Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is faster and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock, its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger and subversive humor. Hardcore punk disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s in Washington, D. C. New York, New Jersey, Boston—as well as in Australia and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements and youth crew.
Hardcore was involved in the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. It has influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock and thrash metal. While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's Damaged, Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years. In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Japan and the Middle East. Steven Blush states that the Vancouver-based band D. O.
A.'s 1981 album, Hardcore'81 "...was where the genre got its name." This album helped to make people aware of the term "hardcore". Konstantin Butz states that while the origin of the expression "hardcore" "...cannot be ascribed to a specific place or time", the term is "...usually associated with the further evolution of California's L. A. Punk Rock scene". A September 1981 article by Tim Sommer shows the author applying the term to the "15 or so" punk bands gigging around the city at that time, which he considered a belated development relative to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington D. C. Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term "hardcore" is a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music. Blush states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk."Kelefa Sanneh states that the term "hardcore" referred to an attitude of "turning inwards" towards the scene and "ignoring broader society", all with the goal of achieving a sense of "shared purpose" and being part of a community.
Sanneh cites Agnostic Front's band member selection approach as an example of hardcore's emphasis on "scene citizenship". An article in Drowned in Sound argues that 1980s-era "hardcore is the true spirit of punk", because "after all the poseurs and fashionistas fucked off to the next trend of skinny pink ties with New Romantic haircuts, singing wimpy lyrics", the punk scene consisted only of people "completely dedicated to the DIY ethics". One definition of the genre is "a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock." Like the Oi! subgenre of the UK, hardcore punk can be considered an internal music reaction. Hardcore has been called a "...faster, meaner genre" of punk, a "stern refutation" of punk rock. Steven Blush states that though punk rock had an "unruly edge", "Reagan-era kids demanded something more primal and immediate, with speed and aggression as the starting point."According to one writer, "distressed by the'art'ificiality of much post-punk and the emasculated sellouts of new wave, hardcore sought to strengthen its core punk principles."
Lacking the art-school grace of post-punk, hardcore punk "favor low key visual aesthetic over extravagance and breaking with original punk rock song patterns." Hardcore "...disavows...synthetic technological effects... the recording industry." Around 1980, as punk became "moribund" and radio-friendly, angry "shorn-headed suburban teenagers" discarded new wave's artistic statements and pop music influences and created a new genre, for which there were no places to play, which forced the performers to create independent and DIY venues. Music writer Barney Hoskyns compared punk rock with hardcore and stated that hardcore was "younger and angrier, full of the pent up rage of dysfunctional Orange County adolescents" who were sick of their life in a "bland Republican" area. While the hardcore scene was young white males, both onstage and in the audience, there are notable exceptions, such as the all-African-American band Bad Brains and notable women such as Crass singer Joy de Vivre and Black Flag's second bassist, Kira Roessler.
Steven Blush states that Minor Threat's Ian MacKaye "set in motion a die-hard mindset that begat everything we now call Hardcore" with his "virulent anti- industry, anti-star, pro-scene exhortations." One of the important philosophies in the hardcore scene is authenticity. The
Cockney Rejects are an English punk rock band that formed in the East End of London in 1978. Their 1980 song "Oi, Oi, Oi" was the inspiration for the name of the Oi! Music genre; the band members are loyal supporters of West Ham United, pay tribute to the club with their hit cover version of "I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles", a song traditionally sung by West Ham supporters. Cockney Rejects were formed in 1978 by brothers Jeff and Micky Geggus, with their brother-in-law Chris Murrell on bass and Paul Harvey on drums, their first demo, "Flares n' Slippers", caught the attention of Small Wonder Records owner Pete Stennett, who introduced the band to Bob Sergeant. With Sergeant, they recorded their single "Flares n' Slippers". Murrell and Harvey were replaced by Vince Riordan on bass and Andy Scott on drums, from fellow East End London band, The Tickets; this became known as Cockney Rejects' classic lineup, its debut at the Bridge House in Canning Town in June 1979 is considered a turning point for the band.
In September of that same year, the band signed with EMI and released their album Greatest Hits, Vol. 1 in February 1980. Their biggest hit single in the United Kingdom, 1980's "The Greatest Cockney Rip-Off", was a parody of Sham 69's song "Hersham Boys". Other Cockney Rejects songs were less commercial because they tended to be about hard-edged topics such as street fighting or football hooliganism. Other singles to appear in the UK were "Bad Man," "We Can Do Anything," "I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles " and "We Are the Firm" — all from 1980; the violence depicted in their lyrics was mirrored at their concerts, the band members fought to defend themselves or to split up conflicts between audience members. Jeff and Mick Geggus had both been amateur youth boxers, had fought at the national level. Bass player Vince Riordan's uncle was Jack "The Hat" McVitie, a Cockney gangster, murdered by Reggie Kray. Cockney Rejects expressed contempt for all politicians in their lyrics, they rejected media claims that they had a British Movement following, or that the band members supported the views of that far right group.
In their first Sounds interview, they mockingly referred to the British Movement as the "German Movement" and stated that many of their heroes were black boxers. Jeff Turner's autobiography Cockney Reject describes an incident in which the band members and their supporters had a massive fight against British Movement members at one of Cockney Rejects' early concerts. EMI records released a definitive Rejects retrospective on 29 August 2011. Called Join the Rejects, the Zonophone years'79-'81, it's a 3-disc collection of all their EMI recordings including all the Peel sessions and rare demos from the day. Included is a colour booklet with a blow-by-blow account of the stories behind the music by Micky Geggus; the Rejects movie East End Babylon and an album of the same name were released in 2013. Tony Van Frater died in October 2015, aged 51. In February 2016, it was announced that former Cockney Reject bass player Vince Riordan had re-joined the band again; the group were slated to perform their first Australian shows in February 2019, however a family emergency necessitated the postponement of the concerts to July.
Jeff Geggus, AKA Jeff Turner, AKA "Stinky" Turner Mick Geggus Chris Murrell Paul Harvey Jeff Geggus Mick Geggus Vince Riordan Andy "Atlas" Scott Jeff Geggus Mick Geggus Vince Riordan Nigel Woolf Jeff Geggus Mick Geggus Vince/Vinnie Riordan Keith "Stix" Warrington Jeff Geggus Mick Geggus Ian Campbell Keith Warrington Jeff Geggus Mick Geggus Tony Van Frater Andrew Laing Jeff Geggus Mick Geggus Tony Van Frater Les "Nobby" Cobb Jeff Geggus Mick Geggus Vince Riordan Andrew Laing Joe Perry Sansome 2017 Micky Burt Record Producer Peter Wilson played drums on the "Flares & Slippers" Demo Tape. Greatest Hits Vol. 1 Greatest Hits Vol. II The Power and the Glory The Wild Ones Quiet Storm Lethal Out of the Gutter Unforgiven East End Babylon "Flares & Slippers" "I'm Not a Fool" UK No. 65 "Bad Man" UK No. 65 "The Greatest Cockney Rip Off" UK No. 21 "I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles" UK No. 35 "We Can Do Anything" UK No. 65 "We Are the Firm" UK No. 54 "Easy Life" "On the Streets Again" "Till the End of the Day" "Back to the Start" "It's Gonna Kick Off!"
"Goodbye Upton Park" Greatest Hits Vol. 3 Unheard Rejects We Are The Firm The Best Of The Cockney Rejects The Punk Singles Collection Oi! Oi! Oi! Greatest Hits Volume 4: Here They Come Again Join the Rejects, the Zonophone years'79
Pub rock (United Kingdom)
Pub rock is a rock music genre, developed in the early to mid-1970s in the United Kingdom. A back-to-basics movement which incorporated roots rock, pub rock was a reaction against expensively-recorded and produced progressive rock and flashy glam rock. Although short-lived, pub rock was notable for rejecting huge stadium venues and for returning live rock to the small intimate venues of its early years. Since major labels showed no interest in pub rock groups, pub rockers sought out independent record labels such as Stiff Records. Indie labels used inexpensive recording processes, so they had a much lower break-even point for a record than a major label. With pub rock's emphasis on small venues, simple inexpensive recordings and indie record labels, it was the catalyst for the development of the British punk rock scene. Despite these shared elements, there was a difference between the genres: while pub rock harked back to early rock and roll and R&B, punk was iconoclastic, sought to break with the past musical traditions.
Pub rock was deliberately nasty and post-glam. Dress style was based around tatty jeans and droopy hair; the figureheads of the movement, Dr. Feelgood, were noted for their frontman’s filthy white suit. Bands looked menacing and threatening, "like villains on The Sweeney". According to David Hepworth, Dr Feelgood looked as if they had "come together in some unsavoury section of the army". Pub rock groups disdained any form of flashy presentation. Scene leaders like Dr. Feelgood and the High Roads and Ducks Deluxe played simple, "back to mono" rhythm and blues in the tradition of white British groups like The Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds, with fuzzy overdriven guitars and whiny vocals. Lesser acts played country rock. While pub rockers did not have expensive stage shows, they took inspiration from early R&B and increased the dynamism and intensity of their live shows. Pub rock allowed a variety of singers and musicians to perform if they did not adhere to a defined musical genre. Major labels scouted pub rock acts.
With no interest from major labels, pub rockers put out their records through small independent record labels such as Stiff Records and Chiswick Records. By 1975, the standard for mainstream rock album recordings was expensive, lengthy studio recording processes overseen by highly-paid record producers, with the goal of creating polished end products, with overdubs, double-tracking and studio effects; some mainstream bands spent months in the studio perfecting their recording, to achieve a meticulously crafted and perfect product. Pub rockers rejected this type of complex recording process; the difference between mainstream rock and pub rock recording approaches not only produced different sounds, it had a significant impact on the economics of each rock genre. With mainstream rock, the costly sound recording process meant that the break-even point for the record label was around 20,000 records; this means that pub rock labels could afford to put out records with a tenth of the sales of mainstream bands.
The pub rock scene was a live phenomenon. During the peak years of 1972 to 1975, there was just one solitary Top 20 single, all the bands combined sold less than an estimated 150,000 albums. Many acts suffered in the transition from pub to studio recording and were unable to recapture their live sound; the genre's primary characteristic is, the pub. By championing smaller venues, the bands reinvigorated a local club scene that had dwindled since the 1960s as bands priced themselves into big theatres and stadia. New aspiring bands could now find venues to play without needing to have a record company behind them. Pub rock was restricted to Greater London with some overspill into Essex, although the central belt in Scotland produced local bands such as The Cheetahs and The Plastic Flies. Pub rockers believed. Instead, pub rock groups preferred intimate venues, which were essential to creating meaningful music and connecting with the audience. Pub rock's small venue approach increased the importance of good songwriting and well-written lyrics, in contrast to mainstream pop which had marginalized both elements.
The UK pub rock scene wound down by 1976. The record industry was looking into early punk, thinking it might be the next "big thing". In 1976, some pub rock labels were putting out both the harder-edged pub rock acts and early punk bands such as The Damned. American country-rock band Eggs over Easy were the precursors of the movement when they broke the jazz-only policy of the "Tally Ho" pub in Kentish Town, in May 1971, they were impressive enough to inspire local musicians such as Nick Lowe. They were soon joined by a handful of London acts such as Bees Make Honey, Max Merritt and the Meteors, who were from Australia and had moved to London, Ducks Deluxe, The Amber Squad and Brinsley Schwarz, victims of the prevailing big-venue system. Most of the venues were in large Victorian pubs "north of Regents Park" where there were plenty of suitable pubs. One of the most notable venues was the Hope and Anchor pub on Islington's Upper Street, still a venue. Fo
Street Punk (album)
Street Punk is the second studio album from American punk rock band Hunx and His Punx. It was released in July 2013 under Hardly Art Records. All tracks written by Shannon Shaw, except where noted
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Hair coloring, or hair dyeing, is the practice of changing the hair color. The main reasons for this are cosmetic: to cover gray or white hair, to change to a color regarded as more fashionable or desirable, or to restore the original hair color after it has been discolored by hairdressing processes or sun bleaching. Hair coloring can be done independently at home. Today, hair coloring is popular, with 75% of women and 18% of men living in Copenhagen having reported using hair dye according to a study by the University of Copenhagen. At-home coloring in the United States reached $1.9 billion in 2011 and is expected to rise to $2.2 billion by 2016. Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian, described in detail how Celtic people dyed their hair blonde: "Their aspect is terrifying... They are tall in stature, with rippling muscles under clear white skin, their hair is blond, but not so: they bleach it, to this day, washing it in lime and combing it back from their foreheads. They look like their hair thick and shaggy like a horse's mane.
Some of them are clean-shaven, but others—especially those of high rank—shave their cheeks but leave a moustache that covers the whole mouth...". This practice continued in some parts of Britain long after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in Wales, where Llywelyn Ap Gruffudd was described in an elegy by Gruffudd ab yr Ynad Coch to have blonde hair: "... Not since Camlann has there been such weeping, Gone is our mainstay, his golden hair, stained with a death blow...". The dyeing of hair is an ancient art that involves treatment of the hair with various chemical compounds. In ancient times, the dyes were obtained from plants; some of the most well known are henna, Cassia obovata, senna and amla. Others include black walnut hulls, red ochre and leeks. In the 1661 book Eighteen Books of the Secrets of Art & Nature, various methods of coloring hair black, green, red and white are explained; the development of synthetic dyes for hair is traced to the 1860s discovery of the reactivity of para-phenylenediamine with air.
Eugène Schueller, the founder of L'Oréal, is recognized for creating the first synthetic hair dye in 1907. In 1947 the German cosmetics firm Schwarzkopf launched the first home color product, "Poly Color". Hair dyeing is now a multibillion-dollar industry that involves the use of both plant-derived and synthetic dyes. Hair color was traditionally applied to the hair as one overall color; the modern trend is to use several colors to produce streaks or gradations, but not all work on top of a single base color. These are referred to as: Highlighting, where sections of hair are treated with lighteners Lowlighting, where sections of hair are treated with darker hair colors Splashlighting a horizontal band of bleached hair from ear to earThere are newer coloring techniques such as ombré, in which hair is dark on the crown and bit by bit becomes lighter toward the ends; these are off-the-scalp techniques, can be applied by the following methods: Foiling, where pieces of foil or plastic film are used to separate the hair to be colored when applying more than one color Cap, when a plastic cap is placed on the head and strands are pulled through with a hook Balayage, where hair color is painted directly onto sections of the hair with no foils used to keep the color contained Dipping or tip dyeing, similar to balayage in that the color is painted directly on the hair All coloring techniques can be used with any type of color.
For lightening, the hair sometimes has to be bleached before coloring. Hair coloring can be applied on the scalp for a more solid level of coverage Root touch-up, where color is applied only to the most recent section of re-growth Root touch-ups are repeated every 4–6 weeks as the natural color grows in and becomes apparent. People who color their hair to disguise gray have these root touch-ups. All-over color, where the person wants all of their hair to be a different solid color Block coloring, where the person wants two or more colors applied to their hair, resulting in dimension and contrastAll coloring techniques can be used with any type of color. For lightening, the hair sometimes has to be bleached before coloring; the four most common classifications are permanent, demi-permanent, semi-permanent, temporary. Permanent hair color contains ammonia and must be mixed with a developer or oxidizing agent in order to permanently change hair color. Ammonia is used in permanent hair color to open the cuticle layer so that the developer and colorants together can penetrate into the cortex.
The developer, or oxidizing agent, comes in various volumes. The higher the developer volume, the higher the "lift" will be of a person's natural hair pigment. Someone with dark hair wishing to achieve two or three shades lighter may need a higher developer whereas someone with lighter hair wishing to achieve darker hair will not one as high. Timing may vary with permanent hair coloring but is 30 minutes or 45 minutes for those wishing to achieve maximum color change. Demi-permanent hair color is hair color that contains an alkaline agent other than ammonia and, while always employed with a developer, the concentration of hydr