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Strom Thurmond

James Strom Thurmond Sr. was an American politician who served for 48 years as a United States Senator from South Carolina. He ran for president in 1948 as the Dixiecrat candidate on a States Rights platform supporting racial segregation, he failed to defeat Harry Truman. Thurmond represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 until 2003, at first as a Southern Democrat and, after 1964, as a Republican. A magnet for controversy during his nearly half-century Senate career, Thurmond switched parties because of his opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and his support for Republican presidential candidate Senator Barry Goldwater. In the months before switching, he had "been critical of the Democratic Administration for... enactment of the Civil Rights Law", while Goldwater "boasted of his opposition to the Civil Rights Act, made it part of his platform." Thurmond left office as the only member of either chamber of Congress to reach the age of 100 while still in office, as the oldest-serving and longest-serving senator in U.

S. history. Thurmond holds the record as the longest-serving member of Congress to serve in the Senate, he is the longest-serving Republican member of Congress in U. S. history. At 14 years, he was the longest-serving Dean of the United States Senate in U. S. history. In opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957, he conducted the longest speaking filibuster by a lone senator, at 24 hours and 18 minutes in length. In the 1960s, he opposed the civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965 to end segregation and enforce the constitutional rights of African-American citizens, including basic suffrage. Despite being a pro-segregation Dixiecrat, he insisted he was not a racist, but was opposed to excessive federal authority, which he attributed to Communist agitators. Starting in the 1970s, he moderated his position on race, but continued to defend his early segregationist campaigns on the basis of states' rights in the context of Southern society at the time, he never renounced his earlier positions. Six months after Thurmond died at the age of 100 in 2003, his mixed-race 78-year-old daughter Essie Mae Washington-Williams revealed he was her father.

Her mother Carrie Butler had been working as his family's maid, was either 15 or 16 years old when 22-year-old Thurmond impregnated her in early 1925. Although Thurmond never publicly acknowledged Essie Mae Washington, he paid for her education at a black college and passed other money to her for some time, she said she kept silent out of respect for her father and denied the two had agreed she would not reveal her connection to Thurmond. His children by his marriage acknowledged her, her name has since been added as one of his children to his memorial at the state capitol. James Strom Thurmond was born on December 5, 1902, in Edgefield, South Carolina, the son of Eleanor Gertrude and John William Thurmond, a lawyer, his ancestry included German. When Thurmond was five, his family moved into a larger home where the Thurmonds owned about six acres of land, where John Thurmond thought his sons could learn more about farming. Thurmond had the ability to ride ponies and bulls from an early age and his home was visited by congressmen and judges who would follow his father back to the house.

At six years old, Thurmond had an encounter with South Carolina Senator Benjamin Tillman, who questioned why he would not shake his hand when the two were introduced to each other by Thurmond's father. Thurmond remembered the handshake as the first political skill he had learned, continued the pattern of greeting with a handshake throughout his career, he attended Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina, where he was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity. Thurmond graduated in 1923 with a degree in horticulture. After Thurmond's death in 2003, an attorney for his family confirmed that in 1925, when he was 22, Thurmond fathered a mixed-race daughter, Essie Mae Washington, with his family's 16-year-old housekeeper, Carrie Butler. Thurmond provided other support. Essie Mae Washington was raised by her maternal aunt and uncle, was not told about Thurmond as her father until she was in high school, when she met him for the first time. After college, Thurmond worked as a farmer and athletic coach until 1929, when at age 27 he was appointed as Edgefield County's superintendent of education, serving until 1933.

Thurmond studied law with his father as a legal apprentice and was admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1930. He was appointed as the Edgefield Town and County attorney, serving from 1930 to 1938. In 1933, Thurmond was elected to the South Carolina Senate and represented Edgefield until he was elected to the Eleventh Circuit judgeship. Thurmond was a supporter of the 1932 presidential campaign of New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt, favoring Roosevelt's argument that the federal government could be used to assist citizens in their daily plights. Thurmond raised money for Roosevelt and, following Roosevelt's victory over President Herbert Hoover, traveled to Washington to attend Roosevelt's inauguration. Thurmond increased in notability after becoming involved in the middle of a dispute between the Timmermans and Logues. In November 1941, officers arrived at the Logue family home to arrest Sue Logue and her brother-in-law for their hiring of the hit man who murdered Davis Timmerman. George Louge and Fred Dorn ambushed the officers after they were allowed entry into the home, the sher

Francis Smith (judge)

Francis Smith was a Sierra Leonean Puisne Judge in the Gold Coast. He was the second Sierra Leonean to qualify as a barrister after he passed the bar at Middle Temple on 26 January 1871. Francis Smith was born in 1847 to William Smith Jr. registrar of the Mixed Commissary Court in Freetown, Sierra Leone, his wife, Charlotte Smith. William Smith was born in Cape Coast in the Gold Coast and was the son of a Fante princess and Judge William Smith Sr, who served as head of the Mixed Commissary Church in Freetown. Charlotte Macaulay was born to Mary Harding, a Jamaican Maroon mother, Kenneth Macaulay, a distant relation of Lord Macaulay and second cousin to Zachary Macaulay. Smith was educated at Wakefield in Yorkshire. After completing his secondary education, he entered Middle Temple on 10 January 1868 and was called to the bar in 1871. Smith rose through the judicial ranks and was appointed Chief Magistrate of The Gambia in 1879, he was appointed a Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of the Gold Coast Colony in 1887, considered for appointment as Chief Justice.

Smith was the younger brother of Dr. Robert Smith, who served as Assistant Colonial Surgeon in Sierra Leone. Smith was the maternal grandfather of Frances Wright through her mother, Eva Wright, his great-grandson and namesake is Emile Francis Short, the first justice on the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice. At the time of his retirement in 1907, Smith was the only African serving on a superior court, another would not be named until the 1930s, he retired to England and died in London on 12 May 1912. His achievements were recognized in glowing tributes across West Africa

Osceola Mills, Pennsylvania

Osceola Mills is a borough in Clearfield County, United States. The population was 1,141 at the 2010 census. Osceola Mills is located along the southeastern border of Clearfield County at 40°51′10″N 78°16′14″W, it is on the north side of Moshannon Creek, which forms the boundary between Clearfield and Centre counties. Pennsylvania Route 53 passes through Osceola Mills, leading northeast 4 miles to Philipsburg and southwest 5 miles to Houtzdale. Pennsylvania Route 970 crosses PA 53 in the center of town and leads northwest 20 miles to Clearfield, the county seat, southeast 4 miles to Sandy Ridge. According to the United States Census Bureau, Osceola Mills has a total area of 0.33 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,249 people, 522 households, 342 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,717.8 people per square mile. There were 581 housing units at an average density of 1,729.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.44% White, 0.16% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.24% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.72% of the population. There were 522 households, out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.93. In the borough the population was spread out, with 22.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $29,891, the median income for a family was $32,727. Males had a median income of $30,208 versus $21,000 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $14,932. About 6.3% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over.

Osceola Mills is known for its annual Fourth of July Carnival, a week-long celebration sponsored by the Columbia Volunteer Fire Company. The parade and fireworks display on July 4 draws thousands of people from surrounding communities. Osceola Mills maintains a recreation park with baseball fields and tennis courts, a swimming pool; the borough is served by five churches, six bars, a public library. The Osceola Mills Elementary School is part of the Philipsburg-Osceola Area School District. Osceola Mills is now the home of semi-pro football team the Moshannon Valley Vikings, they play at the baseball complex and are a member of the GEFA

Dorothy McKibbin

Dorothy McKibbin worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II. She ran the project's office at 109 East Palace in Santa Fe, through which staff moving to the Los Alamos Laboratory passed, she was known as the "first lady of Los Alamos", was the first point of contact for new arrivals. She retired when the Santa Fe office closed in 1963. Dorothy Ann Scarritt was born in Kansas City, Missouri, on December 12, 1897, the fourth of five children of William Chick Scarritt, a corporate lawyer, his wife Frances Virginia née Davis, she had two older brothers, William Hendrix and Arthur Davis, an older sister, Frances. A younger sister, died in 1907. Dorothy was known as Dink to her close friends, her father was active in political and social life in Kansas City, serving as its police commissioner from 1896 to 1897, president of the Board of Park Commissioners in 1922. The family believed in the value of education. Scarritt attended The Barstow School, a small independent preparatory school in Kansas City, where she was editor of the school literary magazine, a member of the drama group, played forward on the school basketball team.

She graduated in 1915, that year entered Smith College, a liberal arts college in Northampton, Massachusetts. At the time it was the largest of the Women's colleges in the United States, she considered majoring in English and history settling on the latter. She was elected class president in her first year, she participated in the Smith College Association for Christian Work, the Sociology and Current Events Clubs, helped raise $25,000 for refugees from World War I. She enjoyed tennis, swimming and mountain climbing, played on a class basketball team, for the All-Smith baseball team. After graduating from Smith in 1919, Scarritt travelled to Europe with her father in 1921, to Alaska, western Canada and Yosemite National Park in 1923. In September 1923, she met Joseph Chambers McKibbin while visiting a Smith College friend in Dellwood, Minnesota, she toured Quebec, Nova Scotia and the Thousand Islands in 1924, in 1925 went with her father to Cuba, Peru and Argentina. Scarritt and Joseph McKibbin became engaged, but after she returned from South America in 1925 she was diagnosed with tuberculosis, a disease from which her sister Frances had died in 1919, she broke off their engagement.

As there were no effective drugs to treat the contagious disease, tuberculosis patients were sent to sanatoria, where they either recovered or died. The sunshine and dry climate of the southwestern states was considered conducive to recovery, several sanatoria were located there; the family chose Sunmount near Santa Fe, New Mexico, a sanatorium, more like a resort than a hospital. Scarritt arrived with her mother in November 1925 to find that Sunmount had a waiting list for admissions. After some lobbying, she was admitted on December 9, 1925, she fell in love with the culture of New Mexico. After a year, she was pronounced cured, left on December 22, 1927. Scarritt and Joseph renewed their engagement, were married in the garden of her family's home in Kansas City on October 5, 1927. After a honeymoon in Rio de Janeiro, they moved to St. Paul, where Joseph worked in his father's fur business, McKibbin and Dorsey, they had a son, born on December 6, 1930, but Joseph was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma, died on October 27, 1931.

Now a single mother, McKibbin chose to return to Santa Fe. She loaded her possessions into a Ford Model A, accompanied by Kevin and Joseph's sister Maggie, drove there, it was a month before they arrived on June 11, 1932. Between the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl drought, jobs were hard to find, but McKibbin found employment as a bookkeeper for the Spanish and Indian Trading Company, a small firm that sold handicrafts and artworks; the owners, Norman McGee and Jim McMillan left the day-to-day running of the business in the hands of McKibbin, whom they paid 50c an hour. McKibbin gave up her job in May 1935 to spend more time with Kevin, her father lost most of his money in the Great Depression, but he still had enough to help her buy a house. Instead of buying, McKibbin decided to build. On April 21, 1936, she purchased 1.5 acres not far from Sunmount. She designed her house with Katherine Stinson, an aviator that she had met as a fellow patient at Sunmount, they based the design on that of 19th-century Spanish ranches in the area.

The house was furnished with antique fittings acquired through the Spanish and Indian Trading Company. Land and construction costs totalled $10,000, her father was a frequent visitor. In 1937, Kevin was diagnosed with endocarditis, a life-threatening disease. There was no treatment for it but bed rest, so he spent the entire 1937–38 school year in bed, her father died from bronchial pneumonia on February 16, 1938. In 1938, she took Kevin to the Children's Hospital Los Angeles, along with her mother and her aunt Nana; the doctors there told them that Kevin had been misdiagnosed, had tonsillitis. The tonsils were removed, he left cured; when he started school again, McKibbin returned to her old job at the Spanish and Indian Trading Company. After the outbreak of World War II, the owners of the Spanish and Indian Trading Company decided to switch to war-related opportunities, in 1943 the company closed down, putting McKibbin out of a job. In March 1943, she was approached by three men from California seeking to establish a new office in Santa Fe, who offered to hire her as a secretary.

She was impressed by one of


NCCERT, is a Statewide volunteer organization providing search and rescue services to local and federal agencies. NCCERT is based out of the Raleigh area of North Carolina. NCCERT Headquarters is located at 35°40′24″N 78°55′54″W about 7 miles southwest of Apex, North Carolina on New Hill Road; this location serves as Apex Fire Station #2. NCCERT is a 501 corporation serving the State of North Carolina and surrounding areas, it specializes in finding missing persons. Committed to the goal of providing skilled search and rescue teams 24 hours a day, NCCERT responds to requests from law enforcement agencies and emergency management agencies, during natural or man made disasters and building collapse and lost persons in urban and wilderness settings, at no cost to the requesting agency. Through the Apex Fire Department, the group is a part of the search division on North Carolina Task Force 4. In addition, NCCERT works to promote understanding and public awareness of the role of search dogs through public demonstrations and lectures to state and local agencies, schools and rest homes.

Trained in Disaster and Wilderness searches, these teams undergo rigorous training and must meet strict standards before they are deployed on a mission. Ongoing training and continuing education is required for all members to maintain their skills at optimal levels. Training in search and rescue and disaster response is conducted in diverse situations and entails more than 50 hours per month for each member. All members are responsible for providing their own personal equipment. NCCERT is a statewide organization made up of local teams, which respond to local incidents for missing persons. Our calls range from swiftwater rescue calls during major disasters to an overnight search for an Alzheimer's patient. NCCERT is part of the North Carolina USAR Task Force 4 and acts as the search and communications element of that team. NCCERT responded to the Apex chemical fire in October 2006 and provided a vital communications role for that incident; the Apex Emergency Communications Center had to be evacuated because of toxic fumes that were approaching their building.

The NCCERT communications truck housed the dispatchers and they were able to provide communications to emergency responders without incident during the duration of the event. Search & Rescue of lost or missing persons Major Disaster Response Request for Cadaver K9 K9 live find searches Community Service Functions Emergency Radio Communications NCCERT services include: Side Scan Sonar Operations Wilderness search and rescue Urban search and rescue Collapsed structure search and rescue Cadaver search 2005 – Higgins & Langley Memorial Award Official website NCCERT FAQ's

Thomas S. Weston

Thomas Shailer Weston referred to as Thomas S. Weston, was a judge and 19th-century Member of Parliament from Westland, New Zealand. Weston was the patriarch of one of two dominant Canterbury families of the legal profession. Weston was born in London in the son of the printer John James Weston and Mary Weston, he was educated at private schools in London. He arrived in New Zealand with his parents and four brothers in 1850, first settling in New Plymouth, he received further secondary education in New Zealand, in June 1861, he was admitted to the bar by George Arney, the Chief Justice. He practised law in New Plymouth until 1863, his first advertisement appeared in The Southland Times in August of that year. His clients there included the Union Bank of Australia, the town council, various businesses, he was chosen as Southland's representative to the 1865 New Zealand Exhibition in Dunedin, but could not travel there due to unfavourable weather conditions. Weston moved to Auckland. Like his brother Warwick, Weston had interests in gold mining.

He set up the Great Republic Gold Mining Company in Karaka in the Thames District, was its majority shareholder and its manager. The family's residence was on the corner of Jermyn Street and Eden Street, he practised in Auckland. The district court judge had been filled by Singleton Rochfort, but the position was disestablished, as Rochfort had caused trouble to the government; when Weston was appointed, Rochfort pointed that this move was illegal, as he had first right of refusal under previous agreements. After some deliberations, the government renamed the court from Hawkes Bay to East Coast to circumvent the agreement, Rochfort took the premier, Julius Vogel, to the Supreme Court over the affair. Weston remained judge in Napier until February 1875. Following an enquiry into the conduct of the justice for Otago, Henry Samuel Chapman, Parliament passed a resolution that allowed the Minister of Justice to order judges to move to a different court. Justice Gresson led the opposition of New Zealand's judges to this interference and went to Wellington, but to no avail.

In early 1875, three of New Zealand's five judges resigned over this affair: Gresson and the Chief Justice, George Arney. Gresson explained his objection in the following words: What becomes of the independence of the Judges if they may be ordered by the Minister of the day, as as he pleases, to remove to whatever part of the colony he pleases? It is obvious that such a power is open to gross abuse, that if these be the terms on which they hold office, the Judges are not better off than when their commission was only during pleasure. Weston was one of the two remaining judges, he was transferred to the West Coast of the South Island. During his time on the coast, his most notable task was to chair the Westport Colliery Reserve Commission, which he conducted with Richmond Beetham. At the end of 1880, Weston retired from his judgeship and undertook the unusual step of rejoining the bar, he moved to Christchurch, where he established T. S. Weston and Co.. His son Henry Warwick Weston was on his staff but died in September 1894, aged 24.

Early in 1881, Weston and Allan Holmes of Dunedin were appointed as examiners of candidates for admission to the New Zealand bar. Weston took his son George into partnership in Christchurch on 6 July 1900 under the style of T. S. Weston and Son; when he took Robert Beecher Ward into the partnership, the name changed to Ward. Another person joined the partnership, William Ross Lascelles, the company name was changed to Weston Ward & Lascelles; the company still exists today. His legal practice in New Plymouth was taken over by two sons, Thomas Shailer Weston, Jr. and Claude Weston, in November 1902. Edward Masters represented the Grey Valley electorate from 1879 to 1881, when he sent his resignation from Melbourne in May 1881, stating that his medical advisers feared for his life if he travelled to New Zealand in his poor state of health; this caused a 16 June 1881 by-election in the electorate, contested by Weston, Gerard George Fitzgerald, James Mill Morris. At the time, Weston was living in Christchurch and he arrived in Greymouth shortly before the by-election.

Weston beat Fitzgerald with Morris coming a distant third. Masters died in the year in Melbourne on 27 November. Weston represented the Grey Valley electorate until the end of the parliamentary term on 8 November 1881, he served alongside Richard Reeves in the two-member electorate. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed; the Grey Valley electorate was split, the resulting electorates were Greymouth and Inangahua. Weston received requisitions from both electorates, accepted the one from Inangahua, in the end, this electorate was contested by both Reeves and Weston, they were joined by William McLean. Weston won the election with a margin of 17% of the vote over Reeves. Weston represented Inangahua until his resignation in 1883. Throughout his representation in Parliament, Weston was living in Christchurch.

He was one of the chief proponents for a railway to be built connecting the east and wes