce or eliminate such potential conflicts. At intersections with large proportions of turning traffic, turn lanes may be provided. For example, in the intersection shown in the diagram, left turn lanes are present in the right-left street. Turn lanes allow vehicles to exit a road without crossing traffic. Absence of a turn lane does not indicate a prohibition of turns in that direction. Instead, traffic control signs are used to prohibit specific turns. Turn lanes improve safety. Turn lanes can have a dramatic effect on the safety of a junction. In rural areas, crash frequency can be reduced by up to 48% if left turn lanes are provided on both main-road approaches at stop-controlled intersections. At signalized intersections, crashes can be reduced by 33%.
Results are lower in urban areas. Turn lanes are marked with an arrow bending into the direction of the turn, to be made from that lane. Multi-headed arrows indicate that vehicle drivers may travel in any one of the directions pointed to by an arrow. Traffic signals facing vehicles in turn lanes have arrow-shaped indications. Green arrows indicate protected turn phases. Red arrows may be displayed to prohibit turns in that direction. Red arrows may be displayed along with a circular green indication to show that turns in the direction of the arrow are prohibited, but other movements are allowed. In some jurisdictions, a red