Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The octopus is a soft-bodied, eight-limbed mollusc of the order Octopoda. Around 300 species are recognised, the order is grouped within the class Cephalopoda with squids and nautiloids. Like other cephalopods, the octopus is bilaterally symmetric with two eyes and a beak, with its mouth at the center point of the eight limbs; the soft body can alter its shape, enabling octopuses to squeeze through small gaps. They trail their eight appendages behind them; the siphon is used by expelling a jet of water. Octopuses have a complex nervous system and excellent sight, are among the most intelligent and behaviourally diverse of all invertebrates. Octopuses inhabit various regions of the ocean, including coral reefs, pelagic waters, the seabed. Most species mature early and are short-lived. During breeding, the male uses a specially adapted arm to deliver a bundle of sperm directly into the female's mantle cavity, after which he becomes senescent and dies; the female deposits fertilised eggs in a den and cares for them until they hatch, after which she dies.
Strategies to defend themselves against predators include the expulsion of ink, the use of camouflage and threat displays, their abilities to jet through the water and hide, through deceit. All octopuses are venomous. Octopuses appear in mythology as sea monsters like the Kraken of Norway and the Akkorokamui of the Ainu, the Gorgon of ancient Greece. A battle with an octopus appears in Victor Hugo's book Toilers of the Sea, inspiring other works such as Ian Fleming's Octopussy. Octopuses appear in shunga, they are eaten and considered a delicacy by humans in many parts of the world the Mediterranean and the Asian seas. The scientific Latin term octopus was derived from Ancient Greek ὀκτώπους, a compound form of ὀκτώ and πούς, itself a variant form of ὀκτάπους, a word used for example by Alexander of Tralles for the common octopus; the standard pluralised form of "octopus" in English is "octopuses". The alternative plural "octopi" – which wrongly assumes it is a Latin second declension "-us" noun or adjective when, in either Greek or Latin, it is a third declension one – is considered grammatically incorrect, but is used enough to be acknowledged by the descriptivist Merriam-Webster 11th Collegiate Dictionary and Webster's New World College Dictionary.
The Oxford English Dictionary lists "octopuses", "octopi", "octopodes", in that order, reflecting frequency of use, calling "octopodes" rare and noting that "octopi" is based on a misunderstanding. The New Oxford American Dictionary lists "octopuses" as the only acceptable pluralisation, indicates that "octopodes" is still used, but that "octopi" is incorrect; the giant Pacific octopus is cited as the largest known octopus species. Adults weigh around 15 kg, with an arm span of up to 4.3 m. The largest specimen of this species to be scientifically documented was an animal with a live mass of 71 kg. Much larger sizes have been claimed for the giant Pacific octopus: one specimen was recorded as 272 kg with an arm span of 9 m. A carcass of the seven-arm octopus, Haliphron atlanticus, weighed 61 kg and was estimated to have had a live mass of 75 kg; the smallest species is Octopus wolfi, around 2.5 cm and weighs less than 1 g. The octopus is bilaterally symmetrical along its dorso-ventral axis; the head includes the brain.
The foot has evolved into a set of flexible, prehensile appendages, known as "arms", that surround the mouth and are attached to each other near their base by a webbed structure. The arms can be divided into four pairs; the two rear appendages are used to walk on the sea floor, while the other six are used to forage for food. The bulbous and hollow mantle is known as the visceral hump; the mantle contains the gills. The mouth of an octopus, located underneath the arms, has a sharp hard beak; the skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, a connective tissue dermis consisting of collagen fibres and various cells allowing colour change. Most of the body is made of soft tissue allowing it to lengthen and contort itself; the octopus can squeeze through tiny gaps. Lacking skeletal support, the arms work as muscular hydrostats and contain longitudinal and circular muscles around a central axial nerve, they can extend and contract, twist to left or right, bend at any place in any direction or be held rigid.
The interior surfaces of the arms are covered with adhesive suckers. The suckers allow the octopus to manipulate objects; each sucker is circular and bowl-like and has two distinct parts: an outer shallow cavity called an infundibulum and a central hollow cavity called an acetabulum, both of whi
Corn syrup is a food syrup, made from the starch of corn and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade. Corn syrup known as glucose syrup to confectioners, is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, enhance flavor. Corn syrup is distinct from high-fructose corn syrup, manufactured from corn syrup by converting a large proportion of its glucose into fructose using the enzyme D-xylose isomerase, thus producing a sweeter compound due to higher levels of fructose; the more general term glucose syrup is used synonymously with corn syrup, since glucose syrup in the United States is most made from corn starch. Technically, glucose syrup is any liquid starch hydrolysate of mono-, di-, higher-saccharides and can be made from any source of starch. Corn syrup was produced by combining corn starch with dilute hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture under pressure; the process was invented by the German chemist Gottlieb Kirchhoff in 1812.
Corn syrup is obtained through a multi-step bioprocess. First, the enzyme α-amylase is added to a mixture of corn water. Α-amylase is secreted by various species of the bacterium genus Bacillus and the enzyme is isolated from the liquid in which the bacteria were grown. The enzyme breaks down the starch into oligosaccharides, which are broken into glucose molecules by adding the enzyme glucoamylase, known as "γ-amylase". Glucoamylase is secreted by various species of the fungus Aspergillus; the glucose can be transformed into fructose by passing the glucose through a column, loaded with the enzyme D-xylose isomerase, an enzyme, isolated from the growth medium of any of several bacteria. Corn syrup is produced from number 2 yellow dent corn; when wet milled, about 2.3 litres of corn are required to yield an average of 947g of starch, to produce 1 kg of glucose or dextrose syrup. A bushel of corn will yield an average of 31.5 pounds of starch, which in turn will yield about 33.3 pounds of syrup.
Thus, it takes about 2,300 litres of corn to produce a tonne of glucose syrup, or 60 bushels of corn to produce one short ton. The viscosity and sweetness of the syrup depends on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been carried out. To distinguish different grades of syrup, they are rated according to their dextrose equivalent. Most commercially available corn syrups are 1/3 glucose by weight. Two common commercial corn syrup products are dark corn syrup. Light corn syrup is corn syrup seasoned with vanilla salt. Light corn syrup tastes moderately sweet. Dark corn syrup is a combination of corn syrup and molasses, caramel color and flavor and the preservative sodium benzoate. Dark corn syrup tastes much stronger than light corn syrup. Molasses in dark corn syrup enhances its color. Corn syrup's major uses in commercially prepared foods are as a thickener, a sweetener, as a humectant – an ingredient that retains moisture and thus maintains a food's freshness. Corn syrup is the primary ingredient in most brands of commercial "pancake syrup", as a less expensive substitute for maple syrup.
In the United States, cane sugar quotas raise the price of sugar. Glucose syrup was the primary corn sweetener in the United States prior to the expanded use of high fructose corn syrup production. HFCS is a variant; the resulting syrup is more soluble. Corn syrup is available as a retail product. If mixed with sugar and cream of tartar, corn syrup can be used to make sugar glass. Candy corn High-fructose corn syrup High-maltose corn syrup List of syrups Maple syrup Mizuame Molasses
The mohawk is a hairstyle in which, in the most common variety, both sides of the head are shaven, leaving a strip of noticeably longer hair in the center. The mohawk is sometimes referred to as an iro in reference to the Iroquois, from whom the hairstyle is derived - though the hair was plucked out rather than shaved. Additionally, hairstyles bearing these names more resemble those worn by the Pawnee, rather than the Mohawk, Mohican/Mahican, Mohegan, or other phonetically similar tribes; the red-haired Clonycavan Man bog body found in Ireland is notable for having a well-preserved Mohawk hairstyle, dated to between 392 BCE and 201 BCE. It is today worn as an emblem of non-conformity; the world record for the tallest mohawk goes to Kazuhiro Watanabe, who has a 1.13 meters tall mohawk. While the mohawk hairstyle takes its name from the people of the Mohawk nation, an indigenous people of North America who inhabited the Mohawk Valley in upstate New York, the association comes from Hollywood and more from the popular 1939 movie Drums Along the Mohawk starring Henry Fonda.
The Mohawk and the rest of the Iroquois confederacy in fact wore a square of hair on the back of the crown of the head. The Mohawk did not shave their heads when creating this square of hair, but rather pulled the hair out, small tufts at a time; the following is a first-hand account of James Smith, captured during the French and Indian war and adopted into the Mohawk tribe: number of Indians collected about me and one of them began to pull hair out of my head. He had some ashes on a piece of bark in which he dipped his fingers in order to take a firmer hold, so he went on as if he had been plucking a turkey, until he had all the hair clean out of my head, except a small spot about three or four inches square on my crown the remaining hair was cut and three braids formed which were decorated Therefore, a true hairstyle of the Mohawks was one of plucked-out hair, leaving a three-inch square of hair on the back crown of the head with three short braids of hair decorated; the three braids of a True Mohawk hairstyle are represented today on traditional headdresses of the Mohawk known as a "Gustoweh".
Mohawk Gustowehs have three upright eagle feathers. When not decorated, the short braids were allowed to hang loose as seen in Good Peter's image in the referenced article; the hairstyle has been in existence in many parts of the world for millennia. For instance, the Clonycavan Man, a 2000-year-old male bog body discovered near Dublin in 2003, was found to be wearing a mohawk styled with plant oil and pine resin. Artwork discovered at the Pazyryk burials dating back to 600 BCE depicts Scythian warriors sporting similar mohawks; the body of a warrior occupying one of the kurgans had been scalped earlier in life and wore a hair prosthesis in the form of a mohawk. Herodotus claimed that the Macai, a northern Libyan tribe, "shave their hair so as to leave tufts, letting the middle of their hair grow long, but round this on all sides shaving it close to the skin." Among the Pawnee people, who lived in present-day Nebraska and in northern Kansas, a "mohawk" hair style was common. When going to war, 16th-century Ukrainian Cossacks would shave their heads, leaving a long central strip.
This haircut was known as a oseledets or chupryna and was braided or tied in a topknot. During World War II, many American GIs, notably paratroopers from the 101st Airborne Division wore mohawks to intimidate their enemies, it was occasionally worn by American troops during the Vietnam War. In the early 1950s, mohawks were worn by some jazz musicians like Sonny Rollins, a few teenage girls. Although a mohawk is most defined as a narrow, central strip of upright hair running from the forehead to the nape, with the sides of the head bald, the term can be applied more loosely to various similar hairstyles, many of which have informal names. Rather than the strip of longer hair in the center of the scalp, a "reverse mohawk" known as a "nohawk" or "hawkmo", features a shaved strip from the forehead to the nape of the neck leaving hair on either side of the line. A pioneering example was sported by English rock singer Peter Gabriel whilst on tour with progressive rock band Genesis in 1973. A fauxhawk copies the style of a mohawk, but without shaving the sides of the head and not extending past the peak of the cranium.
The fauxhawk is worn with a small but noticeable spike in the middle, though considerably shorter than many traditional mohawks. The style re-emerged in the early 2000s, with some of the popularly known wearers being Travis vocalist Fran Healy, David Beckham and Jónsi; the fauxhawk is known as the "Hoxton fin" after the Hoxton district of London, where it was fashionable in the late 1990s. A fauxhawk where the hair down the center of the head is longer than the hair on the sides is a "euro-hawk". Sometimes the top of the hair is long enough to cover up the shorter sides; some of the more popular sports figures and fashion models can be found wearing euro-hawks in various lengths and colors. The mohawk has been a style seen on punk rockers and the like, but fauxhawks and euro-hawks have transcended to all hair types; the ponyhawk or pony hawk is a type of euro-hawk created by a row of ponytails going down the middle of the head. This look was worn by contestant Sanjaya Malakar on an episode of the television series American Idol.
A "braid hawk" or "braided hawk" is fauxhawk hairstyles with a complex structure of braids, as worn by Kelly Osbourne. The main difference regards the possibility to obtain a look like Mohawk but without shaving th
The domestic dog is a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, is the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct; the dog was the first species to be domesticated and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, physical attributes. Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canid species. Dogs vary in shape and colors, they perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, pulling loads, assisting police and military, companionship and, more aiding disabled people and therapeutic roles. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend"; the term dog is applied both to the species as a whole, any adult male member of the same.
An adult female is a bitch. An adult male capable of reproduction is a stud. An adult female capable of reproduction is brood mother. Immature males or females are puppies. A group of pups from the same gestation period is called a litter; the father of a litter is a sire. It is possible for one litter to have multiple sires; the mother of a litter is a dam. A group of any three or more adults is a pack. In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from multiple grey wolf populations, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog "breeds" having developed at a time when human populations were more isolated from each other. In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies, proposed two additional subspecies: "familiaris Linneaus, 1758 " and "dingo Meyer, 1793 ". Wozencraft included hallstromi – the New Guinea singing dog – as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo.
Wozencraft referred to the mDNA study as one of the guides in forming his decision. The inclusion of familiaris and dingo under a "domestic dog" clade has been noted by other mammalogists; this classification by Wozencraft is debated among zoologists. The origin of the domestic dog includes the dog's evolutionary divergence from the wolf, its domestication, its development into dog types and dog breeds; the dog is a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, was the first species and the only large carnivore to have been domesticated. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa, as modern wolves are not related to the population of wolves, first domesticated; the genetic divergence between dogs and wolves occurred between 40,000–20,000 years ago, just before or during the Last Glacial Maximum. This timespan represents the upper time-limit for the commencement of domestication because it is the time of divergence and not the time of domestication, which occurred later.
The domestication of animals commenced over 15,000 years ago, beginning with the grey wolf by nomadic hunter-gatherers. The archaeological record and genetic analysis show the remains of the Bonn–Oberkassel dog buried beside humans 14,200 years ago to be the first undisputed dog, with disputed remains occurring 36,000 years ago, it was not until 11,000 years ago that people living in the Near East entered into relationships with wild populations of aurochs, boar and goats. Where the domestication of the dog took place remains debated, with the most plausible proposals spanning Western Europe, Central Asia and East Asia; this has been made more complicated by the recent proposal that an initial wolf population split into East and West Eurasian groups. These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago; the Western Eurasian dog population was and replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago.
This proposal is debated. Domestic dogs have been selectively bred for millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, physical attributes. Modern dog breeds show more variation in size and behavior than any other domestic animal. Dogs are predators and scavengers, like many other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, fused wrist bones, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, teeth for catching and tearing. Dogs are variable in height and weight; the smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, that stood only 6.3 cm at the shoulder, 9.5 cm in length along the head-and-body, weighed only 113 grams. The largest known dog was an English Mastiff which weighed 155.6 kg and was 250 cm from the snout to the tail. The tallest dog is a Great Dane; the dog's senses include vision, sense of smell, sense of taste and sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field. Another study suggested; the coats of domestic dogs are of two varieties: "double" being common with dogs originating from colder climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair, or "single", with the topcoat only.
Breeds may have stripe, or "star" of white fur on their chest or underside. Regarding coat appearance or h
A sidekick is a slang expression for a close companion or colleague who is, or regarded as, subordinate to the one he or she accompanies. Some well-known fictional sidekicks are Don Quixote's Sancho Panza, Sherlock Holmes' Doctor Watson, The Lone Ranger's Tonto, The Green Hornet's Kato, Shrek's Donkey, Mickey Mouse's Donald Duck, Mario's Luigi, Sonic's Tails, Donkey Kong's Diddy Kong, Daffy Duck's Porky Pig and Batman's Robin; the term originated in pickpocket slang of the late early 20th century. The "kick" was the front side pocket of a pair of trousers, it was known as the pocket safest from theft. Thus, by analogy, a "side-kick" was a person's closest companion. A humorous folk etymology refers to the sidekick's accomplishments being "kicked to the side" or otherwise ignored in favor of the more charismatic lead hero. One of the earliest recorded sidekicks may be Enkidu, who adopted a sidekick role to Gilgamesh after they became allies in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Other early examples are Achilles and Patroclus in the Iliad, Moses and Aaron in the Old Testament.
Sidekicks can fulfill one or multiple functions, such as a counterpoint to the hero, an alternate point of view, or knowledge, skills, or anything else the hero does not have. They function as comic relief, and/or the straight man to the hero's comedic actions. A sidekick can be a character to whom the audience can more relate than the hero, or whom the audience can imagine themselves as being, and by asking questions of the hero, or giving the hero someone to talk to, the sidekick provides an opportunity for the author to provide exposition, thereby filling the same role as a Greek chorus. Sidekicks serve as an emotional connection when the hero is depicted as detached and distant, traits which might make it difficult to like the hero; the sidekick is the confidant who knows the main character better than anyone else, gives a convincing reason to like the hero. Although Sherlock Holmes was portrayed as a difficult man to know, his friendship with Dr. Watson convinces the reader that Holmes is a good person.
The Left Hand of Vampire Hunter D, being mentally linked to the reticent protagonist reveals thoughts and the physical condition of his host, as well as background elements of the story. The apparent stupidity of some comedy sidekicks is used to make a non-intellectual hero look intelligent. A flamboyant or effeminate sidekick may make an otherwise unimposing hero look more masculine, and a strong and modest hero may have his fighting qualities revealed to the other characters and the audience by a talkative sidekick. While many sidekicks are used for comic relief, there are other sidekicks who are less outrageous than the heroes they pledge themselves to, comedy derived from the hero can be amplified by the presence or reaction of the sidekick. Examples include Porky Pig, more sensible and calmer than Daffy Duck in short films, it is typical for the character and sidekick to be of the same gender — otherwise the term "sidekick" is replaced with "partner" or "companion". Whenever there is a team of more than two characters, the term sidekick is reserved for another team member of the same sex.
It is rare for the relationship between a character and an opposite-sex sidekick to lack romantic or sexual overtones of any kind — though there are examples, like Modesty Blaise and Willie Garvin, Batman and Robin. The original Doctor Who series intentionally avoided any explicit onscreen indications of romantic or sexual attraction between The Doctor and his female companions. While unusual, it is not unheard of for a sidekick to be more attractive, charismatic, or physically capable than the supposed hero; this is most encountered when the hero's appeal is more intellectual rather than sexual. Such heroes are middle-aged or older and tend towards eccentricity; such protagonists may, due to either age or physical unsuitability, be limited to cerebral conflicts, while leaving the physical action to a younger or more physically capable sidekick. This type of sidekick is encountered in fiction, because the hero runs the risk of being upstaged by them. However, examples of successful such pairings include Inspector Morse and his sidekick Detective Sergeant Robbie Lewis, Nero Wolfe and his sidekick Archie Goodwin, Hiro Nakamura and his sidekick Ando Masahashi, Miles Vorkosigan and his sidekick cousin Ivan Vorpatril.
In other media, The Green Hornet's sidekick, has been depicted as a capable man of action, for instance in martial arts. The earliest Doctor Who serials during the First Doctor era, had young male companions who were capable of the physical action that the elderly William Hartnell was not; this became more important. This was not an issue with the following Doctors as they were cast with younger actors. In certain cases a sidekick can grow out of their role of second fiddle to the hero, become a hero in their own right. Dick Grayson is one such example, having outgrown the mantle of Robin when he was under Batman and taken up the new identity of Nightwing. Grayson has more succeeded his mentor and taken on the costumed identity of Batman himself. Another example is the popular comic-strip soldier of fortune Captain Easy, who started as the two-fisted sidekick of the scrawny eponymous her
A rikishi sumotori or, more colloquially, sumosan, is a professional sumo wrestler. Rikishi are expected to live according to centuries-old rules and, although there are some exceptions, most come from Japan, where sumo is practiced exclusively. Participation in official tournaments is the only means of marking achievement in sumo and the rank of an individual rikishi is based on official wins. In popular use, the term rikishi can mean any sumo wrestler and an alternative term to sumotori or the more colloquial sumosan; the two kanji characters that make up the word rikishi are "strength/power" and "gentleman/samurai". Within the world of sumo, rikishi is used as a catch-all term for wrestlers who are in the lower, un-salaried divisions of jonokuchi, jonidan and makushita; the more prestigious term sekitori refers to wrestlers who have risen to the two highest divisions of jūryō and makuuchi and who have more status and salary than their lower-division counterparts, as enumerated here. For details about the differences in competition between divisions see Professional sumo divisions.
The life of a sumo wrestler is regimented and has detailed prescriptions and rules for rikishi that have been observed for centuries, so much so that rikishi can be seen more as a way of life than a career. They are expected to grow their hair long to form a topknot or chonmage, similar to the samurai hairstyles of the Edo Period. Furthermore, they are expected to wear the chonmage and traditional Japanese dress at all times when in public. Sumo life centers around the training stables to. In addition, most wrestlers, all junior ones, live in their stable in a dormitory style: training, eating and socializing together. For more details, see Life as a professional sumo wrestler. Professional sumo is practiced in Japan, but wrestlers of other nationalities participate; as of August 2009 there were 55 wrestlers listed as foreigners. In July 2007, there were 19 foreigners in the top two divisions, an all-time record, for the first time a majority of wrestlers in the top san'yaku ranks were from overseas.
More the ratio of foreigners has stabilized and as of November 2011 there were 18 foreigners in the two top divisions. A Japanese-American and the Korean-born Rikidōzan achieved sekitori status prior to World War II, but neither were listed as foreigners; the first non-Asian to achieve fame and fortune in sumo was Hawaii-born Takamiyama. He reached the top division in 1968 and in 1972 became the first foreigner to win the top division championship, he was followed by a fellow Hawaii-born 287 kg mega-weight, Konishiki of ethnic Samoan descent, the first foreigner to reach the rank of ōzeki in 1987. Musashimaru, born in Samoa and raised in Hawaii, became the second foreigner to reach sumo's top rank in 1999. Four straight yokozuna, retired Asashōryū and Harumafuji Kōhei, still active Hakuhō and Kakuryū Rikisaburō are all Mongolian. In 2012, the Mongolian Kyokutenhō became the oldest wrestler in modern history to win a top division championship. Wrestlers from Eastern European countries such as Georgia and Russia have found success in the upper levels of sumo.
In 2005, Kotoōshū from Bulgaria became the first wrestler of European birth to attain the ōzeki ranking and the first to win a top division championship. In another milestone, Brazilian Ryūkō Gō became the first foreign born wrestler to be given makushita tsukedashi status; until recently, the Japan Sumo Association had no restrictions at all on the number of foreigners allowed in professional sumo. In May 1992, shortly after the Ōshima stable had recruited six Mongolians at the same time, the Sumo Association's new director Dewanoumi, the former yokozuna Sadanoyama, announced that he was considering limiting the number of overseas recruits per stable and in sumo overall. There was no official ruling; this unofficial ban was relaxed, but only two new foreigners per stable were allowed, until the total number reached 40. In 2002, a one foreigner per stable policy was adopted, though the ban was not retroactive, so foreigners recruited before the changes were unaffected. Though the move has been met with criticism, there are no plans to relax the restrictions at this time.
It was possible for a place in a stable to open up if a foreign born wrestler acquired Japanese citizenship. This occurred when Hisanoumi changed his nationality from Tongan at the end of 2006, allowing another Tongan to enter his stable, Kyokutenhō's change of citizenship allowed Ōshima stable to recruit Mongolian Kyokushūhō in May 2007. However, on February 23, 2010 the Sumo Association announced that it had changed its definition of "foreign" to "foreign-born", meaning that naturalized Japanese citizens will be considered as foreigners if they were born outside Japan; the restriction on one foreign wrestler per stable was reconfirmed. As Japanese law does not recognize subcategories of Japanese citizen, this unique treatment of naturalized citizens may well be illegal under Japanese law, although the restriction has never been challenged in court. While sumo is considered a martial art, it diverges from the typical Eastern style both at the surface and at its heart. Whereas most martial arts award promotions to practitioners through time and practice, a rikishi's sumo rank can be gained and lost every two months in the official tournaments.