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Strike zone

In baseball, the strike zone is the volume of space through which a pitch must pass in order to be called a strike, if the batter does not swing. The strike zone is defined as the volume of space above home plate and between the batter's knees and the midpoint of their torso. Whether a pitch passes through the zone is decided by an umpire, positioned behind the catcher. Strikes are desirable for the pitcher and the fielding team, as three strikes result in a strikeout of that batter. A pitch that misses the strike zone is called a ball. Balls are desirable for the batter and the batting team, as four balls allow the batter to take a "walk" to first base as a base on balls. Multiple sets of rules govern baseball and softball, which define the strike zone differently; the rulebook in use depends on the league. The Major League Official Rules defines the top of the strike zone at the midpoint between the top of the batter's shoulders and the top of the uniform pants; the bottom of the strike zone is at the hollow beneath the kneecap, both determined from the batter's stance as the batter is prepared to swing at the pitched ball.

The right and left boundaries of the strike zone correspond to the edges of home plate. A pitch that touches the outer boundary of the zone is as much a strike as a pitch, thrown right down the center. A pitch at which the batter does not swing and which does not pass through the strike zone is called a ball; the active tally of strikes and balls during a player's turn batting is called the count. The strike zone is a volume of space delimited by vertical planes extending up from the pentagonal boundaries of the home plate and limited at the top and bottom by upper and lower horizontal planes passing through the horizontal lines of the definition above; this volume thus takes the form of a vertical right pentagonal prism located above home plate. A pitch passing outside the front of the defined volume of the strike zone but curving so as to enter this volume farther back is described as a "back-door strike". Major League Baseball has increased or reduced the size of the strike zone in an attempt to control the balance of power between pitchers and hitters.

After the record home run year by Roger Maris in 1961, the major leagues increased the size of the strike zone from the top of the batter's shoulders to the bottom of his knees. In 1968, pitchers such as Denny McLain and Bob Gibson among others dominated hitters, producing 339 shutouts. Carl Yastrzemski would be the only American League hitter to finish the season with a batting average higher than.300. In the National League, Gibson posted a 1.12 earned run average, the lowest in 54 years, while Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Don Drysdale threw a record 58 and two-thirds consecutive scoreless innings during the 1968 season. As a result of the dropping offensive statistics, Major League Baseball took steps to reduce the advantage held by pitchers by lowering the height of the pitcher's mound from 15 inches to 10 inches, by reducing the size of the strike zone for the 1969 season. Although the de facto enforced strike zone can vary, the Official Rules define a pitch as a strike "if any part of the ball passes through any part of the strike zone."

A batter who accumulates three strikes in a single batting appearance has struck out and is ruled out. In early iterations of the rules during the 19th century, it took up to 9 balls for a batter to earn a walk. While baseball rules provide a precise definition for the strike zone, in practice, it is up to the judgment of the umpire to decide whether the pitch passed through the zone; the Official Baseball Rules state that objections to judgment calls on the field, including balls and strikes, shall not be tolerated, that any manager, coach, or player who leaves his dugout or field position to contest a judgment call will first be warned, ejected. Many umpires and analysts, including the authors of a University of Nebraska study on the subject, believe that due to the QuesTec pitch-tracking system, the enforced strike zone in 2002–2006 was larger compared to the zone in 1996–2000 and thus closer to the rulebook definition; some commentators, such as Tim Roberts of, believe that the zone has changed so much that some pitchers, such as Tom Glavine, have had to radically adjust their approach to pitching for strikes.

In 2003, a frustrated Curt Schilling took a baseball bat to a QuesTec camera and destroyed it after a loss, saying the umpires shouldn't be changing the strike zone to match the machines. In 2009, a new system called Zone Evaluation was implemented in all 30 Major League ballparks, replacing the QuesTec system. Much of the early resistance from Major League umpires to QuesTec had diminished and the implementation of the new Zone Evaluation system in all the parks went unnoticed. Like the old system, the new system will be used to grade umpires on accuracy and used to determine which umpires receive postseason assignments. Glossary of baseball Gammons, Peter. "What Ever Happened to the Strike Zone?". Sports Illustrated. 66: 36–40, 45–46. 2001 Changes in Strike Zone St. Petersburg Times article. Strike Zone MLB website. John Walsh, "Strike Zone: Fact vs. Fiction", The Hardball Times, July 11, 2007 The Strike Zone: A Chronologi

Federico Moreno Torroba

Federico Moreno Torroba was a Spanish composer and theatrical impresario. He is remembered for his important contributions to the classical guitar repertoire, becoming one of the leading twentieth-century composers for the instrument, he was one of the foremost composers of zarzuelas, a form of Spanish light opera. His 1932 zarzuela, Luisa Fernanda, has proved to be enduringly popular. In addition, he composed ballets, symphonic works, piano pieces, as well as one-act operas and one full-length opera, El poeta, which premiere in 1980, starring well-known tenor Plácido Domingo. Moreno Torroba ran his own zarzuela company, which toured extensively in Latin America. Over the course of his long career, Moreno Torroba composed many works, both in traditional Spanish forms and for the concert hall, he is associated with the zarzuela, a traditional Spanish musical form. He achieved his greatest success in the 1930s with the zarzuelas Luisa La Chulapona. Directing several opera companies, Moreno Torroba helped introduce the zarzuela to international audiences.

In 1946 he formed a zarzuela company with singers Plácido Domingo Ferrer and Pepita Embil, the parents of Plácido Domingo and close friends of his. The company toured Latin America for two years, becoming popular in Mexico; the composer, identified from the beginning with the phalanx, to be on the national side. Decided to go to America in 1946 to avoid the economic and food shortages of the postwar Spain. Moreno Torroba composed operas, of which La Virgen de Mayo and El poeta with Plácido Domingo in the title role, are his best known. In addition to his vocal works, he is well known for his compositions for the classical guitar, many of which were dedicated to either Maria Angélica Funes or Andrés Segovia. Although he did not play the guitar himself he had a deep understanding of the instrument, according to the virtuoso Pepe Romero, he frequently conducted. La Virgen de Mayo, 1 act El poeta, 4 acts La Mesonera de Tordesillas La Marchenera Azabache Luisa Fernanda Xuanón La Chulapona Sor Navarra Maravilla El Duende azul Baile en Capitanía Ella Fantasía de Levante Don Quixote El Hijo pródigo Cristo, luz del mundo La Ajorca de oro Zoraida Suite madrileña Mosaico sevillano Aires vascos Danzas asturianas San Fermín Eritaña Sonatina trianera Fantasía castellana for piano and orchestra Solo Sonatina Nocturno Suite castellana.

Contains: 1. Fandanguillo. Arada. Danza. Preludio Burgalesa Piezas características. Contains: 1. Preámbulo. Oliveras. Melodía. Albada. Los Mayos. Panorama. Sonata-Fantasía Madrileñas Zapateados Segoviana Sevillana Once obras Habanera de mi niña Castillos de España. Contains: Sigüenza, Manzanares el Real, Alba de Tormes, Alcañiz, Torija, Zafra, Turégano, Alcázar de Segovia, Calatrava. Tríptico Las Puertas de Madrid. Contains: Puerta de San Vicente. Aires de La Mancha Madroños Serenata Burlesca Siete Piezas de Álbum. Contains: Chisperada. Sonatina y variación in E minor Suite miniatura. Contains: Llamada. Guitar with orchestra Concerto de Castilla Homenaje a la seguidilla Tres nocturnos Concerto ibérico Diálogos Guitar quartets Ráfagas Estampas Sonata-Fantasía II Sonata trianera Apetits pas El Mate Alegrías de Cadiz Fandango corralero Torerías Chucares Noche sevillana Mosaico Andaluz – Orquesta De Conciertos De Madrid, Director y arreglador F. Moreno Torroba Recordando El Ayer – Orquesta Federico Moreno Torroba La Voz de su Amo – Isabel Rivas, Luis Sagi-Vela, Tino Pardo, Ramón Alonso, Rosa Sarmiento, Mari Carmen Ramírez, Matilde Garcés, Enrique del Portal, Luis Frutos, Ana M.ª Amengual.

Coro Cantores de Madrid, dir.: José Perera. Orquesta Lírica Española, dir.: Federico Moreno Torroba. Federico Moreno Torroba – Banda De Pasodobles De Madrid – Lp Pasodobles Toretos – RCA 1958 Ultimos Exitos De Lola Flores. Acompañada Por F. Moreno Torroba Y Su Orquestra Luisa Fernanda – Moreno Torroba Corrida De Toros Con Oles María Manuela Moreno Torroba: Homenaje A La Seguidilla c/w Castelnuovo-Tedesco: Guitar Concerto In D, Op. 99. Ángel Romero, ECO, Federico Moreno Torroba. EMI: ASD 4171. Luisa Fernanda. Moreno Torroba conducts, 1932. Azabache – Xuanon – Maria La Tempranica. Moreno Torroba conducts. La Caramba – Maravilla – La Ilustre Moza. Moreno Torroba conducts. Clark, Walter Aaron – Krause, William Craig: Federico Moreno Torroba: A Musical Life in Three Acts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-19-531370-3. Works by or about Federico Moreno Torroba at Internet Archive Luisa Fernanda Zarzuela, Aria of Umbrellas Mazurca of the umbrellas Necrologías del Excmo. Sr. D. Federico Moreno Torroba. by Enrique Pardo Canalís ref.

Articles from ABC Sevilla and ABC Madrid on ▸ BUSQUEDA AVANZADA (in small wh

El Trece

Channel 13 is an Argentine free-to-air television network and the flagship station of the network of the same name, located in the capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires. It is owned by Grupo Clarín; as mentioned by its name, it broadcasts on VHF channel 13 in Buenos Aires, where the main station is located. Channel 13 was founded in 1960, started broadcasting on 1 October 1960, at 8:30 p.m. The channel was tendered to the company Rio de la Plata S. A. TV, founded by Cuban businessman Goar Mestre and the US network CBS. In the mid-1960s, Editorial Atlántida and Mestre's wife bought the shares of the channel. Since Channel 13 began to compete with the other two open private channels of the city of Buenos Aires, Channel 9 and Channel 11, which had gone through a similar process. In those years there were great successes in the Argentine television industry, with Channel 13 broadcasting Viendo a Biondi, a comedy show centered on characters by Pepe Biondi. In 1974, the government of Isabel Perón nationalised the station along with two other terrestrial private channels of Buenos Aires, in order to bring a media policy based on the European way, where television was managed by the government.

During the self-styled National Reorganisation Process, the last military dictatorship that ruled the country from 1976 to 1983, the channel's administration was handed over to the Argentine Navy, a condition maintained until 1983, when democratic rule was restored. However, the network continued under public administration, as it had been since the Perón administrations; the Navy helped the station in its transition to colour broadcasts on Labor Day, 1 May 1980. After 15 years as a government-owned station, on December 1989, Artear, a company with majority ownership by Artes Gráficas Editorial Argentino S. A, publisher of the Clarín newspaper and part of its multimedia conglomerate took over the station management. Since the channel is positioned as the second in TV ratings in Buenos Aires, competing against Telefe. In the 1990s, achieved great ratings, thanks to political comedy programs Tato Bores, programs of cultural and La aventura del hombre, TV series La Banda del Golden Rocket, Montaña Rusa Gasoleros and the series Campeones de la vida and Poliladron.

Since 1996, the channel operates with Pol-ka Producciones, owned by actor and producer Adrian Suar, who in 2001 became program manager of the channel. In 2000, its brand name was changed to Canal Trece. In 2002, the network started a new trend, which consisted on renewing its aesthetic graphical package every year. During the 2000s, Channel 13 remained in second place on TV ratings. In December 2005, Artear bought 30% of shares from Ideas del Sur. In January 2009, the channel kept its logo. In April of that year, after several failed attempts, Channel 13 launched its own international channel, broadcast in over 20 countries via subscription television. Between 24 and 26 March and 5 May 2009, Artear's satellite feeds suffered unusual interferences. Although the opposition lawmakers blamed the Cristina Fernandez left-wing administration, the anomalies were determined to be caused by a Mexican broadcasting company. In 2010 and 2011, Channel 13 managed to defeat Telefe and rank first in the general audience average, a situation that had not happened in 20 years, driven by the high audience of reality show Showmatch, added to the good performance of Telenoche, the daily shows Malparida, Los únicos y Herederos de una venganza, entertainment programs Sábado show, La cocina del show and A todo o nada and the fourth season of Este es el show.

In 2012 the station returned to second place, remaining in that position as of 2019. From 2010 to 2014, the channel's highlighted programs were telenovelas Malparida, Herederos de una venganza, Los Únicos, Sos mi hombre, Solamente vos and Guapas, TV shows Para vestir santos, El puntero and Tiempos compulsivos, entertainment programs and newscasts like Showmatch, Este es el show, Sábado show, El diario de Mariana, Periodismo para todos, A todo o nada and Los 8 escalones and its reality shows Soñando por bailar, Soñando por cantar y Cuestión de peso. With this programming, the channel scored second place in 2012, 2013 and 2014. Tinelli remained as the main figure of the channel during this decade, he was absent from Showmatch in 2013, when he decided to take a sabbatical year after having finished his contract with Channel 13. In that year he was about to move to Telefe, in the middle of an operation led by the Kirchner left-wing government through businessman Cristóbal López, to harm Grupo Clarín.

The businessman that controlled Canal 13 during this decade was Guido Kaczka, who led programs such as A todo o nada, Los 8 escalones, Dar la nota, La mejor elección, Hacelo feliz, Las puertas and La tribuna de Guido. In March 2014, after 34 years, Mirtha Legrand returned to Channel 13 starring in Almorzando con Mirtha Legrand and La noche de Mirtha. Official website

Damodar Rao of Jhansi

Damodar Rao was the adopted son of Maharaja Gangadhar Rao and Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi State. Born as Anand Rao to Vasudev Rao Newalkar, a cousin of Raja Gangadhar Rao, he was adopted by the maharaja after his own son died; the adoption of Anand Rao, renamed Damodar Rao, occurred on the day before the Maharaja died. The adoption was in the presence of the British political officer, given a letter from the Maharaja instructing that the child be treated with respect and that the government of Jhansi should be given to his widow for her lifetime. After the death of the Maharaja in November 1853, because Damodar Rao was adopted, the British East India Company, under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie, applied the Doctrine of Lapse, rejecting Damodar Rao's claim to the throne and annexing the state to its territories; when she was informed of this, Rani Laxmibai cried out "I shall not surrender my Jhansi". In March 1854, Rani Laxmibai was given an annual pension of Rs. 60,000 and ordered to leave the palace and the fort.

However, actions by mutineers at Jhansi and the failure of negotiations between the Rani and the Company resulted in Jhansi State reasserting its independence. Company forces laid siege to the city of Jhansi and after determined resistance, they breached its defences. Rani Laxmibai evaded capture by, according to tradition, with Damodar Rao on her back jumping on her horse, Badal from the fort, they survived. More she escaped in the night with her son, surrounded by guards. After the death of Rani Laxmibai at Kotah ki Serai on 18 June 1858, he survived that battle and lived with his mentors in the jungle, in dire poverty. According to a memoir purporting to be by Damodar Rao, he was among his mother's troops and household at the battle of Gwalior, together with others who had survived the battle, he fled from the camp of Rao Sahib of Bithur and as the village people of Bundelkhand dared not aid them for fear of reprisals from the British they were forced to live in the forest and suffer many privations.

He had taken asylum in Jhalrapatan when due to help of some old confidants, he met Raja Pratapsinh of Jhalarpatan. An old confidant, Nanekhan impressed upon the local British political officer, Flink to forgive young Damodar, he was sent to Indore. Here, Sir Richard Shakespeare, the local political agent, placed him under the guardianship of a Kashmiri teacher, called Munshi Dharmanarayan, to teach Damodar - Urdu, English & Marathi, he was allotted an annual pension of Rs. 10,000. He married, his first wife died shortly afterwards and he was married again into Shivre family. In 1904, he had a son named Lakshman Rao. After end of the Company rule in India, he petitioned British Raj for recognition but was refused to be recognized as legal heir. Damodar Rao was an avid photographer by passion, he died on 28 May 1906 survived by his son Lakhsman Rao

I.S.T. L-17

The I. S. T. L-17 Masang was a two-seat, single engine, low wing monoplane aircraft designed and built in the Philippine Republic in the mid-1950s, it was intended for both training. In the mid-1950s the Philippine Institute of Science and Technology designed aircraft to explore the possibilities of local aircraft production from indigenous materials; the single engine, tricycle undercarriage, low wing monoplane L-17 was one of them. Its wing was a single-piece wooden structure with 5 ° of a straight-tapered plan, it had split flaps inboard of the ailerons. The cantilever tail unit was constructed with the straight-tapered horizontal surfaces on top of the extreme aft fuselage; the vertical tail was straight-edged. The L-17's fuselage was a plywood-skinned wooden semi-monocoque, the cockpit seating two side by side under a single piece canopy. A 108 hp Lycoming O-235 flat-four engine drove a two-blade propeller; the fixed tricycle undercarriage had rearward-sloping oleo legs mounted to the wings, giving a track of 2.40 m.

The first flight of the L-17 was scheduled for May 1956. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1956/7 - all performance figures estimatedGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.20 m Wingspan: 9.60 m Height: 3.20 m Wing area: 13.40 m2 Airfoil: US 35B at root, NACA 23012 tip Empty weight: 510 kg Gross weight: 735 kg Fuel capacity: 68 L Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-235-C1 4-cylinder horizontally opposed, air cooled, 81 kW Propellers: 2-bladed, fixed pitch, woodenPerformance Maximum speed: 210 km/h Cruise speed: 175 km/h Rate of climb: 3.8 m/s

Spectrum SportsNet (Los Angeles)

Spectrum SportsNet Time Warner Cable SportsNet, is an American regional sports cable and satellite television network, owned by Charter Communications through its acquisition of Time Warner Cable in May 2016, with the Los Angeles Lakers maintaining editorial control over the content, including team-assigned reporters and anchors, as well as team-related programming. The network is based near the Lakers' team headquarters in the Los Angeles suburb of El Segundo, California. Spectrum SportsNet launched at 7:00 p.m. Pacific Time on October 1, 2012. Spectrum SportsNet serves the Los Angeles and San Diego metropolitan areas, the Coachella Valley, the Central Coast of California, Las Vegas, Hawaii. Lakers game broadcasts serve as the centerpiece for the network. Spectrum SportsNet has been the exclusive home of all Lakers games that are not televised nationally since the 2012–13 NBA season. Other sports events aired on the network include Los Angeles Galaxy soccer and Los Angeles Sparks basketball games.

Spectrum Deportes, the first Spanish language Regional Sports Network in the U. S. at launch, was shut down on August 2018 citing a lack of viewership. Game broadcasts are carried in high definition in English. A Spanish language audio track is provided for all Lakers and Galaxy games via the second audio program function available on most television sets and cable receiver boxes. A Korean language audio track has been provided via the second audio program from 2012 to 2018. On February 14, 2011, the Lakers and Time Warner Cable signed a $3 billion, 20-year cable television agreement which took effect in the fall of 2012; the network televises every Laker game not designated for an exclusive broadcast by either ABC, ESPN or TNT. The new venture ended long-standing broadcast partnerships with KCAL-TV, which had televised the Lakers' road games since the 1977–78 season; the Lakers joined a growing list of NBA franchises that have abandoned over-the-air local telecasts in favor of their games being available on cable and satellite.

Besides live games, the network feature a team news magazine program, classic games, profiles of Laker players past and present, exclusive video-on-demand content, available both online and on television. As part of the agreement with Time Warner, the team stated that it would work with the cable provider to ensure that other providers within the Lakers' designated broadcast territory would have access to the network; as of 2012, the only television providers that does not carry the channel are satellite provider Dish, cable company Comcast serving Northern Santa Barbara County, IPTV's CenturyLink Prism TV serving Las Vegas Valley. Time Warner offers the channel for $3.95 a subscriber, comparable to other regional sports networks, but other providers were concerned that this cost could increase should the Los Angeles Dodgers begin carrying their games on Time Warner Cable SportsNet. On November 18, 2011, Time Warner Cable Sports announced a broadcast rights agreement with the MLS' Los Angeles Galaxy a ten-year deal starting with the 2012 season in which the team will be paid $55 million during the contractual period.

The network will televise all Galaxy matches that are not televised on a national network, will broadcast matches involving non-MLS opponents. Similar to the agreement with the Lakers, the Galaxy has supplementary programming featured on the networks, including a weekly team magazine, possible classic matches. Prior to the network launch, Anaheim-based independent station KDOC-TV televised 18 Galaxy matches for the 2012 MLS season, with production handled by Time Warner Cable SportsNet; the new network televised the remainder of the Galaxy's schedule beginning in October 2012. Much like the Lakers, the Galaxy maintained a long-standing broadcast agreement with Fox Sports West and Prime Ticket. On March 14, 2012, it was announced that the channel had signed a multi-year deal with the WNBA's Los Angeles Sparks franchise. Although the deal was reported as being non-exclusive, all of the televised games during the 2013 season aired on TWC SportsNet, except for those that were nationally broadcast on ABC, ESPN or ESPN2.

Since the 2018 WNBA Season, because of the Las Vegas Aces hold territorial rights for all of Southern Nevada, Los Angeles Sparks games are blacked out in the Las Vegas Valley on Spectrum SportsNet regardless of the cable or satellite provider, requiring a subscription to the WNBA League Pass out-of-market sports package to view those telecasts. All other sports programming, with the exception of Sparks basketball games carried on Spectrum SportsNet, is available in Southern Nevada. On January 23, 2013, Time Warner Cable and the Los Angeles Dodgers reached a deal to create a new channel called SportsNet LA, which would become the exclu