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Street performance

Street performance or busking is the act of performing in public places for gratuities. In many countries the rewards are in the form of money but other gratuities such as food, drink or gifts may be given. Street performance dates back to antiquity. People engaging in this practice are called street buskers in the United Kingdom. Buskers is not a term used in American English. Performances are anything. Performers may do acrobatics, animal tricks, balloon twisting, clowning, contortions, dance, fire skills, flea circus, fortune-telling, magic, living statue, musical performance, snake charming, storytelling or reciting poetry or prose, street art such as sketching and painting, street theatre, sword swallowing, ventriloquism; the term busking was first noted in the English language around the middle 1860s in Great Britain. The verb to busk, from the word busker, comes from the Spanish root word buscar, with the meaning "to seek"; the Spanish word buscar in turn evolved from the Indo-European word *bhudh-skō.

It was used for many street acts, was the title of a famous Spanish book about one of them, El Buscón. Today, the word is still used in Spanish but relegated for female street sex workers, or women seeking to be set up as private mistresses of married men. There have been performances in public places for gratuities in every major culture in the world, dating back to antiquity. For many musicians street performance was the most common means of employment before the advent of recording and personal electronics. Prior to that, a person had to produce any music or entertainment, save for a few mechanical devices such as the barrel organ, the music box, the piano roll. Organ grinders were found busking in the old days. Busking is common among some Romani people. Romantic mention of Romani music and fortune tellers are found in all forms of song poetry and lore; the Roma brought the word busking to England by way of their travels along the Mediterranean coast to Spain and the Atlantic Ocean and up north to England and the rest of Europe.

In medieval France buskers were known by the terms troubadours and jongleurs. In northern France they were known as trouveres. In old German buskers were known as Spielleute. In obsolete French it evolved to busquer for "seek, prowl" and was used to describe prostitutes. In Russia buskers are called skomorokh and their first recorded history appears around the 11th century. Mariachis, Mexican bands that play a style of music by the same name busk when they perform while traveling through streets and plazas, as well as in restaurants and bars. Around the mid-19th century Japanese Chindonya started to be seen using their skills for advertising, these street performers are still seen in Japan. Another Japanese street performance form dating from the Edo period is Nankin Tamasudare, in which the performer creates large figures using a bamboo mat. In 19th century, Italian street musicians began to roam worldwide in search of fortune. Musicians from Basilicata the so-called Viggianesi, would become professional instrumentalists in symphonic orchestras in the United States.

The street musicians from Basilicata are sometimes cited as an influence on Hector Malot's Sans Famille. In the United States, medicine shows proliferated in the 19th century, they were traveling vendors selling potions to improve the health. They would employ entertainment acts as a way of making the clients feel better; the people would associate this feeling of well-being with the products sold. After these performances they would "pass the hat". One-man bands have performed as buskers playing a variety of instruments simultaneously. One-man bands proliferated in urban areas in the 19th and early 20th centuries and still perform to this day. A current one-man band plays all their instruments acoustically combining a guitar, a harmonica, a drum and a tambourine, they may include singing. Many still busk but some are booked to play at other events. Folk music has always been an important part of the busking scene. Cafe, restaurant and pub busking is a mainstay of this art form. Two of the more famous folk singers are Joan Baez.

The delta bluesmen were itinerant musicians emanating from the Mississippi Delta region of the USA around the early 1940s and on. B. B. King is one famous example; the counterculture of the hippies of the 1960s staged "be-ins", which resembled some present-day busker festivals. Bands and performers would gather at public places and perform for free, passing the hat to make money; the San Francisco Bay Area was at the epicenter of this movement – be-ins were staged at Golden Gate Park and San Jose's Bee Stadium and other venues. Some of the bands that performed in this manner were Janis Joplin with Big Brother and the Holding Company, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Country Joe and the Fish, Moby Grape and Jimi Hendrix. Christmas caroling can be a form of busking, as wassailing included singing for alms, wassail or some other form of refreshment such as figgy pudding. In Ireland the traditional Wren Boys and in England Morris Dancing can be considered part of the busking tradition.

In India and Pakistan's Gujarati region Bhavai is a form of street art where there are plays enacted in the village, the barot or the village singer is part of the local entertainment scene. In the 2000s, some performers have begun "Cyber Buskin

MGR Nagar

M. G. R Nagar is a neighbourhood located near K. K. Nagar in Chennai, India; the area is known for its busy vegetable fish market. M. G. R Nagar is situated to the south of Anna Main Road, K. K. Nagar, it is surrounded by K. K. Nagar in the north, Nesapakkam in the West, Adyar River in the south and Jafferkhanpet in the South East. All the MTC buses originating or terminating at K. K. Nagar bus terminus ply through MGR Nagar's Three bus stops on the Anna Main road provide access to the neighbourhood. A number of share autos ply to this area and beyond from Udayam Theatre Junction in Ashok Nagar; the MGR Nagar Police station is located at Venkataraman street. In October 2005, 42 people died in a stampede among the 4000 people who had gathered for flood relief distribution


Champoz is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located in the French-speaking part of the canton in the Jura mountains. Champoz was first mentioned in 1365 as Champo; the Roman army built an observation post on the mountainside near the present day village. Little is known about the early history of the village, but throughout its history it was owned by the bailiff of Malleray, under the authority of the provost of Moutier-Grandval Abbey. In 1499, during the Swabian War, Imperial troops destroyed the village. Both before and after the Protestant Reformation in 1531 it was part of the parish of Chalières; this changed in 1746. After the 1797 French victory and the Treaty of Campo Formio, Champoz became part of the French Département of Mont-Terrible. Three years in 1800 it became part of the Département of Haut-Rhin. After Napoleon's defeat and the Congress of Vienna, Champoz was assigned to the Canton of Bern in 1815; the village is located in the mountains above the Tavannes valley.

Because of its location, during the 19th century the roads and industrialization of the valley bypassed Champoz. Today, many residents still work in agriculture. Champoz has an area of 7.17 km2. As of 2012, a total of 3.34 km2 or 46.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 3.63 km2 or 50.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.21 km2 or 2.9 % is settled, 0.01 km2 or 0.1 % is either lakes. During the same year and buildings made up 1.4% and transportation infrastructure made up 1.4%. Out of the forested land, 44.0% of the total land area is forested and 6.5% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 11.4% is used for growing crops and 15.9% is pastures and 18.7% is used for alpine pastures. All the water in the municipality is in lakes; the municipality is located on the southern slope of Moron mountain. It consists of part of the hamlet of Le Petit-Champoz. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Arrondissement administratif Jura bernois.

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or issuant from a Mount Vert a Gentian Azure slipped and leaved of the second and on a Chief Gules fimbriated Vert a Semi Sun issuant Argent. Champoz has a population of 170; as of 2010, 0.7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 2.6%. Migration accounted for 5.2%, while births and deaths accounted for 0.7%. Most of the population speaks French as their first language with the rest speaking German; as of 2008, the population was 50.3 % female. The population was made up of non-Swiss men. There were 1 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 71 or about 47.0% were born in Champoz and lived there in 2000. There were 63 or 41.7% who were born in the same canton, while 12 or 7.9% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 5 or 3.3% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2011, children and teenagers make up 25.5% of the population, while adults make up 61.8% and seniors make up 12.7%.

As of 2000, there were 72 people who never married in the municipality. There were 2 individuals who are divorced; as of 2010, there were 10 households that consist of only one person and 10 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 46 apartments were permanently occupied, while 18 apartments were seasonally occupied and 5 apartments were empty; the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2012, was 2.35%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The entire village of Champoz is designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the Swiss People's Party which received 60.8% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the Conservative Democratic Party, the Evangelical People's Party and the Christian Social Party. In the federal election, a total of 80 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 64.0%. As of 2011, Champoz had an unemployment rate of 1.79%. As of 2008, there were a total of 41 people employed in the municipality.

Of these, there were 32 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 12 businesses involved in this sector. 3 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 2 businesses in this sector. 6 people were employed with 3 businesses in this sector. There were 65 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 35.4% of the workforce. In 2008 there were a total of 30 full-time equivalent jobs; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 21. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 3 of which 1 was in manufacturing and 2 were in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 6. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 11 workers who commuted into 34 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about

City of Boerne v. Flores

City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U. S. 507, was a United States Supreme Court case concerning the scope of Congress's power of enforcement under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment. The case had a significant impact on historic preservation; the basis for dispute arose when the Catholic Archbishop of San Antonio, Patrick Flores, applied for a building permit to enlarge his 1923 mission-style St. Peter's Church in Boerne, Texas; the building was considered a contributing property. Local zoning authorities denied the permit, citing an ordinance governing additions and new construction in a historic district; the Archbishop brought suit, challenging the ruling under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993. Flores argued that his congregation had outgrown the existing structure, rendering the ruling a substantial burden on the free exercise of religion without a compelling state interest. RFRA had been crafted as a direct response to the Supreme Court's decision in Employment Division v. Smith, when the Court had upheld, against a First Amendment challenge, an Oregon law criminalizing peyote use, used in Native American religious rituals.

The State of Oregon won on the basis that the drug laws were "non-discriminatory laws of general applicability."Religious groups became concerned that this case would be cited as precedent for further regulation of common religious practices and lobbied Congress for legislative protection. RFRA provided a strict scrutiny standard, requiring narrowly tailored regulation serving a compelling government interest in any case burdening the free exercise of religion, regardless of the intent and general applicability of the law; the RFRA applies to all laws passed by Congress prior to its enactment and to all future laws that are not explicitly exempted. Congress' power to do so was not challenged. Congress applied the law to state and local governments, the City of Boerne in this case, relying on the Fourteenth Amendment Section 5: "The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article." 7The City of Boerne was successful at the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas.

Boerne filed a certiorari petition to the Supreme Court. The National Trust for Historic Preservation, among other preservation organizations, filed briefs in support of Boerne; the Court, in an opinion by Justice Anthony Kennedy, struck down RFRA as it applies to the states as an unconstitutional use of Congress's enforcement powers. The Court held that it holds the sole power to define the substantive rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment—a definition to which Congress may not add and from which it may not subtract. Congress could not constitutionally enact RFRA because the law was not designed to have "congruence and proportionality" with the substantive rights that the Court had defined. Although Congress could enact "remedial" or "preventative" legislation to guarantee rights not congruent with those defined by the Court, it could only do so in order to more prevent, deter, or correct violations of those rights guaranteed by the Court. RFRA was seen disproportionate in its effects compared to its objective.

Justice Kennedy wrote: Congress' power under § 5, extends only to "enforc" the provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court has described the power as "remedial." The design of the Amendment and the text of § 5 are inconsistent with the suggestion that Congress has the power to decree the substance of the Fourteenth Amendment's restrictions on the States. Legislation which alters the meaning of the Free Exercise Clause cannot be said to be enforcing the Clause. Congress does not enforce a constitutional right by changing, it has been given the power "to enforce," not the power to determine what constitutes a constitutional violation. Were it not so, what Congress would be enforcing would no longer be, in any meaningful sense, the "provisions of." Moreover, remedial or prophylactic legislation still had to show "congruence and proportionality" between the end it aimed to reach, the means it chose to reach those ends—that is, the penalties or prohibitions it enacted to prevent or correct those violations.

Because RFRA was not reasonably remedial or preventative, it was unconstitutional. Boerne is important for several reasons. One is that it introduced a new test for deciding whether Congress had exceeded its Section 5 powers: the "congruence and proportionality" test, a test that has proven to have great importance in the context of the Eleventh Amendment. Another reason was that it explicitly declared that the Court alone has the ability to state which rights are protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. Still another was that it had First Amendment consequences too in that it spelled the end for any legislative attempts to overturn Employment Division v. Smith; the "congruence and proportionality" requirement replaced the previous theory advanced in Katzenbach v. Morgan that the Equal Protection Clause is "a positive grant of legislative power authorizing Congress to exercise its discretion in determining the need for and nature of legislation to secure Fourteenth Amendment guarantees." Before the 1997 Boerne decision, Katzenbach v. Morgan was interpreted as allowing Congress to go beyond, but not fall short of, the Court's interpretation of the Equal Protection Clause.

But, not how the majority opinion in Boerne interpreted Katzenbach

Niagara Purple Eagles men's soccer

The Niagara Purple Eagles men's soccer team is the men's college soccer team that represent Niagara University and competes in the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference of NCAA Division I. The Purple Eagles play their home games at Niagara Field on the campus of Niagara University; the team colors are purple PMS white. The team played their first season in 1969, joined the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference in 1989. In the 2012 season, the team won its first MAAC tournament title and the program's first NCAA play-in berth, losing against Michigan on the first round. At the end of the 2014 season, the team holds an all time record of 257-390-64 overall and 68-101-21 in MAAC. Most wins were obtained in the 2012 season. Most goals in a season were obtained in the 1970 season. Most goals scored and biggest margin of victory happened 19 September 1970: Niagara 17 - Canisius 0. Most goals in a Single Game by a player Adrian Philip Humphries 19 September 1970 v. Canisius Anthony Di Biase, player of SC Toronto Carl Haworth, player of Ottawa Fury FC Micah Paulino, international player of the Guam national football team Adel Rahman, international player of the Pakistan national football team and Achilles'29 Navid Rahman, international player of the Pakistan national football team and Achilles'29 Official website


Drês is the sixth album released by Brazilian band Nando Reis e os Infernais. The singer Ana Cañas guest appeared on the track "Pra Você Guardei o Amor"; the song "Ainda Não Passou" nominated for the 2009 Latin Grammy Award of Best Brazilian Song. As of August 2010, the album sold around 18,000 copies; the name of the album is a portmanteau of the words "Dri" and "três". "Hi Dri" "Ainda Não Passou" - 3:16 "Drês" - 4:16 "Conta" - 4:42 "Só Pra So" - 3:25 "Mosaico Abstrato" - 4:38 "Pra Você Guardei o Amor" - 5:43 "Livre Como um Deus" - 5:11 "Driamante" - 2:39 "Hoje Eu te Pedi em Casamento" - 3:19 "Mil Galáxias" - 3:33 "Baby, Eu Queria" - 3:00 Nando Reis – Lead vocals, acoustic guitar Carlos Pontual – Electric guitar Alex VeleyKeyboards Felipe CambraiaBass guitar Diogo Gameirodrums Nando Reis official website