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Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts. This behavior is associated with insects, but other animals are known to do this as well, such as a number of species of fish and spiders; the mechanism is that of one structure with a well-defined lip, ridge, or nodules being moved across a finely-ridged surface or vice versa, vibrating as it does so, like the dragging of a phonograph needle across a vinyl record. Sometimes it is the structure bearing the file which resonates to produce the sound, but in other cases it is the structure bearing the scraper, with both variants possible in related groups. Common onomatopoeic words for the sounds produced by stridulation include chirrup. Insects and other arthropods stridulate by rubbing together two parts of the body; these are referred to generically as the stridulatory organs. The mechanism is best known in crickets, mole crickets, grasshoppers, but other insects which stridulate include Curculionidae, Mutillidae, Buprestidae, Cicindelinae, Glaresidae, larval Lucanidae, Geotrupidae, Largidae, Corixidae, various ants, some stick insects such as Pterinoxylus spinulosus, some species of Agromyzidae.

While cicadas are well-known for sound production via abdominal tymbal organs, it has been demonstrated that some species can produce sounds via stridulation, as well. Stridulation is known in a few tarantulas, some pill millipedes, it is widespread among decapod crustaceans, e.g. rock lobsters. Most spiders are silent; when disturbed, Theraphosa blondi, the Goliath tarantula, can produce a rather loud hissing noise by rubbing together the bristles on its legs. This is said to be audible to a distance of up to 15 feet. One of the wolf spiders, Schizocosa stridulans, produces low-frequency sounds by flexing its abdomen or high-frequency stridulation by using the cymbia on the ends of its pedipalps; the anatomical parts used to produce sound are quite varied: the most common system is that seen in grasshoppers and many other insects, where a hind leg scraper is rubbed against the adjacent forewing. Stridulation in several of these examples is for attracting a mate, or as a form of territorial behaviour, but can be a warning signal.

This kind of communication was first described by Slovenian biologist Ivan Regen. Some species of venomous snakes stridulate as part of a threat display, they arrange their body into a series of parallel C-shaped coils that they rub together to produce a sizzling sound, rather like water on a hot plate. The best-known examples are members of the genus Echis, although those of the genus Cerastes and at least one bush viper species, Atheris desaixi, do this as well. A bird species, the club-winged manakin, has a dedicated stridulation apparatus, while a species of mammal, the lowland streaked tenrec, produces a high-pitched noise by rubbing together specialised quills on its back; the British Library Sound Archive contains over 150,000 recordings of animal sounds and natural atmospheres from around the world

California Golden Bears football

The California Golden Bears football program represents the University of California, Berkeley, in college football as a member of the Pac-12 Conference at the NCAA Division I FBS level. The team is coached by Justin Wilcox. Since beginning of play in 1886, the team has won five NCAA recognized national titles - 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1937 and 14 conference championships, the last one in 2006, it has produced what are considered to be two of the oddest and most memorable plays in college football: Roy "Wrong Way" Riegels' fumble recovery at the 1929 Rose Bowl and The Play kickoff return in the 1982 Big Game. University of California fielded its first American Football team in 1886. In March 1892, the school played it first game against Stanford University; this was the first instance of the annual rivalry match – The Big Game, one of oldest college rivalries in the United States. In 1899, coached by Princeton alumni Garrett Cochran, Cal played a home against future legend Pop Warner and the emerging power of that period the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.

Warner took up Cochran's challenge. The game took place in San Francisco on Christmas Day of that year. Though Carlisle dominated the majority of its season's opponents, it could only beat Cal 0 to 2, via a second half safety, it was. The 1900 Big Game is associated with the Thanksgiving Day disaster; the match took place in San Francisco, with between 500 and 1,000 men watching the game from the rooftop of an operating glass factory next to the sold out city stadium. During the game more than 100 fans fell through the factory's roof with majority falling on to the factory's massive, operational furnace. In total 22 men boys were killed, with others injured. Beginning in 1890s, American football was becoming an violent sport. In 1905, there were 18 deaths reported as being caused by the play on the field; the next year, numerous rule changes were agreed upon by the majority of American schools. Berkeley, along with other West Coast institutions decided to go in another direction, switching their primary sport to rugby, a sport they considered to be less dangerous.

During these years, California wielded dominant teams, however the Bears were able to beat Stanford only three times. In 1915, due to various causes, including students frustration with those results, the university along with other west coast teams decided to return to American football.1916 was the first year of the Pacific Coast Conference, which consisted of Cal, Washington and Oregon Agricultural. It was the year when Andy Smith, former coach of Purdue, became Cal's head coach. In 1920, Smith produced the first instance of. From 1920 to 1925, The Wonder Teams went 50 straight games without defeat, made three trips to the Rose Bowl, won four NCAA recognised national titles - 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923. 1923 saw the opening of the California Memorial Stadium, which sat more than 73,000. In January 1926, Andy Smith died at 42 years old, his death was traumatic for the team and the whole university. His overall Cal record was 74-16-7; the following year, Smith was succeeded by his former assistant coach Nibs Price.

In 1927 and 1928 Price led the last two instances of Wonder Teams. Both teams were undefeated, with the 1928 team being invited to invited to the 1929 Rose Bowl to play against Georgia Tech. An event in this game has become considered as one the stand out moments in Rose Bowl history. Upon recovering a fumble, Cal's center Roy "the wrong way" Riegels inadvertently spun around, ran the ball towards Cal's endzone instead of Georgia Tech's. Cal's quarterback was able to catch up with him right next the endzone, where they were tackled by Georgia Tech players. Price chose to punt, blocked for a safety, giving Georgia Tech a 2–0 lead; these turned out to be the decisive points of Cal's 7–8 loss. In 1936 Nibs was replaced by Stub Ellison. Ellison lead Cal to three PCC championship titles, but will be most remembered for that the 1937 season's team and its flawless performance; because of its staunch defense, the 1937 squad that went to the Rose Bowl was coined "The Thunder Team." In its 11 wins, California scored 214 points and earned 7 shutouts, with its opponents could only score 33 points against it.

The Thunder Team ended the season beating Alabama 13–0 in the Rose Bowl becoming that year's national champions. 1944 was Ellison's last season. In 1947 former Northwestern coach Lynn "Pappy" Waldorf become the new head coach of Cal. During his first season the Bears went 9–1, with their only loss coming from conference champs - USC. Known as "Pappy's Boys", the Cal teams of 1947-1950 won 33 consecutive regular season games, earning three PCC championships and three Rose Bowl berths. However, California lost all three Rose Bowls: 20–14 to Northwestern in 1949, 17–14 to Ohio State in 1950, 14–6 to Michigan in 1951; because of both Cal's return to greatness and Waldorf's great character, he became admired by both his players and his fans. He became known for addressing fans after every game from a balcony of the Memorial stadium. Like today, during those years a team could make multiple substitutions after every play. Waldorf was known for taking full advantage of this rule, using specialized players for key positions.

In 1953, the league returned to its pre WWII rules where only one substitution could be made per play. That year Cal went 7–3 to 4–4–2; the 1953

NBC Olympic broadcasts

The broadcasts of Summer and Winter Olympic Games produced by NBC Sports are shown on the various networks of NBCUniversal in the United States, including the NBC broadcast network, Spanish language network Telemundo, many of the company's cable networks. The event telecasts during the Olympics air in the evening and on weekend afternoons on NBC, with varying times on its cable networks; the on-air title of the telecasts, as announced at the start of each broadcast and during sponsor billboards is always the official name of the games in question – for example, The Games of the XXIX Olympiad for the 2008 Summer Games. However, promotional logos may reflect the more common location-and-year name format, such as "Beijing 2008". NBC has held the American broadcasting rights to the Summer Olympic Games since the 1988 games and the rights to the Winter Olympic Games since the 2002 games. In 2011, NBC agreed to a $4.38 billion contract with the International Olympic Committee to broadcast the Olympics through the 2020 games, the most expensive television rights deal in Olympic history.

NBC agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on May 7, 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games. NBC acquired the American television rights to the Youth Olympic Games, beginning in 2014, the Paralympic Games for the 2014 and 2016 editions. NBC is one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC. NBC's coverage of the Olympics has been criticized for the tape delaying of events, spoiling the results of events prior to their own tape-delayed broadcast of those events, editing of its broadcasts to resemble an emotionally-appealing program meant to entertain rather than a straight live sports event, as well as avoiding controversial subjects such as material critical of Russia at the 2014 Olympics. NBC televised its first Olympic Games in 1964, when it broadcast that year's Summer Olympics from Tokyo; the network did this with the aid of the Syncom 3 satellite for direct broadcasts. NBC's telecast of the opening ceremonies that year marked the first color broadcast televised live via satellite back to the United States.

The Olympic competition itself was broadcast in black-and-white. Through its use of the Syncom 3 satellite, a daily highlights package could be seen a few hours after the events took place. Serving as anchor was Bill Henry NBC News Tokyo bureau chief, who had extensive experience in both print and broadcast news. Play-by-play commentators included Bud Palmer and Jim Simpson, while former Olympians Rafer Johnson and Murray Rose served as analysts. NBC first televised the Winter Olympic Games in 1972. Anchored by Curt Gowdy, much of the coverage was broadcast live since alpine skiing and long track speed skating were held in the morning, which corresponded to prime time on the East Coast of the U. S. Although NBC bought the TV rights from the Sapporo Olympics group, they didn't know that they had to make a deal with NHK for broadcast booths at each venue. By the time NBC found out, it was too late; the booths had been built and there were none to spare. Everyone worked off monitors. A young sportscaster making his network television debut at Sapporo was a 26-year-old Al Michaels, who did hockey play-by-play during the games.

Eight years he would call the famous 1980 "Miracle On Ice" at that year's Winter Games in Lake Placid for ABC Sports. NBC had won the U. S. broadcast rights for the 1980 Summer Olympics, but when the United States Olympic Committee kept U. S. athletes home to honor the boycott announced by President Jimmy Carter, the telecasts were scaled back. In the end, what had been 150 hours of scheduled coverage, had decreased to just a few hours. Highlights were fed to local NBC stations for use on their local newscasts. Many affiliates, refused to show the Olympic highlights on their local news or clear airtime for the few hours of coverage NBC did present. NBC's extensive coverage was canceled. Bryant Gumbel served as Seoul primetime host while Dick Enberg co-hosted the Ceremonies through the 1996 closing. NBC bid for, won, the rights to televise the 1988 Summer Olympics. Network officials convinced the organizers in Seoul to stage most of its gold-medal finals in the afternoon, which corresponded to prime time of the previous night in the United States.

Today co-anchor Bryant Gumbel was the prime time host that year. Gumbel and Dick Enberg were co-hosts for closing ceremonies. Michael Weisman led a team covering the 1988 Summer Olympics for the network. One of those employees was Jeff Zucker. Weisman considered producing the Olympics a challenge, saying, "my mandate is to shatter the mystique that only ABC can do the Olympics." Weisman assembled the "Seoul Searchers," a group of specialized sports reporters tasked with following breaking news during the Games. Some criticized the journalistic focus to the games. Weisman, defended the tone, saying "the criticism we hear is

Hallam Street

Hallam Street is a road situated in the Parish of St Marylebone and London’s West End. In administrative terms it lies within the City of Westminster's Marylebone High Street Ward as well as the Harley Street Conservation Area. Named both Charlotte Street and Duke Street, it was renamed in the early 1900s after Henry Hallam, a noted historian, a local resident, his son Arthur Henry Hallam and the subject of Tennyson's elegy In Memoriam. Hallam Street is situated within the boundaries of the ancient Manor of St Marylebone; the history of the Manor can be traced back to the Domesday Book in the 11th century, when the area was divided into two manors: Lilestone and Tyburn. Much of the area was covered with forest and marshland and formed part of the great forest of Middlesex. Like the better known Portland Place and Great Portland Street, Hallam Street was developed by the Dukes of Portland, who owned most of the eastern half of Marylebone in the 18th and 19th centuries. Richard Horwood’s 1790s map of London shows that Charlotte Street had by been laid out as Hallam Street is today.

Maps from that period show houses lining the entire length of the street by that time. In the late 19th/early 20th century, following the expiration of individual buildings’ 99-year leases, Hallam Street was redeveloped and many of its original Georgian houses were replaced by larger mansion and office blocks; the street has buildings of five to eight storeys with a strong residential presence. Notable residents who lived for a time in the street include the Pre-Raphaelite artist and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti, the painters John Sell Cotman, Cornelius Varley, Sir Peter Francis Bourgeois, dominatrix Theresa Berkley, the writer William Gerhardi, the conductor and founder of The Proms Sir Henry Joseph Wood, American journalist and broadcaster Edward R Murrow, World War Two hero Wing Commander Forest Frederick Edward Yeo-Thomas, the radio and television writer Ernest Dudley, the Austrian writer Stefan Zweig. Number 50 Charlotte Street was both the home and official residence from 1875 to 1910 of Jesse Claxton, the Registrar of Births and Deaths for St Marylebone for 35 years.

Numbers 44 and 50 Hallam Street the offices of the General Medical Council, received Grade II designation in 1954. A large number of the street’s buildings have been characterised as "unlisted buildings of merit" in the Harley Street Conservation Area Audit and are either part of the Howard de Walden Estate or the Langham Estate. Hallam Street contains a number of institutional buildings from inter-war periods. Blitz bomb damage was extensive at the south end of the street, its synagogue was destroyed while other buildings experienced blast damage; the redevelopment of Broadcasting House, whose modern rear elevation lies on Hallam Street, was completed in 2010. Its redevelopment is the BBC's single largest capital project and has created a new centre for radio and world service in the heart of London; the BBC's facilities, a majority of the street's office buildings and its two hotels lie at the southern end of the street. Trees were planted along the length of the street in 2009 and residential fibre-optic broadband infrastructure was added to it in 2019.

There are a number of notable buildings on this Marylebone Street: New Broadcasting House 44 and 50 Hallam Street - Conference venue and residential 47 Hallam Street - Place of worship 49 Hallam Street - Residential mansion block 77 Hallam Street - Residential mansion block 84-94 Hallam Street - Residential mansion block 105 Hallam Street - Residential mansion block 110 Hallam Street - Residential mansion block 85 New Cavendish Street – De Walden Court - Residential mansion block & offices 1 Weymouth Street - Residential mansion block 2 Weymouth Street - Residential mansion block 9 Weymouth Street - Residential mansion block 10 Weymouth Street - Residential mansion block - 2 Devonshire Street - Residential mansion block 54-57 Devonshire Street - Residential mansion block The nearest London Underground stations to Hallam Street are Oxford Circus, Great Portland Street, Regents Park tube stations. Buses numbered 88, C2, 18, 27, 30, 205, 189, 3, 12, 55 stop within a close distance from Hallam Street.

List of eponymous roads in London UCL Survey of London Volumes on Hallam Street in South East Marylebone Marylebone Association website Hallam Street Facebook Community Page Hallam Street drawn into WCC Neighbourhood Forum Discussions Westminster City Council Conservation Area Audits BBC Broadcasting House Redevelopment Project web site The Howard de Walden Estate web site The Langham Estate web site Portland Village web site W1W Street Tree Initiative for Marylebone West End at War: Article on damage caused to Hallam Street by the bombing of 10-11 May 1941

Jason Harrison

Jason Christian Harrison is an English cricketer. Harrison is a right-handed batsman, he was born in Buckinghamshire. Having made his debut in county cricket for Buckinghamshire, who he played for in both the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy, Harrison made his first-class debut for Middlesex in a first-class match against Cambridge University in 1994, he played 9 further first-class matches for Middlesex, the last coming against Warwickshire in the 1996 County Championship. In his 10 first-class matches for Middlesex, he scored 298 runs at a batting average of 19.86, with a high score of 46*. It was for Middlesex that he made his List A debut for, against Leicestershire in the 1994 AXA Equity & Law League, he played 4 further List A matches for Middlesex, up to 1996. After being released by Middlesex, Harrison played a further two seasons for Buckinghamshire, in which time he made his List A debut for the county against Surrey in the 1998 NatWest Trophy; the season following that he joined Lincolnshire for the 1999 season.

He played Minor counties cricket for Lincolnshire from 1999 to 2002. Harrison appeared in the List A cricket for Lincolnshire, making 8 appearances in that format for the county, the last coming against Glamorgan in the 2002 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy. In his 8 appearances for the county, he scored 164 runs at an average of 20.50, with a single half century high score of 71. This came against Suffolk in the 2001 Gloucester Trophy, he rejoined Buckinghamshire in 2003, who he continues to play Minor counties cricket for to this day. Upon his return to his native county, he played a final List A match, against Lancashire in the 2005 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy. In his career he played a total of 15 List A matches, scoring 239 runs at an average of 19.91, with a high score of 71. With the ball he took 3 wickets at a bowling average of 67.66, with best figures of 1/3. Jason Harrison at ESPNcricinfo Jason Harrison at CricketArchive

Christian naturism

Christian naturism is the practise of naturism or nudism by Christians. Naturism is the practice of recreational social nudity in a natural environment, such as at a beach, lake, or in a forest or other wilderness area, it is not certain that Christian naturism exists in any formal organisations, there are informal networks of Christians who practise naturism. Many of the early protagonists of naturism were Christians. For example, authors such as Ilsley Boone, Henry S. Huntington and Elton Raymond Shaw were writers of books on naturism and on Christianity; the dean of St Paul's Cathedral, the Very Revd William Inge, known as Dean Inge, offered support to the cause of naturists in his support of the publishing of Maurice Parmelee's book, The New Gymnosophy: Nudity and the Modern Life. Jewish mikvahs, early Christian baptisms were performed with individuals naked; this included mass baptisms involving men and children. They signified the participant's restoration to man's original sinless condition, having their sins blotted out.

Others claim that children were baptized first men women, all separately. Public bathing was the common practice through the time of Jesus and still occurs today in a few cultures, including the Turkish bath or hammam, the Finnish sauna, Japanese onsen or Sentō, the Korean Jjimjilbang. With the exception of the family-focused Finnish sauna, most public baths are gender-segregated today. Entire families took part in the public bath—including Christians. Jesus preached at the public baths in Jerusalem; some historic religious sects, both Christian and syncretist, have made nudism a general practice. The best-known of these were the Adamites, though some of their beliefs were contrary to orthodox Christianity; the post-resurrection belief of the unclothed body being evil or sinful may originate in Platonic asceticism, adopted and passed down by "Christian" Platonists in early church history. Platonism is a dualistic theology which proposes a realm of forms to include, on the one hand, "pure ideas", which are good.

When applied to humans, the soul is good, the body is evil. Therefore, according to this philosophy, our "evil" bodies must be covered by clothing. Christian naturists reject such notions as unbiblical. Plotinus was a major philosopher of the ancient world, considered the founder of Neo-Platonism, his metaphysical writings have inspired centuries of Pagan, Jewish and Gnostic metaphysicians and mystics. About 150 years Saint Augustine was influenced by the teaching of Plotinus; as one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity, St. Augustine endorsed asceticism, which meant self-denial of worldly pleasure and total sexual abstinence; this reached its peak in monasticism. Those pursuing a monastic life are called monks or brethren if male, nuns or sisters if female. While similar activities existed in pre-Christian times, early Christian monasticism attracted a large number of followers due to its enormous prestige and high social status in the period where the Roman Empire was near collapse.

St. Augustine is one of the few saints considered important not only by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox religions, but by many Protestants as well. Christian Naturists do not believe that monasticism, along with its clothing requirements and isolation, is how Jesus taught us to live. If asceticism is practiced, it begins by living nude. In the United States, the Christian naturism movement began in the late 1920s; this occurred at nearly the same time as the start of the Great Depression, under the leadership of New Jersey Dutch Reformed minister Ilsley Boone. He was vice president of the American League for Physical Culture. By October 1931, Boone had taken over as president, renamed the club as the "American Sunbathing Association". Soon, naturism began expanding nationwide. In Rome, Pope Pius XI condemned the naturism movement throughout the early 1930s, calling it "paganly immodest"; this prompted the head of the New York Legion of Decency, former New York Catholic Governor and presidential candidate Alfred E. Smith, to try to outlaw all nudism.

A recent court ruling had declared private social nudity to be legal per current law. Their efforts failed in the state legislature. After Boone's passing in the late 1960s, the ASA became more secular, along with American society in general. In 1995, the ASA was renamed as the American Association for Nude Recreation, which has its headquarters in Florida. Pope John Paul II began his papacy in 1978, becoming the first non-Italian pope in four and a half centuries, his views on naturism differed from that of his predecessors. Authoring the book Love and Responsibility, he wrote: "Nakedness itself is not immodest... Immodesty is present only when nakedness plays a negative role with regard to the value of the person, when its aim is to arouse concupiscence, as a result of which the person is put in the position of an object for enjoyment". With the beginning of the modern internet in the mid-1990s, Christian Naturism became much more organized in the U. S. than before. The website founded in 1999 is the largest website devoted to Christian naturism.

Annual Christian Nudist Convocations began early in the decade of the 2000s. Adamites – A sect in North Africa in th