The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south; the geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Kochi are the largest urban areas; the majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions.
Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with 80% of the population capable of reading and writing; the fertility rate in South India is the lowest of all regions in India. South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names; the term "Deccan" referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicised form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.
Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has been associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians and Chinese began from the Sangam period; the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.
C. to 14th century A. D; the Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D. was the last Indian dynasty. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence; the Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry; the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad State, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states; the region played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; as a result of this Act, Madras State retained its name and Kanyakumari district was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala emerged from the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of the Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the
The End of the Affair (1999 film)
The End of the Affair is a 1999 drama film directed by Neil Jordan and starring Ralph Fiennes, Julianne Moore and Stephen Rea. The film is based on The End of the Affair, a 1951 novel by British author Graham Greene, adapted as a film in 1955 with Deborah Kerr. Novelist Maurice Bendrix narrates the film as he begins a book with the line "This is a diary of hate." On a rainy London night in 1946, Bendrix has a chance meeting with Henry Miles, husband of his former mistress Sarah, who abruptly ended their affair two years before. Bendrix's obsession with Sarah is rekindled: he succumbs to his own jealousy and works his way back into her life; as the story unfolds in 1946, we see flashbacks of Bendrix with Sarah as they began their affair during World War II. Henry tells Bendrix that he believes Sarah is having an affair, so Bendrix hires the bumbling but amiable Mr. Parkis, who uses his young birthmarked son Lance to investigate. Sarah asks Bendrix to meet to talk about Henry and the cold tentativeness of their interaction is contrasted with the passion of their earlier encounters.
Bendrix learns from Parkis that Sarah has been making regular visits to a priest named Father Richard Smythe under the guise of false dentist visits and he grows jealous. Flashbacks show Bendrix asking Sarah to leave him. Though Sarah and Bendrix express love to each other, the affair ends abruptly when a V-1 flying bomb explodes near Bendrix's building as he is out in the hallway. Bendrix falls down a staircase and awakes bloodied but not hurt, he walks upstairs. Bendrix accuses Sarah of being disappointed that he survived and she leaves, telling him "Love doesn't end, just because we don't see each other." In 1946, Parkis obtains Sarah's diary and passes it on to Bendrix: it shows the affair from her perspective. After Bendrix is hurt by the bomb, Sarah runs downstairs and finds him still and not breathing. After trying to revive him, she begins to pray for Bendrix's life. Just as she says to God that she will stop seeing Bendrix if he is brought back, Bendrix comes into the room. Now knowing why Sarah ended the affair, Bendrix begs her to reconsider.
Sarah tells Bendrix that she can no longer keep her "promise" to God. Henry, who has figured out that it is Bendrix, Sarah's lover asks Sarah not to leave him. But, with more persuasion from Bendrix, Sarah agrees to go away with him for a weekend. Henry tracks the couple down to tell them. Bendrix stays with Henry and Sarah over her final days and at her funeral, Parkis tells Bendrix that a chance encounter with Sarah cured his son of his birthmark. At Henry and Sarah's house, Bendrix completes his book and it is revealed that his diary of hate is directed toward God. While Sarah doesn't need to see God to love Him, Bendrix prays God will leave him alone, thereby acknowledging His existence. Ralph Fiennes as Maurice Bendrix Julianne Moore as Sarah Miles Stephen Rea as Henry Miles Heather-Jay Jones as Henry's Maid James Bolam as Mr. Savage Ian Hart as Mr. Parkis Sam Bould as Lance Parkis Cyril Shaps as Waiter Penny Morrell as Bendrix's Landlady Simon Fisher Turner as Doctor Gilbert Jason Isaacs as Father Richard Smythe Deborah Findlay as Miss Smythe Nicholas Hewetson as Chief Warden Jack McKenzie as Chief Engineer Nic Main as Commanding Officer The film holds a 67% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes from a sample of 66 critics.
Julianne Moore was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress and Roger Pratt was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Cinematography. The film got several nominations at the BAFTA awards, including Best Cinematography, Best Costume Design, Best Film, Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role and Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role. Neil Jordan won a BAFTA for Best Adapted Screenplay. Neil Jordan was nominated for the Best Director Golden Globe and Julianne Moore was nominated for Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. Ralph Fiennes won the best eyewear award at the GQ Men of 2000 Awards for the pair of National Health Service spectacles he sported in the film; the film is recognised by American Film Institute in these lists: 2002: AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – Nominated Michael Nyman used "Diary of Love" to open and close his solo album, The Piano Sings. As with many of Nyman's 1990s scores, he incorporates material from his String Quartet No.3, in turn based on a choral piece titled Out of the Ruins.
Diary of Hate 2:38 Henry 1:46 The First Time 2:16 Vigo Passage 1:04 Jealous of the Rain 5:29 The Party in Question 3:45 Intimacy 3:04 Smythe with a "Y" 1:55 Dispossessed 3:22 Love Doesn't End 4:31 Diary of Love 5:16 Breaking the Spell 1:20 I Know your voice, Sarah 4:10 Sarah dies 3:01 The End of the Affair 2:59A contemporary recording of "Haunted Heart" by Jo Stafford is heard in the background during several scenes and the closing credits. The End of the Affair on IMDb The End of the Affair at AllMovie The End of the Affair at Rotten Tomatoes The End of the Affair at Box Office Mojo
The Arditti Quartet is a string quartet founded in 1974 and led by the British violinist Irvine Arditti. The quartet is a globally recognized promoter of contemporary classical music and has a reputation for having a wide repertoire, they first became known taking into their repertoire technically challenging pieces. Over the years, there have been personnel changes but Irvine Arditti is still at the helm, leading the group; the repertoire of the group is music from the last 50 years with a strong emphasis on living composers. Their aim from the beginning has been to collaborate with composers during the rehearsal process. However, unlike some other groups, it is loyal to music of a classical vein and avoids cross-genre music; the Quartet has performed in major concert halls and cultural festivals all over the world and has the longest discography of any group of its type. In 1999, it won the Ernst von Siemens Music Prize for lifetime achievement, being the first and only group to date to receive this award.
The Arditti Quartet is dedicated to 20th century and contemporary works, a niche in chamber music where classical masters dominate. While they only play a handful of works from before the 20th century, they require that their repertoire maintains the tradition, established in Europe for several centuries, they do not work with composers from fields such as pop or crossover. They concentrate on those from the last fifty years, along with new music repertoire specially written for the ensemble to premiere; the quartet is considered the authentic interpreters for many late 20th century composers, with a reputation for mastering the most difficult and complex compositions. They improvise as their focus is on working with composers; these composers range from those active in the early 20th century to the present and include Hans Abrahamsen, Thomas Adès, Luciano Berio, John Cage, Elliott Carter, Franco Donatoni, Pascal Dusapin, Henri Dutilleux, Brian Ferneyhough, Morton Feldman, Georg Friedrich Haas, György Kurtag, Helmut Lachenmann, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski, Wolfgang Rihm, Giacinto Scelsi, Iannis Xenakis.
They have on occasion performed minimalist pieces such as Mishima by Philip Glass and the 1st quartet of Gavin Bryars, written for them. Works involving electronics are in their repertoire. York Holler's Antiphon, Kaija Saariaho's Roger Reynolds Ariadnes Thread. In their first concert they played new compositions only, but by their second year, they decided that their repertoire needed to include works of the Second Viennese School and Bartók came soon after. Works from earlier in the 20th century as perspective followed and in the 1980s they incorporated Beethoven's Grosse Fuge, they have played Ligeti's Second Quartet and Xenakis'Tetras' hundreds of times. The focus on new music is to have the ability to collaborate with the composer in the interpretation of the piece, something the group considers important, both in how to play and the fact that they consider their work as a kind of service to composers younger and the lesser-known. Composers make minor adjustments to their compositions after working with the quartet.
Norwegian composer Sven Lyder Kahrs calls the group the "Rolls-Royce" of quartets, in part because he does not have to explain how to play his music to them. They just know. In the past they have been compared to the Kronos Quartet but unlike them are not interested in crossover audiences or cross-genre pieces, but rather stick with the classical quartet form. There are few pieces common to both groups; the Quartet was founded in 1974 by Irvine Arditti with Levine Andrade, Lennox Mackenzie and John Senter while all were students at the Royal Academy of Music. They modeled themselves on the La Salle Quartet of the United States, focused at first on the LaSalle repertoire, with the aim of supporting composers, playing the pieces as they want them played. Soon the size of their repertoire went way beyond what the LaSalle achieved or in fact any other group in the history of classical music. Arditti was born in London in 1953, began his studies in violin and composition at the Royal Academy at the age of sixteen.
Arditti won prizes for violin and composition,but decided he was a better violinist and stopped composing. The focus of the quartet on new music is due to Arditti's interest in it, which began with composing in his childhood and hearing music by Stockhausen and others of the avant garde of the 1960s, it was that Ardittí became aware of the work of the LaSalle Quartet. In his last year at the Royal Academy of Music the Quartet was founded, it continued during the time he was in the London Symphony Orchestra from 1976-1980, after which he left the Orchestra in order to dedicate himself full-time to the quartet; the Quartet's first concert was in September 1974, with the works of Krzysztof Penderecki, at the Royal Academy to receive an honorary degree. This gave the group a chance to collaborate with the composer, something they continue to do with composers since; the quartet was named after Arditti because they needed a name in 24 hours, so they used his with the idea that it would be temporary, but the name stuck.
In their early years, before the end of the 1970s, the ensemble performed and recorded all the quartets of Hans Werner Henze and Gyorgy Ligeti. They began performing live on BBC, they commissioned their first piece in Jonathan Harvey's String Quartet No. 1. The group continued to have success touring and recording in Europe but it was not until the success of Kronos Quartet that the ensemble came to the attention of US and Canadian audiences, with a tour in the late 1980s. Over more than four decades of its existence, the only founder member that remains is its leader I
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
The Suit and the Photograph
The Suit and the Photograph is a 1998 album by Michael Nyman with the Michael Nyman Band, recorded in 1995. On this album, Nyman is the composer and producer, wrote the liner notes; the album contains String Quartet No. 4 and 3 Quartets. The album is named for its cover photograph by August Sander, which Nyman had associated with the Michael Nyman Band since its inception in 1977, he cites a description of the photograph by John Berger, in an essay of the same title, describing that the suits deform the working class rural men just enough to "undermine physical dignity." Both of the pieces on the album originated in Japan. It is Nyman's second release on EMI and his 33rd in general, but is not designated part of a series, as EMI had done with Concertos. Said Nyman of EMI, "I didn't excite them, they didn't excite me." Nyman's only further releases on EMI would be the UK edition of Ravenous, featuring remixes by William Orbit, The Actors, both film scores. The String Quartet No. 4 is based on Yamamoto Perpetuo, a solo violin work, the basis of Strong on Oaks, Strong on the Causes of Oaks.
The piece was written in 1994-5 for Camilli Quartet, who first performed it on April 21, 1995, dedicated to the memory of Alan Bush, Nyman's composition teacher at the Royal Academy of Music after his death October 31 of that year. The main theme of the sixth movement became the basis for "Virgin on the Roof" in Nyman's score for Carrington, which in turn was based on the String Quartet No. 3 with which Christopher Hampton had created a temp track. Pwyll ap Siôn notes that the viola and second violin follow a different meter from that of the first violin. Yamamoto Perpetuo was the basis only of the first violin's part in the Quartet, while the newly composed material goes in new directions to not matching meter. 3 Quartets was commissioned by the Arion-Edo Foundation of Japan. John Harle and Elisabeth Perry joined a group of Japanese musicians at the Globe Theatre, Tokyo for its first performance July 15, 1994, conducted by Michael Nyman, it is a multi-section, multi-tempoed single-movement work for a string quartet, saxophone quartet, brass quartet.
This piece worked its way into the Carrington film score—the opening fanfare became a leitmotif for Mark Gertler. The heart of the work is a soprano saxophone chorale, the work closes with a brass chorale. On the album, the Camilli Quartet joins the Michael Nyman Band for performance of the piece. I 3:36 II 3:17 III 2:28 IV 6:19 V 3:03 VI 4:04 VII 4:07 VIII 2:24 IX 3:39 X 2:47 XI 3:10 XII 3:00 3 Quartets 14:24 Camilli Quartet Elisabeth Perry, violin Rachel Browne, violin Prunella Pacey, viola Melissa Phelps, celloMichael Nyman Band Elisabeth Perry, violin Rachel Browne, violin Prunella Pacey, viola Melissa Phelps, cello John Harle, soprano saxophone David Roach and alto saxophones Simon Haram, tenor saxophone Andrew Findon, baritone saxophone Nigel Gomm, trumpets 1 and 2 David Lee, horn Andrew Fawbert, bass trombone conducted by Michael Nyman Producers: Michael Nyman & Michael J. Dutton Balance engineer: Michael J. Dutton Front cover: August Sander, Westerwald, c. 1913 Die Photographische Sammlung/SK Stiftung Kultur - August Sander Archiv, Köln.
Acts of Beauty/Exit no Exit
Acts of Beauty • Exit no Exit is the 55th album by Michael Nyman, the eighth on his own label, the third of these to consist of unrecorded work. He composed and produced it. Acts of Beauty is a song cycle with texts by various writers commenting on the nature of art and beauty, it is performed by Sentieri Selvaggi, conducted by Carlo Boccadoro. Exit no Exit was a vocal work for John Motson called Beckham Crosses, Nyman Scores, in tribute to the English association football team. Here, the vocal part is rewritten for bass clarinet, played by Andrew Sparling of the Michael Nyman Band with the Nyman Quartet: Gabrielle Lester, Catherine Thompson, Kate Musker, Tony Hinnigan. Acts of Beauty features settings of material by Vincenzo Cartari, Kurt Schwitters, subject of Nyman's opera and Boy: Dada, Dziga Vertov, director of Man with a Movie Camera, a film he scored at the behest of the British Film Institute. "Marulla's Hobby" is about measuring erections. "Due figliuole di un contadino" – 8:42 "Halt, we are specialists" – 6:02 "We are at a film studio" – 6:24 "Life's chaos" – 3:21 "Marulla's hobby" – 1:41 "Exit No Exit 1" – 1:02 "Exit No Exit 2" – 1:10 "Exit No Exit 3" – 1:40 "Exit No Exit 4" – 1:34 "Exit No Exit 5" – 1:24 "Exit No Exit 6" – 2:07 "Exit No Exit 7" – 1:17 "Exit No Exit 8" – 1:28 "Exit No Exit 9" – 1:29 "Exit No Exit 10" – 10:35 "Exit No Exit 11" – 1:02 MN Records official site