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Streltsy

Streltsy were the units of Russian firearm infantry from the 16th to the early 18th centuries and a social stratum, from which personnel for Streltsy troops were traditionally recruited. They are collectively known as streletskoye voysko; these infantry troops reinforced feudal levy pomestnoye voysko. The first streltsy units were created by Ivan the Terrible sometime between 1545 and 1550 and armed with arquebuses. During his reign, Russia was fighting wars continuously, including the Livonian War in the North and wars against the Khanates in the South, they first saw combat at the Siege of Kazan in 1552. The streltsy were recruited from among the free tradespeople and from the rural population. Subsequently, military service in this unit hereditary. Thus, while earlier in the 16th century they had been an elite force, their effectiveness was reduced by poor training and lack of choice in recruiting. Streltsy were subdivided into vyborniye, or gorodskiye, or municipal; the streltsy of Moscow guarded the Kremlin, performed general guard duty, participated in military operations.

They carried out general police and fire-brigade functions in Moscow. Grigory Kotoshikhin, a Russian diplomat who had spied for and defected to Sweden in the 1660s, reported that they used axes and buckets and copper pumps as well as hooks to pull down adjacent buildings so that fires would not spread, but Adam Olearius, a Westerner who travelled to Russia in the 17th century, noted that they never used water; the municipal streltsy performed garrison and border duty and carried out orders of the local administration. Streltsy came under the control of the Streltsy Department; the municipal streltsy were under the jurisdiction of the local voevodes. The largest military administrative unit of the streltsy forces was pribor, that would be renamed into prikaz and in 1681 – into regiment. Commanders of the Streltsy unit and colonels in charge of regiments were chiefs of prikazi, they had to be appointed by the government. The regiments were subdivided into desyatki, they could be unmounted. Streltsy had identical uniforms and weapons.

Uniforms consisted of blue or green coats with orange boots. Their primary weapon was an arquebus or musket, they carried pollaxes or bardiches, sabres for defense; the longer weapons were used to support the arquebus or musket while firing. The Russian government was chronically short of cash and so did not pay the streltsy well. While "entitled" to an estimated four rubles a year in the 1550s, they were allowed to farm or trade in order to supplement their incomes; this reduced their combat effectiveness and their desire to go on campaigns. Streltsy and their families lived in their own neighborhoods or districts settlements and received money and bread from the State Treasury. In certain locations, Streltsy were granted strips of land instead of money; the Streltsy settlement in Moscow was located near where the main campus of Moscow State University now stands. Military commanders deployed the streltsy in static formations against set formations or fortifications, they fired from a platform and employed a mobile wooden "fortification" known in Russian as a "Gulyay-gorod".

They fired in volley or caracole fashion. At the end of the 16th century, there were 20,000-25,000 streltsy. Streltsy’s engagement in handicrafts and trade led to a significant proprietary inequality among them and their blending with tradepeople. Though Streltsy demonstrated their fighting efficiency on several occasions, such as the siege of Kazan in 1552, the war with Livonia, the Polish-Swedish invasion in the early 17th century and military operations in Poland and Crimea, in the second half of the 17th century Streltsy started to display their backwardness compared to the regular soldier or reiter regiments. Military service hardships, frequent salary delays, abuse on the part of local administration and commanders led to regular Streltsy's participation in anti-serfdom uprisings in the 17th and early 18th centuries, such as the peasant wars in the beginning of the 17th century and in 1670–1671, urban uprisings. At the same time, those streltsy, on top of the hierarchy enjoyed their social status and, tried to hold back the regular streltsy forces and keep them on the government’s side.

In the late 17th century, the streltsy of Moscow began to participate in a struggle for power between different government groups, supporting the Old Believers and showing hostility towards any foreign innovations. The streltsy became something of a "praetorian element" in Muscovite politics in the late 17th century. In 1682 they attempted to prevent Peter the Great from coming to the throne i

Josh Hodgson

Joshua Hodgson is an English rugby league footballer who plays as a hooker for the Canberra Raiders in the NRL. He has played for the England Knights and Great Britain at international level. Hodgson began his senior club career with Hull F. C. after progressing through their Academy system, making his first team début in 2009. Due to limited first team opportunities, he joined Hull Kingston Rovers at the end of the 2009 season, where he established himself in the first team and went on to make over 100 appearances. At the end of the 2014 season, he moved to Canberra Raiders. An England international, Hodgson made his senior international début in October 2014, represented England at the Four Nations and 2017 World Cup. Hodgson was born on 31 October 1989 in Kingston upon Hull, England, where he grew up on a housing estate with his parents, one brother, four older half-brothers, his father, Dave played rugby league for both Hull FC and Hull Kingston Rovers before turning to coaching at amateur level.

Hodgson played junior rugby league with East Hull, where he was coached by former Hull player Lee Radford. Hodgson joined Hull as a scholarship player at the age of 13. Hodgson represented England at under-17's and 18's level, progressed through the club's academy ranks before being promoted to the first team for the start of the 2009 season, he made his Super League début in May 2009 against Warrington Wolves. He played two games during the season as a back row forward, which coach Richard Agar believed to be his best position. Seeking more regular first team opportunities, Hodgson left Hull at the end of the season to join Hull Kingston Rovers. Hodgson joined Hull KR on a two-year contract, was signed as the club's second-choice hooker behind Ben Fisher following the departure of Daniel Fitzhenry, he had an impressive 2012 season, scoring 14 tries and winning the club's player of the year and players' player of the year awards, was rewarded with a new four-year contract. Hodgson made his 100th appearance for the club during the 2013 season, won the players' player of the year award for the second successive year.

The departure of Michael Dobson at the end of the 2013 season meant that Hodgson, along with scrum-half Travis Burns, were named co-captains for the 2014 season. On 4 August 2014, it was announced that Hodgson had agreed to sign for National Rugby League side Canberra Raiders for the 2015 season on a two-year deal, with Canberra paying a "substantial transfer fee" to Hull KR for Hodgson's services. Hodgson made his début against Cronulla Sharks in March 2015, went on to make 24 appearances during the 2015 season, scoring two tries, including a game winning golden point try against Parramatta Eels. Hodgson enjoyed a breakthrough season in 2016 as he led the Raiders to a top-two finish, the first for the club since the 1995 ARL season. Hodgson made 26 appearances during the season, was considered a front-runner to win the Dally M Medal for the most of the season, but was ruled out after a suspension for a grapple tackle on Melbourne Storm prop Jesse Bromwich cost him three points and a missed game.

In his first NRL finals appearance, he would inspire the Raiders to a twelve-point lead over the Cronulla Sharks, however, he would miss out on most of the second half due to an ankle injury. This was the turning point in the match. In the lead up to the semi-final against the Penrith Panthers much speculation rested on whether Hodgson would play, he was a standout in the 22-12 triumph. The season would end in Melbourne the following week in a close 14-12 loss. Hodgson was selected by Wayne Bennett for the England Four Nations team. Hodgson missed the first 14 games of the 2018 NRL season with a knee injury and made his first appearance of the year in Canberra's 48-12 victory over the Wests Tigers in round 15, he joined the leadership team by being appointed as the co-captain for the Canberra. Hodgson made a total of 24 appearances for Canberra in the 2019 NRL season as the club reached their first grand final in 25 years. Hodgson played in the club's 2019 NRL Grand Final defeat against the Sydney Roosters at ANZ Stadium.

In 2012, Hodgson was called up to the England Knights squad to play Ireland, scoring a try in a 62–4 win. In October 2013, he was named captain of England Knights while being first standby for the senior squad. In 2014, Hodgson was selected for the England squad for the 2014 Four Nations in Australia, he made his début in the opening game against Samoa, played in the second match against Australia, but was dropped for the final game against New Zealand. Hodgson was disciplined by England after he was filmed smashing through a door at a student flat in Dunedin following the New Zealand game, an incident which he admitted he was embarrassed about and was out-of-character. In 2015, Hodgson was named in the 24-man England team that played New Zealand in a three match test-series held in England. Beforehand England took on France in a test match held in Leigh. Josh scored a try in England's try scoring rout over their opponents, he scored his second test try a week in England's 26-12 win over New Zealand in the first Baskerville Shield test.

In 2016, Hodgson was named in the 24-man England team. Before the tournament began, he featured in a test match against France. In 2017, Hodgson was included in England's World Cup squad, helping his team reach the final against Australia, but did not play in the final itself after suffering a serious knee injury in the semi-final victory over Tonga. In 2018 he was selected for England against France at the Leigh Sports Village, he was selected in squad for the 2019 Great Britain Lions tour of the Southern Hemisphere

Nepal house martin

The Nepal house martin is a non-migratory passerine of the swallow family Hirundinidae. Its two subspecies breed in the Himalayas from northwestern India through Nepal to Myanmar, northern Vietnam, just into China, it occurs in river valleys and rugged wooded mountain ridges at heights between 1,000–4,000 m altitude, where it nests in colonies beneath overhangs on vertical cliffs, laying three or four white eggs in an enclosed mud nest. This martin has blue-black upperparts with a contrasting white rump, white underparts, it resembles its close relatives, the Asian house martin and common house martin, but unlike those species it has a black throat and black undertail. It feeds in flocks with other swallows, catching other insects in flight, it is subject to predation and parasites. The Nepal house martin was first described by British entomologist Frederic Moore in 1854, placed in a new genus Delichon created by Moore and American naturalist Thomas Horsfield; the specimen or its description was attributed by Moore to Brian Houghton Hodgson and early literature sometimes refers to in as Hodgson's martin.

Some older taxonomic sources such as those by S D Ripley specify the binomial author as "Hodgson = Moore in Horsfield & Moore, 1854". Its closest relatives are the two other members of the genus, the Asian house martin and the common house martin; this martin has a distinctive subspecies, D. n. cuttingi, described by American biologist Ernst W. Mayr in 1941 from a specimen taken near the Burma-Yunnan border. White-throated birds in the southern extension of the range are similar in appearance to the nominate subspecies, but because of their geographical separation are sometimes considered to be a third race, D. n. bartletti. Delichon is an anagram of the Ancient Greek term χελιδών, meaning "swallow", nipalense refers to Nepal, where the type specimen was obtained; the nominate subspecies D. n. nipalense breeds in the Himalayas from Garhwal east through Nepal, north-eastern India and Bangladesh as far as western Myanmar. The race D. n. cuttingi is found in northern Myanmar, along Myanmar's border with Chinese Yunnan and in northern Tonkin, Vietnam.

The Nepal house martin is resident, but may move to lower altitudes when not breeding, has been recorded in northern Thailand in winter. The range in Thailand is poorly known; the habitat is river valleys and wooded ridges at 1,000–4,000 m altitude, although below 3,000 m. When not breeding, birds may descend as low as 350 m; the range of this species overlaps with that of the nominate subspecies of Asian house martin, although they breed at different altitudes. The height separation and the small differences in appearance seem sufficient to prevent interbreeding; the adult Nepal house martin is 13 cm long blue-black above and white below. It has a contrasting pure white rump, the tail and upperwings are brownish-black, the underwings are grey-brown; the legs and feet are brownish-pink and covered with white feathers, the eyes are brown, the bill is black. The chin is black but the extent varies clinally. In the northeast of the range, birds of the race D. n. cuttingi have black on the whole of the throat and the uppermost breast, but further west or south the black becomes restricted to the chin.

There are no differences in appearance between the sexes, but the juvenile bird is less glossy and has a duskier throat and buff-washed underparts. The eastern form D. n. cuttingi has a wing length of 99–106 mm larger than the nominate subspecies at 90–98 mm. Both subspecies can be distinguished from the similar Asian and common house martins by their black chin, black undertail coverts and much squarer tail; this is an exceptionally fast-flying martin. It is otherwise is a rather quiet bird; the Nepal house martin breeds between March and July, with some variation in timing depending on locality, raises two broods. It builds its nest, a deep mud bowl lined with grasses or feathers, under an overhang on a vertical cliff. Buildings may be used as nest sites, in Sikkim this bird is recorded as nesting under school roofs near the Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary; this martin is a colonial breeder, with colonies sometimes containing hundreds of nests. Some birds may remain at the colonies throughout the year.

The normal clutch is three or four plain white eggs averaging 18.6 mm × 12.8 mm and weighing 1.6 g. The incubation and fledging times are unknown, but are similar to those of the common house martin, which has an incubation period of 14–16 days until the eggs hatch, a further 22–32 days to fledging. Both sexes build the nest, incubate the eggs and feed the chicks; the Nepal house martin feeds on insects taken above treetops. The diet includes flies; this bird is gregarious, feeding in flocks with other aerial predators like the Himalayan swiftlet, or other hirundines such as the barn swallow, striated swallow or common house martin. Predators of this martin have been little studied, but it was the only bird recorded in a study of the diet of the insectivorous collared falconet, it is parasitised by a flea of the genus Callopsylla. The Nepal house martin has a large range that does not appear to be contracting, its numbers appear to be stable, although the population is unknown. Since the range is more than 20,000 square kilometres, there are more 10,000 mature individuals, i

Janina Coal Mine

The Janina coal mine is a large mine in the south of Poland in Libiąż, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, 350 km south-west of the capital, Warsaw. The mine has been erected by Compagnie Galicienne de Mines, a French mining company, in 1907. Between 1921 and 1939 the Janina mine was under management of its Polish chief executive, Zygmunt Szczotkowski. During World War II it was repurposed into one of the German Nazi concentration camps. After the war the Janina mine was nationalizated, as all enterprises with over 50 employees had been at that time. Janina represents one of the largest coal reserve in Poland having estimated reserves of 841 million tonnes of coal; the annual coal production is around 2.8 million tonnes. Official website

2011 Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council election

The 2011 Basingstoke and Deane Council election took place on 5 May 2011 to elect members of Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in Hampshire, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Conservative party stayed in overall control of the council. After the election, the composition of the council was Conservative 34 Liberal Democrats 13 Labour 11 Independent 2 The election had 21 seats being contested, with the contest in Popley East being a by-election after Mary Brian resigned from the council; the Conservatives remained in control of the council with 34 seats, while Labour gained 2 seats to have 11 councillors. Meanwhile, the Liberal Democrats remained the second largest group with 13 seats. Independents stayed on 2 seats, while the Basingstoke First Community Party lost its only seat on the council. Overall turnout in the election was 45%. Labour narrowly gained the seat of Brighton Hill North from the Liberal Democrats and took South Ham from the Conservatives; however the Conservatives won Hatch Warren and Beggarwood, where the previous councillor, Phil Heath from the Basingstoke First Community Party, had stood down at the election.

The winner in Hatch Warren and Beggarwood, Conservative Rebecca Bean, became the youngest councillor at the age of 24. There were close results in Baughurst and Tadley North, Winklebury, with the Conservatives holding both seats over the Liberal Democrat and Labour parties respectively. Meanwhile, independent Martin Biermann held his seat in Chineham with 1,335 votes, compared to 1,252 votes for Conservative John Downes

Hubert Constant

Hubert Constant born the 18th of September 18, 1931 in Camp-Perrin, South of Haiti and died on the 23rd of September 2011 was the Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishop of Cap-Haïtien. Ordained priest in the Oblates of Mary Immaculate on September 15, 1958. Msgr Constant was named bishop of Fort-Liberté in 1991 and archbishop of Cap-Haïtien in 2003, he retired in 2008. On November 5, 2003 he was transferred to the metropolitan headquarters of Cap-Haïtien, he remains there until March 1, 2008, when Pope Benedict XVI accepts his renunciation and appoints Louis Kébreau as his successor. Biography He was ordained a priest in the Oblates of Mary Immaculate on September 15, 1958. On January 31, 1991, John Paul II appointed him the first bishop of Fort-Liberté, it is consecrated on April 7 by Archbishop of Cap-Haïtien. On November 5, 2003 he was transferred to the metropolitan headquarters of Cap-Haïtien, he remains there until March 1, 2008, when Pope Benedict XVI accepts his renunciation and appoints Louis Kébreau as his successor.

Career Bishop Constant has contributed to the training of several generations of professionals who are today at different levels in the public and private sectors in Haiti and abroad. Director of studies at the Petit Séminaire of Mazenod - Camp-Perrin, he was the Founder and Director of the Collège Saint-Jean des Cayes, two of the best secondary schools in the country, he had a bachelor's degree from the Sorbonne where he studied theology. Archbishop Emeritus since 2008, after reaching the canonical age of 75, he was advisor to the Episcopal Conference, he was a sensitive man, in love with his country, passionate about his Church and appreciated by Pope John Paul II for his gifts as a communicator. «Notre cœur saigne encore lorsque nous voyons se perpétuer dans notre pays ces situations d’insécurité, d’impunité, de corruption, d’exploitation à outrance pour l’argent et le pouvoir, et la mascarade de la justice.» «Our hearts still bleed when we see these situations of insecurity, corruption, excessive exploitation for money and power, the masquerade of justice perpetuated in our country.»