International Labour Organization
The International Labour Organization is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social justice and promote decent work by setting international labour standards. It was the first specialised agency of the UN; the ILO has 187 member states: 186 of the 193 UN member states plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO. The tripartite structure is unique to the ILO where representatives from the government and employees debate and create labour standards; the International Labour Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization. It is the focal point for International Labour Organization's overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General; the Office employs some 2,700 officials from over 150 nations at its headquarters in Geneva, in around 40 field offices around the world. Among these officials, 900 work in technical cooperation projects. In 1969, the ILO received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving fraternity and peace among nations, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, providing technical assistance to other developing nations.
Fifty years to mark the organisation's centenary, it convened a Global Commission on the Future of Work, whose report, published in January 2019, made ten recommendations for governments to meet the unprecedented challenges of a changing world of work. Those included a universal labour guarantee, social protection from birth to old age and an entitlement to lifelong learning; the International Labour Organization has developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and dignity. The International Labour Organization, the oldest UN specialized agency, will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 2019. “Throughout the last century, international labour standards have guided countries, in the words of the 1919 ILO Constitution, “to adopt humane conditions of labour” with the understanding that a failure to do so would become “an obstacle in the way of other nations which desire to improve the conditions in their own countries”.
This 100 years will be an opportunity to celebrate the ILO's achievements and to reaffirm its position as the authoritative organization of the world of work. Throughout 2019, there will be different events taking place around the world that will highlight the achievements of the organization and the role it plays in everyone's lives; this will be an opportunity to reaffirm the ILO's core values and vision as it prepares for its second century of worked. Unlike other United Nations specialized agencies, the International Labour Organization has a tripartite governing structure that brings together governments and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men; the structure of the ILO, where workers and employers together have an equal voice with governments in its deliberations, shows social dialogue in action. It ensures that the views of the social partners are reflected in ILO labour standards and programmes.
The Governing Body is the executive body of the International Labour Organization. It meets three times a year, in March and November, it takes decisions on ILO policy, decides the agenda of the International Labour Conference, adopts the draft Programme and Budget of the Organization for submission to the Conference, elects the Director-General, requests information from member states concerning labour matters, appoints commissions of inquiry and supervises the work of the International Labour Office. Juan Somavía was the ILO's Director-General from 1999 until October 2012; the ILO Governing Body re-elected Guy Rider as Director-General for a second five year-term in November 2016. This governing body is composed of 66 deputy members. Ten of the titular government seats are permanently held by States of chief industrial importance: Brazil, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States; the other Government members are elected by the Conference every three years.
The Employer and Worker members are elected in their individual capacity. The ILO organises once a year the International Labour Conference in Geneva to set the broad policies of the ILO, including conventions and recommendations. Known as the "international parliament of labour", the conference makes decisions about the ILO's general policy, work programme and budget and elects the Governing Body; each member State is represented by a delegation: two government delegates, an employer delegate, a worker delegate and their respective advisers. All of them have individual voting rights and all votes are equal, regardless the population of the delegate's member State; the employer and worker delegates are chosen in agreement with the most representative national organizations of employers and workers. The workers and employers' delegates coordinate their voting. All delegates are not required to vote in blocs. Delegate have the same rights, they can express themselves and vote as they wish; this diversity of viewpoints does not prevent decisions being adopted by large majorities or unanimously.
Heads of State and prime ministers participate in the Conference. International organizations, both governmental and others attend but as observers. Through Ju
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
John Griffith London was an American novelist and social activist. A pioneer in the world of commercial magazine fiction, he was one of the first writers to become a worldwide celebrity and earn a large fortune from writing, he was an innovator in the genre that would become known as science fiction. His most famous works include The Call of the Wild and White Fang, both set in the Klondike Gold Rush, as well as the short stories "To Build a Fire", "An Odyssey of the North", "Love of Life", he wrote about the South Pacific in stories such as "The Pearls of Parlay" and "The Heathen". London was part of the radical literary group "The Crowd" in San Francisco and a passionate advocate of unionization and the rights of workers, he wrote several powerful works dealing with these topics, such as his dystopian novel The Iron Heel, his non-fiction exposé The People of the Abyss, The War of the Classes. Jack London's mother, Flora Wellman, was the fifth and youngest child of Pennsylvania Canal builder Marshall Wellman and his first wife, Eleanor Garrett Jones.
Marshall Wellman was descended from Thomas Wellman, an early Puritan settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Flora moved to the Pacific coast when her father remarried after her mother died. In San Francisco, Flora worked as a music teacher and spiritualist, claiming to channel the spirit of a Sauk chief, Black Hawk. Biographer Clarice Stasz and others believe. Flora Wellman was living with Chaney in San Francisco. Whether Wellman and Chaney were married is unknown. Most San Francisco civil records were destroyed by the extensive fires that followed the 1906 earthquake. Stasz notes that in his memoirs, Chaney refers to London's mother Flora Wellman as having been his "wife". According to Flora Wellman's account, as recorded in the San Francisco Chronicle of June 4, 1875, Chaney demanded that she have an abortion; when she refused, he disclaimed responsibility for the child. In desperation, she shot herself, she was not wounded, but she was temporarily deranged. After giving birth, Flora turned the baby over for care to Virginia Prentiss, an African-American woman and former slave.
She was a major maternal figure throughout London's life. Late in 1876, Flora Wellman married John London, a disabled Civil War veteran, brought her baby John known as Jack, to live with the newly married couple; the family moved around the San Francisco Bay Area before settling in Oakland, where London completed public grade school. In 1897, when he was 21 and a student at the University of California, London searched for and read the newspaper accounts of his mother's suicide attempt and the name of his biological father, he wrote to William Chaney living in Chicago. Chaney responded. Chaney concluded by saying. London was devastated by his father's letter. London was born near Brannan Streets in San Francisco; the house burned down in the fire after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Although the family was working class, it was not as impoverished as London's accounts claimed. London was self-educated. In 1885, London read Ouida's long Victorian novel Signa, he credited this as the seed of his literary success.
In 1886, he went to the Oakland Public Library and found a sympathetic librarian, Ina Coolbrith, who encouraged his learning.. In 1889, London began working 12 to 18 hours a day at Hickmott's Cannery. Seeking a way out, he borrowed money from his foster mother Virginia Prentiss, bought the sloop Razzle-Dazzle from an oyster pirate named French Frank, became an oyster pirate himself. In his memoir, John Barleycorn, he claims to have stolen French Frank's mistress Mamie. After a few months, his sloop became damaged beyond repair. London hired on as a member of the California Fish Patrol. In 1893, he signed on to the sealing schooner Sophie Sutherland, bound for the coast of Japan; when he returned, the country was in the grip of the panic of'93 and Oakland was swept by labor unrest. After grueling jobs in a jute mill and a street-railway power plant, London joined Coxey's Army and began his career as a tramp. In 1894, he spent 30 days for vagrancy in the Erie County Penitentiary at New York. In The Road, he wrote: Man-handling was one of the minor unprintable horrors of the Erie County Pen.
I say'unprintable'. They were unthinkable to me until I saw them, I was no spring chicken in the ways of the world and the awful abysses of human degradation, it would take a deep plummet to reach bottom in the Erie County Pen, I do but skim and facetiously the surface of things as I there saw them. After many experiences as a hobo and a sailor, he returned to Oakland and attended Oakland High School, he contributed a number of articles to The Aegis. His first published work was "Typhoon off the Coast of Japan", an account of his sailing experiences; as a schoolboy, London stu
Shoe polish is a waxy paste, cream, or liquid used to polish and waterproof leather shoes or boots to extend the footwear's life, restore and improve their appearance. Shoe polish can be classified into three types: wax, cream-emulsion, liquid; each differs in detailed composition but all consist of a mixture of waxes and dyes. Waxes, organic solvents, dyes compose this type of polish. Waxes are 20–40% of the material. Natural waxes include montan as well as synthetic waxes; the composition is determined by a balance of hardness and polishing properties after solvent has evaporated. Solvents are selected to match the waxes. About 70% of shoe polish is solvent. A variety of solvents are used including naphtha. Turpentine, although more expensive, is favored for its "shoe polish odor". Dyes make up the final 2–3% of the polish. A traditional dye is nigrosine, but other dyes and pigments are used for oxblood and brown polishes. Owing to its high content of volatile solvents, wax-based shoe polish hardens after application, while retaining its gloss.
Poorly blended polishes are known to suffer from blooming, evidenced by the appearance of a white coating of stearin on the polish surface. These polishes may have a gelatinous consistency, they are composed of the usual three components waxes, liquid vehicle, dyes. Unlike wax-based shoe polishes, cream-emulsions contain water and/or oil plus a solvent, so the liquid content is high. Emulsifiers and surfactants are required; these include ammonia and various ethoxylated surfactants such as polysorbate 80. The waxes are some mixture of carnauba wax, montan wax and its oxidized derivatives, paraffin waxes. Liquid shoe polish is sold in a squeezable plastic bottle, with a small sponge applicator at the end. To decrease its viscosity, bottled polish has a low wax content. Liquid shoe polish is a complex mixture. Polyethylene wax emulsion is a major component. Various polymers acrylates, are the next major component, conferring gloss and holding the dyes in suspension. Resins and casein are selected to ensure adhesion to the leather.
Fatty phosphate esters and glycols are used. Pigments include titanium dioxide for whites and iron oxides for browns. Although liquid polish can put a fast shine on shoes, many experts warn against its long-term use because it can cause the leather to dry out and crack; the process for producing shoe polish is straightforward and the required equipment is easy to acquire. The cost of establishing shoe polish manufacturing facilities has been estimated at around $600,000. Shoe polish is manufactured in stirred reactors. Steps are taken to ensure. Low-melting paraffin wax is melted, followed by the higher melting waxes, the colorant-stearate mixture; the molten mass is added to warm solvent before being dispensed. Wax-based shoe polish is traditionally packaged in flat, round, 60-gram tins with an easy-open facility; the traditional flat, round tins have since become synonymous with shoe polishes. When dried due to solvent loss or other reasons, the hardened wax pulls away from the walls of the container giving what is known as a "rattler".
From medieval times, dubbin, a waxy product, was used to waterproof leather. It was made from natural wax, soda ash and tallow; as leather with a high natural veneer became popular in the 18th century, a high glossy finish became important on shoes and boots. In most cases, homemade polishes were used to provide this finish with lanolin or beeswax as a base. In the late 18th and early 19th century many forms of shoe polish became available, yet were referred to as shoe polish or boot polish. Instead, they were called blacking when mixed with lampblack, or still were referred to as dubbin. Tallow, an animal by-product, was used to manufacture a simple form of shoe polish at this time. Chicago, where 82% of the processed meat consumed in the United States was processed in the stock yards, became a major shoe polish producing area. In London the Warren brothers and Jonathan, started making blacking around 1795–98 in partnership and with competing companies. Jonathan Warren's Blacking company is noted as the first employer of the young Charles Dickens aged 12 in 1823.
The competitor to the Warren companies in London is the Day & Martin company formed in 1801. Details of the operation of Day & Martin in 1842 reveal that the blacking they produced was in two forms, bottled liquid, a thick paste, available in either small wide-mouthed stone tubs, slabs wrapped in oiled paper, or in "circular tin-boxes, about three inches in diameter, half or three-quarters of an inch thick". Tinned blacking paste was at this time for army use; the text states, "Yet, as the soldier’s boots or shoes must to some extent emulate the brightness and glitter of the boots of those who pay for battles instead of fighting them, a portable blacking apparatus is provided." This confirms the tins as polish rather than dubbin. In 1832, James S. Mason of Philadelphia began the commercial production of shoe blacking and inks. In 1851, James S. Mason & Co. constructed a building at 138/140 Front St. where ten million boxes were produced annually, to hold tins of blacking produced by two hundred employees.
Tins of blacking were labeled as Mason Shoe Polish. This business ceased operation in 1919 and the building was razed in 1973. Other early leather preserving products included the Irish brand Punch, whi
Pinkerton (detective agency)
Pinkerton, founded as the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, is a private security guard and detective agency established in the United States by Scotsman Allan Pinkerton in 1850 and a subsidiary of Securitas AB. Pinkerton became famous when he claimed to have foiled a plot to assassinate president-elect Abraham Lincoln, who hired Pinkerton agents for his personal security during the Civil War. Pinkerton's agents performed services ranging from security guarding to private military contracting work. Notably, the Pinkerton Detective Agency hired a practice uncommon at the time. Pinkerton was the largest private law enforcement organization in the world at the height of its power. During the labor strikes of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, businessmen hired the Pinkerton Agency to infiltrate unions, supply guards, keep strikers and suspected unionists out of factories, recruit goon squads to intimidate workers. One such confrontation was the Homestead Strike of 1892, in which Pinkerton agents were called in to reinforce the strikebreaking measures of industrialist Henry Clay Frick, acting on behalf of Andrew Carnegie.
The ensuing battle between Pinkerton agents and striking workers led to the deaths of seven Pinkerton agents and nine steelworkers. The Pinkertons were used as guards in coal and lumber disputes in Illinois, New York and West Virginia as well as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Battle of Blair Mountain in 1921; the company now operates as "Pinkerton Consulting & Investigations, Inc. d.b.a. Pinkerton Corporate Risk Management", a division of the Swedish security company Securitas AB; the former Government Services division, PGS, now operates as Securitas Critical Infrastructure Services, Inc. In the 1850s, Allan Pinkerton, Scottish detective and spy, met Chicago attorney Edward Rucker in a local Masonic Hall and formed the North-Western Police Agency known as the Pinkerton Agency. Historian Frank Morn writes: "By the mid-1850s a few businessmen saw the need for greater control over their employees. In February 1855, Allan Pinkerton, after consulting with six midwestern railroads, created such an agency in Chicago."
In 1871, Congress appropriated $50,000 to the new Department of Justice to form a sub-organization devoted to "the detection and prosecution of those guilty of violating federal law." The amount was insufficient for the new DOJ to fashion an internal investigating unit, so they contracted out the services to the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. However, since passage of the Anti-Pinkerton Act in 1893, federal law has stated that an "individual employed by the Pinkerton Detective Agency, or similar organization, may not be employed by the Government of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia." July 27, 1877: J. J. White, hired as a "Special Officer" during a strike, was shot and killed. July 19, 1919: Hans Rassmuson, Special Officer, was shot and killed. March 12, 1924: Frank Miller, Pinkerton Watchman, was shot and killed. In the 1870s, Franklin B. Gowen president of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, hired the agency to "investigate" the labor unions in the company's mines.
A Pinkerton agent, James McParland, using the alias "James McKenna", infiltrated the Molly Maguires, a 19th-century secret society of Irish-American coal miners, leading to the downfall of the labor organization. The incident inspired Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes novel The Valley of Fear. A Pinkerton agent appears in a small role in "The Adventure of the Red Circle", a 1911 Holmes story. A 1970 film, The Molly Maguires, was loosely based upon the incident as well. On July 6, 1892, during the Homestead Strike, 300 Pinkerton detectives from New York and Chicago were called in by Carnegie Steel's Henry Clay Frick to protect the Pittsburgh-area mill and strikebreakers; this resulted in a firefight and siege in which 16 men were killed, 23 others were wounded. To restore order, two brigades of the Pennsylvania militia were called out by the Governor; as a legacy of the Pinkertons' involvement, a bridge connecting the nearby Pittsburgh suburbs of Munhall and Rankin was named Pinkerton's Landing Bridge.
Harry Orchard was arrested by the Idaho police and confessed to Pinkerton agent James McParland that he assassinated former Governor Frank Steunenberg of Idaho in 1905. Orchard testified, under threat of hanging, against Western Federation of Miners president Big Bill Haywood, naming him as having hired the hit. With a stirring defense by Clarence Darrow and the other defendants of the WFM were acquitted in a nationally publicized trial. Orchard received a death sentence. In 1890, Indiana University hired the Pinkerton Agency to investigate the authorship of a student "bogus", distributed throughout town. While boguses were not uncommon, this particular one attacked IU faculty and students with such graphic language that Bloomington residents complained; the detective arrived in Bloomington on April 26 and spent nearly two weeks conducting interviews and dispatching regular reports back to the home office. In the end, it was town talk; the seven Beta Theta Pi fraternity brothers were from locally prominent families, including the son of a Trustee, but all were expelled.
In 1892, the Trustees granted five of the men their degrees and all seven were reinstated in good standing. Pinkerton agents were hired to track western outlaws Jesse James, the Reno Gang, the Wild Bunch. On March 17, 1874, two Pinkerton Detectives and a deputy sheriff
Goldthorpe is a village within the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it was anciently a small medieval farming village, Goldthorpe is recorded in the Domesday Book and was under the Manor of Bolton upon Dearne, once owned by Roger de Busli; the village falls within the Dearne North Ward of the Barnsley MBC. Early prehistoric pottery, a flint flake, Bronze Age cremation sites and Romano-British ditches and field systems have been found in the Goldthorpe area suggesting ancient occupation of the area over a long period of time. In the early 18th century Barnsley Attorney William Henry Marsden Esquire of nearby Burntwood Hall bought the Lord of the Manor of Bolton on Dearne with Goldthorpe for £10,000 together with over 1,000 acres of land. Goldthorpe is recorded in the 1761-1767 Inclosure Awards; the Marsden family continued to hold the manor until 1815. St John and St Mary Magdalene Church, built in 1916, is an early example of a ferro-concrete building.
According to Nikolaus Pevsner, the pulpit bought by the church in 1931 is 18th century Flemish. Goldthorp, Goldthorpe and all variations of this surname, derive from this placename. A marriage in 1361, when Robert de Goldthorpe alias Robertson, son of Robert Lord of the Manor of Goldthorpe married Esabul de Shepley daughter of William de Shepley, half heiress with her sister Dionyssia to the Manor of Shepley. Descendants took the surname Goldthorpe remaining major land owners for 200 years, until the final heir sold up and left the area. Cadet branches remained in the Huddersfield are for many centuries as wool weavers; the area is now referred to as the Dearne Valley and was a major coal mining area, but since the closure of the mines in the late 1980s, it has become a deprived economic area. In April 2013 an estimated two thousand people took part in a mock funeral on the day of former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's real funeral in London. A fake coffin was paraded through Goldthorpe, an effigy of Thatcher burnt on the site of the former colliery.
Many blame Thatcher for the demise of the coal industry during her time in office, although Goldthorpe Colliery closed under subsequent PM John Major in 1994. In 1984 two teenage boys had died in Goldthorpe while collecting coal during the strike. Goldthorpe railway station opened in 1988 on the Wakefield Line. Goldthorpe Market is located just off the A635 in Goldthorpe town centre; the main market days are Saturday. The market has 64 stalls. Goldthorpe Library is a new building situated in the middle of the town; the main secondary school in the area is The Dearne Advanced Learning Centre, known as the Dearne High School- a specialist humanities college Before it moved sites in 2011 which caters for around 1,300 pupils aged 11–16 years. There are three main primary schools: Dearne Goldthorpe Primary School, Dearne Highgate Primary School and Sacred Heart Catholic Primary School. Goldthorpe was represented in the FA Cup during the 1920s and 1930s by Goldthorpe United F. C. Goldthorpe is home to Dearne CC, a cricket club, established in 1926 and plays in Division 5 of the South Yorkshire Senior Cricket League The actor Brian Blessed once lived on Probert Avenue in Goldthorpe List of Yorkshire pits The Inclosure Awards of 1761-67 for Bolton on Dearne with Goldthorpe
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin