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Streetcar suburb

A streetcar suburb is a residential community whose growth and development was shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. Such suburbs developed in the United States in the years before the automobile, when the introduction of the electric trolley or streetcar allowed the nation’s burgeoning middle class to move beyond the central city’s borders. Early suburbs were served by horsecars, but by the late 19th century cable cars and electric streetcars, or trams, were used, allowing residences to be built further away from the urban core of a city. Streetcar suburbs called additions or extensions at the time, were the forerunner of today's suburbs in the United States and Canada. Western Addition in San Francisco is one of the best examples of streetcar suburbs before westward and southward expansion occurred. Although most associated with the electric streetcar, the term can be used for any suburb built with streetcar-based transit in mind, thus some streetcar suburbs date from the early 19th century.

As such, the term is general and one development called a streetcar suburb may vary from others. However, some concepts are present in streetcar suburbs, such as straight street plans and narrow lots. By 1830, many New York City area commuters were going to work in Manhattan from what are now the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, which were not part of New York City at that time, they commuted by ferries. In 1852, architect Alexander Jackson Davis designed Llewellyn Park in New Jersey, a planned suburb served by both ferry and steam railroad. In the 1840s and 1850s, new railroad lines fostered the development of such New York City suburbs as Yonkers, White Plains, New Rochelle; the steam locomotive in the mid 19th century provided the wealthy with the means to live in bucolic surroundings, to socialize in country clubs and still commute to work downtown. These suburbs were what historian Kenneth T. Jackson called the "railroad suburbs" and historian Robert Fishman called a "bourgeois utopia". Outside of Philadelphia, suburbs like Radnor, Bryn Mawr, Villanova developed along the Pennsylvania Main Line.

As early as 1850, 83 commuter stations had been built within a 15-mile radius of Boston. Chicago saw huge developments, with 11 separate lines serving over 100 communities by 1873. A famous community served was Riverside, arguably one of the first planned communities in the United States, designed in 1869 by Frederick Law Olmsted. However, the suburbs closest to the city were based on horsecars and cable cars. First introduced to America around 1830, the horse-drawn omnibus was revolutionary because it was the first mass transit system, offering scheduled stops along a fixed route, allowing passengers to travel three miles sitting down in the time it would take them to walk two miles. More efficient horse-drawn streetcars allowed cities to expand to areas more distant. By 1860, they operated in most major American and Canadian cities, including New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Saint Louis and Boston. Horsecar suburbs emanated from the city center towards the more distant railroad suburbs. For the first time, transportation began to separate social and economic classes in cities, as the working and middle class continued to live in areas closer to the city center, while the rich could afford to live further out.

The introduction of the electrical streetcar in Richmond, Virginia in 1887 by Frank J. Sprague marked the start of a new era of transportation-influenced suburbanization through the birth of the "streetcar suburb"; the early trolley allowed people to effortlessly travel in 10 minutes what they could walk in 30, was introduced in cities like Boston and Los Angeles, to all larger American and Canadian cities. There were 5,783 miles of streetcar track serving American cities in 1890. By 1890, electric streetcar lines were replacing horse-drawn ones in cities of all sizes, allowing the lines to be extended and fostering a tremendous amount of suburban development, they were extended out to rural communities, which experienced an initial surge of development, new residential corridors were created along the newly built lines leading to what had sometimes been separate communities. On side streets, the houses closest to the original streetcar line are as much as ten to twenty years older than houses built further down the street, reflecting the initial surge and slow completion of a development.

Because streetcar operators offered low fares and free transfers, commuting was affordable to nearly everyone. Combined with the cheap cost of land further from the city, streetcar suburbs were able to attract a broad mix of people from all socioeconomic classes, although they were most popular by far with the middle class; the houses in a streetcar suburb were narrow in width compared to homes, Arts and Crafts movement styles like the California Bungalow and American Foursquare were most popular. These houses were purchased by catalog and many of the materials arrived by railcar, with some local touches added as the house was assembled; the earliest streetcar suburbs sometimes had more ornate styles, including Stick. The houses of streetcar suburbs, whatever the style, tended to have prominent front porches, while driveways and built-in garages were rare, reflecting the pedestrian-focused nature of the streets when the houses were built. Setbacks between houses were not nearly as small as in older neighborhoods, but houses were still built on lots no wider than 30 to 40 feet.

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Gjakova Airport

Gjakova Airport AMIKO is an airport in village Lugbunar, near Gjakova in western Kosovo. The airport is expected to become public in the following years, to be used by low-cost commercial airlines and cargo flights; the airport was built by the Kosovo Force following the 1999 Kosovo War, next to an existing airfield used for agricultural purposes, was used for military and humanitarian flights. On 18 December 2013, the airport was handed over to the Government of Kosovo from the Italian Air Force. Under Italian Air Force operations, Gjakova Airfield handled more than 27,000 aircraft, 220,000 passengers and the carriage of more than 40,000 tons of cargo; the local and national government plans to offer Gjakova Airport for operation under a public-private partnership with the aim of turning it into a civilian and commercial airport. As of December 2015, the airport is reported as closed by the Kosovo authorities. Alenia C-27J Spartan Radoniq lake Batlava-Donja Penduha Airfield in Dumosh Gjakova Airport aerial photo

Parity of a permutation

In mathematics, when X is a finite set with at least two elements, the permutations of X fall into two classes of equal size: the permutations and the odd permutations. If any total ordering of X is fixed, the parity of a permutation σ of X can be defined as the parity of the number of inversions for σ, i.e. of pairs of elements x, y of X such that x < y and σ > σ. The sign, signature, or signum of a permutation σ is denoted sgn and defined as +1 if σ is and −1 if σ is odd; the signature defines the alternating character of the symmetric group Sn. Another notation for the sign of a permutation is given by the more general Levi-Civita symbol, defined for all maps from X to X, has value zero for non-bijective maps; the sign of a permutation can be explicitly expressed as sgn = Nwhere N is the number of inversions in σ. Alternatively, the sign of a permutation σ can be defined from its decomposition into the product of transpositions as sgn = mwhere m is the number of transpositions in the decomposition.

Although such a decomposition is not unique, the parity of the number of transpositions in all decompositions is the same, implying that the sign of a permutation is well-defined. Consider the permutation σ of the set which turns the initial arrangement 12345 into 34521, it can be obtained by three transpositions: first exchange the numbers 2 and 4 exchange 1 and 3, exchange 1 and 5. This shows. Following the method of the cycle notation article, this could be written as σ = = =. There are many other ways of writing σ as a composition of transpositions, for instance σ =,but it is impossible to write it as a product of an number of transpositions; the identity permutation is an permutation. An permutation can be obtained as the composition of an number and only an number of exchanges of two elements, while an odd permutation can be obtained by an odd number of transpositions; the following rules follow directly from the corresponding rules about addition of integers: the composition of two permutations is the composition of two odd permutations is the composition of an odd and an permutation is oddFrom these it follows that the inverse of every permutation is the inverse of every odd permutation is oddConsidering the symmetric group Sn of all permutations of the set, we can conclude that the map sgn: Sn → that assigns to every permutation its signature is a group homomorphism.

Furthermore, we see that the permutations form a subgroup of Sn. This is the alternating group on n letters, denoted by An, it is the kernel of the homomorphism sgn. The odd permutations cannot form a subgroup, since the composite of two odd permutations is but they form a coset of An. If n > 1 there are just as many permutations in Sn as there are odd ones. A cycle is if and only if its length is odd; this follows from formulas like = or. In practice, in order to determine whether a given permutation is or odd, one writes the permutation as a product of disjoint cycles; the permutation is odd if and only if this factorization contains an odd number of even-length cycles. Another method for determining whether a given permutation is or odd is to construct the corresponding permutation matrix and compute its determinant; the value of the determinant is the same as the parity of the permutation. Every permutation of odd order must be even; the permutation in A4 shows. Every permutation can be produced by a sequence of transpositions: with the first transposition we put the first element of the permutation in its proper place, the second transposition puts the second element right etc.

Since we cannot be left with just a single element in an incorrect position, we must achieve the permutation with our last transposition. Given a permutation σ, we can write it as a product of transpositions in many different ways. We want to show that either all of those decompositions have an number of tran

Falling Awake (album)

Falling Awake is the second studio album by Canadian indie-rock band Goodnight, released worldwide on September 30, 2016. Like the band's debut album Create/Destroy/Create, Falling Awake is a concept album, it describes a journey of self-exploration that moves through songs of uncertainty and chaos, towards self-knowledge. The album release was preceded by the first single "Familiar Faces" on July 6, 2016. All tracks are written by Sunrise. David Kochberg - lead vocals, engineering, production Vanessa Vakharia - lead vocals, keyboards Paul Weaver - drums Pedro Salles - bass, backing vocals Matt Weston - mixing, alto sax on track 7 Dean Marino - guitar engineering Isaac Moore - trumpet on track 7 João Carvalho - mastering Genevieve Blais - album art photography

Humber River (Newfoundland and Labrador)

The Humber River is a river on Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is 120 kilometres long, flowing through the Long Range Mountains, southeast southwest, through Deer Lake, to the Bay of Islands at Corner Brook, it begins near the town of Hampden. Taylor's Brook, Aidies Stream and Dead Water Brook run into the upper Humber; the Humber is one of Newfoundland's longest rivers. James Cook first charted the Humber in the summer of 1767, it was named for its English counterpart the Humber. The Humber is rich in Atlantic Salmon, was from the 1800s used as a waterway for European trappers and loggers, it is one of the world's best recreational salmon fishing rivers. Humber Arm List of rivers of Newfoundland and Labrador


Dermaphoria is a novel written by American author Craig Clevenger. Eric Ashworth awakens in jail, unable to remember why. All he does remember is a woman's name: Desiree. Bailed out and holed up in a low rent motel, Eric finds the solution to his amnesia in a strange new hallucinogen. By synthesizing the sense of touch, the drug produces a disjointed series of sensations that allow Eric to remember his former life as a clandestine chemist. With increasing doses, Eric reassembles his past at the expense of his grip on the present, his distinction between truth and fantasy crumbles as his paranoia grows in tandem with his tolerance. Eric Ashworth Desiree Manhattan White Toe Tag Hoyle Otto Detective Anslinger Jack and the Beanstalk Woozy memories of a drugmaker - June Sawyers - San Francisco Chronicle You are what you read - Ben Popper - Memphis Flyer Online Dermaphoria - Luan Gaines - Curled Up Dermaphoria - Thomas Scott McKenzie - PopMatters Room 621, the room Eric Ashworth rents is the room number belonging to Barton Fink in the Coen Brothers' movie of the same name.

The book was adapted into a film, which premiered on June 2014 at the East End Film Festival. It was directed by Ross Clarke and starred Joseph Morgan, Ron Perlman, Kate Walsh, Walton Goggins. MacAdam/Cage Publishing, October 2005. Paperback Edition. ISBN 1-931561-75-3 MacAdam/Cage Publishing, September 2006. Paperback Edition. ISBN 1-59692-102-1 Neo-noir Official site of movie based on Dermaphoria novel Official site of Craig Clevenger Official online community of Craig Clevenger, Will Christopher Baer, Stephen Graham Jones Pete's Candy Store Reading