Strike action called labor strike, labour strike, or strike, is a work stoppage, caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were made illegal, as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries. Strikes are sometimes used to pressure governments to change policies. Strikes destabilize the rule of a particular political party or ruler. Notable examples are the 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard, the 1981 Warning Strike, led by Lech Wałęsa; these strikes were significant in the long campaign of civil resistance for political change in Poland, were an important mobilizing effort that contributed to the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist party rule in eastern Europe. The use of the English word "strike" was first seen in 1768, when sailors, in support of demonstrations in London, "struck" or removed the topgallant sails of merchant ships at port, thus crippling the ships.
Official publications have used the more neutral words "work stoppage" or "industrial dispute". The first certain account of strike action was towards the end of the 20th dynasty, under Pharaoh Ramses III in ancient Egypt on 14 November in 1152 BC; the artisans of the Royal Necropolis at Deir el-Medina walked off their jobs because they had not been paid. The Egyptian authorities raised the wages. An early predecessor of the general strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome. In The Outline of History, H. G. Wells characterized this event as "the general strike of the plebeians, their first strike occurred because they "saw with indignation their friends, who had served the state bravely in the legions, thrown into chains and reduced to slavery at the demand of patrician creditors". The strike action only became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution. For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the industrial working class.
By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its peak in Britain, a true and widespread'workers consciousness' was awakening. In 1842 the demands for fairer wages and conditions across many different industries exploded into the first modern general strike. After the second Chartist Petition was presented to Parliament in April 1842 and rejected, the strike began in the coal mines of Staffordshire and soon spread through Britain affecting factories, mills in Lancashire and coal mines from Dundee to South Wales and Cornwall. Instead of being a spontaneous uprising of the mutinous masses, the strike was politically motivated and was driven by an agenda to win concessions; as much as half of the industrial work force were on strike at its peak – over 500,000 men. The local leadership marshalled a growing working class tradition to politically organize their followers to mount an articulate challenge to the capitalist, political establishment. Friedrich Engels, an observer in London at the time, wrote: by its numbers, this class has become the most powerful in England, woe betide the wealthy Englishmen when it becomes conscious of this fact...
The English proletarian is only just becoming aware of his power, the fruits of this awareness were the disturbances of last summer. As the 19th century progressed, strikes became a fixture of industrial relations across the industrialized world, as workers organized themselves to collectively bargain for better wages and standards with their employers. Karl Marx has condemned the theory of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon criminalizing strike action in his work The Poverty of Philosophy. In 1937 there were 4,740 strikes in the United States; this was the greatest strike wave in American labor history. The number of major strikes and lockouts in the U. S. fell by 97% from 381 in 1970 to 187 in 1980 to only 11 in 2010. Companies countered the threat of a strike by threatening to move a plant; the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights adopted in 1967 ensure the right to strike in Article 8 and European Social Charter adopted in 1961 ensure the right to strike in Article 6. The Farah Strike, 1972–1974, labeled the "strike of the century," and it was organized and led by Mexican American women predominantly in El Paso, Texas.
Most strikes are undertaken by labor unions during collective bargaining as a last resort. The object of collective bargaining is for the employer and the union to come to an agreement over wages and working conditions. A collective bargaining agreement may include a clause which prohibits the union from striking during the term of the agreement, known as a "no-strike clause". No-strike clauses arose in the United States following World War II; some in the labor movement consider no-strike clauses to be an unnecessary detriment to unions in the collective bargaining process. Strikes are rare: according to the News Media Guild, 98% of union contracts in the United States are settled each of the 67 years without a strike. Workers decide to strike without the sanction of a labor union, either because the union refuses to endorse such a tactic, or because the workers concerned are non-unionized; such strikes are described as unofficial. Strikes without formal union authorization are known as wildcat
Lancaster High School is a secondary-level public high school located in Lancaster, is the only high school within the Lancaster City Schools district. The current building was opened during the fall of 1964; the building houses grades 9–12. Lancaster High School offers college prep, honors, AP, lower-level classes and houses its own career and technical education center, as well as the Stanbery Career Center campus located in Downtown Lancaster; the first high school in Lancaster, Ohio was founded in 1849 and was housed in a building at the corner of Broad and Allen streets, in what was known as the North Building. In 1856, the high school was moved to a South School due to overcrowding at the North Building. Enrollment continued to increase and in 1872 the school board had to provide additional classrooms at another building until 1873, when a new three-story North School building was opened; this building became overcrowded, in 1906 the high school was moved to a new building at the corner of Mulberry Street and Pearl Avenue.
According to board of education minutes from 1908, the new building was overcrowded, in 1914 a bond issue was passed to allow an extension to be added to the existing building. This annex was completed in 1917. Overcrowding continued, in 1930 another addition to the building was completed. In 1950, the final addition to the high school was completed to the east side of the building, which today houses administrative offices. In 1963, a state fire marshal ordered that the 1906 and 1917 sections of the building be abandoned because they were a fire hazard; those sections were demolished in 1965. In October 1960, the school board selected a location for a new site for the high school. Construction began in 1961, was completed in 1963; the current building is located on a 75-acre site, located on Granville Pike. The building consists of two wings: the left-wing -1st floor houses administrative offices, the library, teachers' lounge, general classrooms. Between the two wings is an area referred to the "GAC," housing the Gymnasium and Cafeteria.
In 1963, Fulton Field was opened to accommodate football games. In 1965, using funds from interest earned from previous bond issues and funds from the National Education Act of 1963, the high school opened a vocational building on-site to house cosmetology, electronics, auto mechanics, Occupational Work Experience programs. In addition, a planetarium was constructed using donated monies from Mrs. Phillip Rising Peters in memory of her husband and son. In addition to the building, Mrs. Peters donated the instruments and equipment used in the planetarium. Peters Planetarium is one of the few located on the grounds of a high school. In 2003, as part of Ohio's bicentennial, the high school was made a historical landmark in commemoration of Robert G. Heft's designing of the current 50-star flag; the students of Lancaster High School have a bike path that connects to the Ohio University Lancaster Campus. Lancaster's Latin Club functions as a local chapter of both the Ohio Junior Classical League and National Junior Classical League.
LHS had bolstered its journalism program in recent years, reinstating its student newspaper, "The Eye of the Gale." The program has an average of 25-30 student staff members, publishes the newspaper quarterly. In 2012 the organization began a student-run news site in an effort to involve students in the fluid media landscape. Lancaster, Ohio has always been known for successful theatre. Through community support, LHS puts on two major productions a year. In the fall, the school does a play, during the spring, the school does a musical. LHS has a chartered troupe of the International Thespian Society. Troupe 1848 is governed by the Educational Theatre Association and promotes theatre arts within LHS. Lancaster's marching band, the Band of Gold, has been successful over its history; the Band of Gold has qualified in the Ohio Music Education Association State Marching Band Finals each year since 1981. Lancaster High School has been known as the Golden Gales since the mid-1930s; until that point, the teams went by the Golden Tornadoes.
According to Dave Davis, a former LHS basketball coach, the name change came as a result of the Lancaster Eagle-Gazette receiving a new printing press. Due to the limitations of the column width, the full name wouldn't fit properly. One of the sports writers came up with the name stuck; the unique name is not shared with anyone else in the state of Ohio. The school and fans shorten the name of the team by dropping the adjective and refer to the team as the "Gales" This is evident by the athletic website LancasterGales.com. Boys Cross Country - 1990, 1979 Boys Track and Field - 1980 Faye Abbott, football player and head coach for the Dayton Triangles in the early days of the NFL Allan Anderson, former MLB pitcher, Minnesota Twins and American League ERA leader in 1988 Lester Burcham, former CEO of the F. W. Woolworth Company Bobby Carpenter, former NFL linebacker Rob Carpenter, former NFL running back Gene Cole, silver medalist in track at the 1952 Summer Olympics Jim Cordle, former NFL player Bill Glassford, former head football coach for the Nebraska Cornhuskers David Graf, actor most notable for playing Officer Tackleberry in the Police Academy films Alex W. "Pete" Hart, former President and CEO of MasterCard Robert G. Heft, designer of America's fifty-star flag Rex Kern, former Ohio State football quarterback.
MVP of 1969
American Life is the ninth studio album by American singer and songwriter Madonna. It was released on April 2003, by Maverick Records and Warner Bros.. Records; the album, produced by Madonna and Mirwais Ahmadzaï, features references to many parts of American culture. The album is a concept album, with themes of the American materialism; these themes reject the reputation Madonna held in the 1980s, earned by songs such as her worldwide hit "Material Girl". The album is a folktronica album. American Life received mixed reviews; the album peaked at number one in fourteen countries. The Recording Industry Association of America and British Phonographic Industry both certified it platinum in recognition of one million shipments in the United States, 300,000 shipments in the United Kingdom, respectively; the album has sold five million copies to date. American Life garnered two nominations at the 46th Grammy Awards in 2004. Four singles were released from the album; the first, the title track, was released to a negative critical reception, with Blender naming it the ninth worst song of all time.
It charted at number 37 in the US while it entered the top ten in most countries, peaking at number two in the United Kingdom. A controversial music video was pulled after scenes of war and violence were criticized which led to an edited version being released, its following single, "Hollywood", became her first single not to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 since 1983 but became a important dance hit worldwide. "Nothing Fails" and "Love Profusion", the third and fourth singles featured a lack of promotion resulting in poor commercial performances. Despite this, both songs were international hit singles, peaking at number one in Spain and number 11 in the United Kingdom; the four singles reached number one on the Billboard Dance Club Songs chart, making Madonna the first artist to have twelve singles in a row top the chart. Madonna promoted the album during a small promotional tour for the album in April and May 2003. At the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards, she performed alongside Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera and Missy Elliott a medley of "Like a Virgin" and "Hollywood" and engaged in open-mouth kissing with Aguilera and Spears gaining great controversy and publicity.
American Life was supported by Madonna's sixth concert tour, the Re-Invention World Tour, the highest grossing tour of 2004 earning $125 million. The tour was chronicled in the documentary I'm Going to Tell You a Secret, which led to Madonna's first live album of the same name. During the early 1990s, Madonna had focused on a number of provocative releases, like the erotic pictorial book Sex, the sadomasochist inspired album Erotica, the erotic thriller, Body of Evidence, all of which she deduced was due to "a lot of rage and anger" within herself. However, by the beginning of the new millennium, Madonna was living a calmer, more introspective and wholesome life with her husband Guy Ritchie, their son Rocco, Madonna's daughter Lourdes from a previous relationship. According to biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli, the presence of Ritchie in Madonna's life had a calming effect on the singer, making her more matured and easing her temper. Concentrating on her music career, Madonna was busy throughout 2001 on her Drowned World Tour.
On September 11, 2001, suicide bombers hijacked two jet airliners and crashed into the World Trade Center, resulting in the death of nearly 3,000 people. The event had a profound effect on American society, with the cultural mood being bleakness and paranoia. People, including Madonna, started asking questions about their culture and the American Dream, a long-lasting ideal for many; when Madonna started working on her ninth studio album, American Life, she wanted answers to her queries and an appropriate response to the 9/11 disaster and the ensuing Iraq war of 2003. She believed that the ensuing months with the war would lead to a politically charged atmosphere throughout the country, wanted to express that in the record. Like her 2000 studio album, Madonna enlisted the help of French DJ and producer Mirwais Ahmadzaï. Always interested in adapting herself and her music to the contemporary compositions, Madonna was inspired by the new Massive Attack and Lemon Jelly albums. "We set out to put the two worlds of acoustic and electronic music together," said Madonna, adding "It is another step on, but I've never wanted to repeat myself.
I don't want to repeat myself or make the same record twice." American Life became Madonna's final studio album with Maverick Records, marked the end of an eleven-year recording history with the label. In an interview with VH1 titled Madonna Speaks, the singer discussed her 20 years in the music industry, revealed her motivations behind American Life, about "material things" being unimportant. "I have lots of'material' things and I've had lots of beliefs about things and what's important, I look back at the 20 years behind me and I realized that a lot of things that I'd valued weren't important", she concluded. Discussing her thoughts on the conception of the album, she told Q magazine that through her 20 years of being in the entertainment industry, she would have a correct opinion on fame and fortune and its perils, which would be the base of the album; when Madonna started writing the songs on the album, she was inspired by different situations, like having guitar lessons and getting an idea, or sometimes Ahmadzaï would send over a rough demo to her without the basic chord progression.
The songs on American Life and their lyrics were developed like that. Explaining her writing process, Madonna t