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Strepsirrhini

Strepsirrhini or Strepsirhini is a suborder of primates that includes the lemuriform primates, which consist of the lemurs of Madagascar and pottos from Africa, the lorises from India and southeast Asia. Collectively they are referred to as strepsirrhines. Belonging to the suborder are the extinct adapiform primates that thrived during the Eocene in Europe, North America, Asia, but disappeared from most of the Northern Hemisphere as the climate cooled. Adapiforms are sometimes referred to as being "lemur-like", although the diversity of both lemurs and adapiforms does not support this comparison. Strepsirrhines are defined by their "wet" rhinarium - hence the colloquial but inaccurate term "wet-nosed" - similar to the rhineria of dogs and cats, they have a smaller brain than comparably sized simians, large olfactory lobes for smell, a vomeronasal organ to detect pheromones, a bicornuate uterus with an epitheliochorial placenta. Their eyes contain a reflective layer to improve their night vision, their eye sockets include a ring of bone around the eye, but they lack a wall of thin bone behind it.

Strepsirrhine primates produce their own vitamin C, whereas haplorhine primates must obtain it from their diets. Lemuriform primates are characterized by a toothcomb, a specialized set of teeth in the front, lower part of the mouth used for combing fur during grooming. Many of today's living strepsirrhines are endangered due to habitat destruction, hunting for bushmeat, live capture for the exotic pet trade. Both living and extinct strepsirrhines are behaviorally diverse, although all are arboreal. Most living lemuriforms are nocturnal. Both living and extinct groups fed on fruit and insects; the taxonomic name Strepsirrhini derives from the Greek στρεψίς" and ῥινός, which refers to the appearance of the sinuous nostrils on the rhinarium or wet nose. The name was first used by French naturalist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1812 as a subordinal rank comparable to Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. In his description, he mentioned "Les narines terminales et sinueuses"; when British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock revived Strepsirrhini and defined Haplorhini in 1918, he omitted the second "r" from both, although he did not remove the second "r" from Platyrrhini or Catarrhini, both of which were named by É.

Geoffroy in 1812. Following Pocock, many researchers continued to spell Strepsirrhini with a single "r" until primatologists Paulina Jenkins and Prue Napier pointed out the error in 1987. Strepsirrhines include the extinct adapiforms and the lemuriform primates, which include lemurs and lorisoids. Strepsirrhines diverged from the haplorhine primates near the beginning of the primate radiation between 55 and 90 mya. Older divergence dates are based on genetic analysis estimates, while younger dates are based on the scarce fossil record. Lemuriform primates may have evolved from either cercamoniines or sivaladapids, both of which were adapiforms that may have originated in Asia, they were once thought to have evolved from adapids, a more specialized and younger branch of adapiform from Europe. Lemurs rafted from Africa to Madagascar between 47 and 54 mya, whereas the lorises split from the African galagos around 40 mya and colonized Asia; the lemuriforms, the lemurs of Madagascar, are portrayed inappropriately as "living fossils" or as examples of "basal", or "inferior" primates.

These views have hindered the understanding of mammalian evolution and the evolution of strepsirrhine traits, such as their reliance on smell, characteristics of their skeletal anatomy, their brain size, small. In the case of lemurs, natural selection has driven this isolated population of primates to diversify and fill a rich variety of ecological niches, despite their smaller and less complex brains compared to simians; the divergence between strepsirrhines and tarsiers followed immediately after primates first evolved. Although few fossils of living primate groups – lemuriforms and simians – are known from the Early to Middle Eocene, evidence from genetics and recent fossil finds both suggest they may have been present during the early adaptive radiation; the origin of the earliest primates that the simians and tarsiers both evolved from is a mystery. Both their place of origin and the group from which they emerged are uncertain. Although the fossil record demonstrating their initial radiation across the Northern Hemisphere is detailed, the fossil record from the tropics is sparse around the time that primates and other major clades of eutherian mammals first appeared.

Lacking detailed tropical fossils and primatologists have used genetic analyses to determine the relatedness between primate lineages and the amount of time since they diverged. Using this molecular clock, divergence dates for the major primate lineages have suggested that primates evolved more than 80–90 mya, nearly 40 million years before the first examples appear in the fossil record; the early primates include both nocturnal and diurnal small-bodied species, all were arboreal, with hands and feet specially adapted for maneuvering on small branches. Plesiadapiforms from the early Paleocene are sometimes considered "archaic primates", because their teeth resembled those of early primates

Commonwealth Hill Station

Commonwealth Hill Station more known as Commonwealth Hill is a pastoral lease operating as a sheep station. Commonwealth Hill is located about 96 kilometres north north west of Tarcoola and 120 kilometres south west of Coober Pedy in the state of South Australia; the property occupies an area of 10,000 square kilometres or one million hectares, making it the second largest sheep station in Australia, after Rawlinna Station. It is owned by the Jumbuck Pastoral Company; the land on which the station is situated is described as a flat sandy plain on the north western margin of the Gawler Craton covered with sand sheets and dunefields. Low mulga woodlands and tall myall shrublands over perennial grasses dominate with occasional salt lakes and lunette systems. In 1947 the station was enjoying an excellent season after good rains produced an abundance of fresh green feed for stock during the summer; the area was rife with rumours that the Woomera Test Range was to be expanded and that stations including Commonwealth Hill, Roxby Downs and Andamooka would lose some of land which in turn would reduce their wool clip.

The rumours were true and the station lies within the Woomera Test Range Area. Byron MacLachlan, the leaseholder of Commonwealth Hill in 1947, along with a consortium of pastoralists and lawyers established a working agreement to ensure the continuation of pastoral activity that would not interfere with the long range weapons project. In 1956 before the trials of the Black Knight Rocket commenced at Woomera safety risks to pastoralists were identified as a key concern. In 1957 the minister of Supply, Howard Beale spoke with the graziers who could be affected by the trials and announced that the Commonwealth government would pay for the installation of blast-proof shelters. An iron ore exploration company, Apollo Minerals, was given permission in 2011 by the Defence Department to start work on its prospect in the area following a Federal Government review on mining in the former missile testing area. In 2013, the land occupied by the pastoral lease was declared by the Government of South Australia under the Geographical Names Act 1991 as a locality with the name “Commonwealth Hill.”

List of ranches and stations#Australia List of the largest stations in Australia

San Diego County Water Authority

The San Diego County Water Authority is a public agency serving San Diego County, California as a wholesale supplier of water from the Colorado River and Northern California. The Water Authority's mission is to provide a safe and reliable supply of water to its 24 member agencies serving the region's 3.2 million residents and its $218 billion economy. The Water Authority was formed in 1944 by the California State Legislature, operates under the County Water Authority Act, which can be found in the California State Water Code; the following agencies purchase water from the Water Authority: Carlsbad Municipal Water District City of Del Mar City of Escondido Fallbrook Public Utility District Helix Water District Lakeside Water District National City City of Oceanside Olivenhain Municipal Water District Otay Water District Padre Dam Municipal Water District Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base City of Poway Rainbow Municipal Water District Ramona Municipal Water District Rincon Del Diablo Municipal Water District City of San Diego San Dieguito Water District Santa Fe Irrigation District South Bay Irrigation District Sweetwater Authority Vallecitos Water District Valley Center Municipal Water District Vista Irrigation District Yuma Municipal Water District Since 1944, the San Diego County Water Authority has pursued its mission to provide the region with a safe, reliable water supply.

This role links the Water Authority with the first Spanish missionaries and soldiers who arrived in the area in 1769, swiftly realized the local water supply was small and erratic, began "developing water". The Spaniards constructed a dam across the San Diego River and linked the resulting reservoir with the Mission San Diego de Alcala via a six-mile aqueduct. "Old Mission Dam was the first irrigation and domestic water system built by Europeans in the Far West," writes historian Kevin Starr in “Material Dreams: Southern California Through the 1920s.” The Old Mission Dam, which still exists in Mission Trails Regional Park, was the first water development project in San Diego County. Development accelerated in the second half of the 19th century. Private companies erected six major dams on local rivers between 1887 and 1897. All six stand today. "By the end of the last 19th century, San Diego County could be described as one of the major focal points of dam construction in the world, by 1923 every major drainage system in the county included at least one reservoir," writes geographer Philip Pryde in his book, “San Diego: An Introduction to the Region."

Despite some temporary shortages, this system of local reservoirs provided sufficient water for the county until World War II, when a vastly expanded military presence doubled the population in six years. Enter the San Diego County Water Authority, created June 9, 1944, by an act of the state Legislature as a public agency to administer the region's Colorado River water rights. Water from the river first arrived in the new San Vicente Reservoir in November 1947; when the Water Authority began operations, it was concerned with securing a reliable imported water supply and delivering it to the San Diego region. The agency did this by working with the Navy and U. S. Bureau of Reclamation to construct the first two pipelines linking San Diego County and the Colorado River Aqueduct, owned and operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. After the second pipeline was completed in 1952, the Water Authority itself installed three more pipelines, giving the region five large-diameter pipelines that extend north-south throughout the county.

These pipes are kept filled with water from the Colorado River and from Northern California, via the State Water Project. In addition to importing water and selling it to its member agencies, the Water Authority always has been active in state and federal legislation and issues that impact water supply. For example, in the 1940s, the Navy had planned to construct Pipeline 1 to ensure it would have enough water for its local installations, but after World War II ended, the project was canceled to save money. Representatives of the Water Authority and other water agencies joined with local Navy officials to urge a reversal of the decision. Congress agreed and voted to build the pipeline. A similar struggle was necessary to get Pipeline 2 constructed in 1952. Water Authority officials, including Board Chairman Fred A. Heilbron and General Counsel William H. Jennings, joined by Water Authority and MWD Director Harry Griffen, were part of the historic statewide effort to gain approval of the Burns-Porter Act authorizing the State Water Project.

The State Legislature approved the act in 1959. The water authority derives its water from local and sources outside of its jurisdiction; the majority of the water comes from the Colorado River, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. By 2017, the Colorado River supplied more than two thirds of the water used in the San Diego region. Much of the water that comes from outside of its region goes through pipes controlled by the Metropolitan Water District; the water authority plans to diversify its water sources, which includes transfers from sources in Imperial County and water recycling. Official San Diego County Water Authority website