Canadian Army Trophy
The Canadian Army Trophy was a tank gunnery competition established to foster excellence and competition among the armoured forces of the NATO countries in Western Europe. The trophy itself is a miniature sterling silver replica of a Canadian Army Centurion tank; the Canadian Army Trophy competition started in 1963 when the Canadian government donated a silver replica of a Centurion tank to the country that obtained the highest score during a tank gunnery competition, hosted by the Canadian Army 4th Mechanized Brigade forward deployed in West Germany. This tank replica became known as the Canadian Army Trophy for NATO Tank Gunnery; the competition was established to foster excellence and competition among the armor forces of the NATO countries in Western Europe. The winner of the Canadian Army Trophy, which remains the property of Canada, retains it until the next competition and is responsible for its safe custody; the competition was held annually through 1968. Each member country was invited to field a'team' to represent their respective Armies.
Nations represented included Canada, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, West Germany and the United States. Since 1963 the competition format has undergone numerous changes. Single tanks fired from fixed points at known ranges. Following the 1968 and again after the 1975 competitions, the rules and procedures of the competition were changed to more reflect combat conditions; the 1970, 1973 and 1975 competitions incorporated tank sections, consisting of two tanks. Each battle run consists of firing from stationary positions and while on the move, at both stationary and moving targets. 4-Tank platoons were incorporated beginning with the 1981 competition. The trophy and awards were given to the best scoring team. After the 1981 competition, additional changes were made to provide better means of achieving the aims of the CAT competition and to reflect the intended nature of the event, namely, a competition among the land forces of the Central Region. Accordingly, the 1983 CAT competition format organized units from the six participating nations in teams corresponding to their army group assignments within the Central Region.
Units were therefore either members of the Northern Army Central Army Group. The Canadian Army Trophy is now presented to the winning Army Group and awards were given to the three best scoring platoons of each Army Group; the winner of the Canadian Army Trophy, which remains the property of Canada, retains it until the next competition and is responsible for its safe custody. NORTHAG consisted of the British Army of the Rhine's British I Corps, American 2nd Armored Division, German I Corps, Netherlands' I Corps, Belgian I Corps. CENTAG consisted of the German II and III Corps, the American V and VII Corps, the Canadian 4th Brigade; the responsibility of organizing and hosting the competition rotated between the different participating nations. In 1981 the responsibility shifted to the two Army Groups, Central Army Group or Northern Army Group; when CENTAG hosted the competition, it was held in Grafenwöhr. The failures of a nation's entrant to place well at the CAT have had considerable defence industry impact.
The showing of the UK's Royal Hussars at the 1987 competition was the subject of a front page story in London's Sunday Telegraph, June 21, 1987, titled "NATO Allies Outgun Britain's New Battle Tanks". However, in battle conditions the British entry went on to be recognised as arguably the world's pre-eminent tank; the 1977 competition was the first time. The competition was held in Bergen-Hohne, West Germany, 25–29 April 1977, Hosted by United Kingdom; the 1979 competition was held at Bergen Hohne. The US built Range 10 at Grafenwöhr for the CAT competition training, it was used for the actual 1981 competition. There were 20 platoons competing from Belgium, the United Kingdom, West Germany and the United States; the Netherlands team did not compete due to a contractual issue with their military union. 1979 was the first year. M Company, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, won recognition as the high scoring tank platoon in USAEUR tank gunnery in 1978, with platoon leaders Lt. Krause, Lt. Socha following closely.
Several individual crew members extended their tour with M Company, 3/2 ACR and carried considerable experience with them to the competition. The 1981 competition was held on Range 10 at Grafenwöhr. There were 24 platoons competing from Belgium, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, West Germany and the United States; the M60A3 used by the USA entry was the final development of the M60A3 until the 2001 IFCS modification produced by Raytheon and sold to Jordan. Held on Range 9 at Bergen-Hohne, teams competed corresponding to their army group assignments within the Central Region, from Northern Army Group or Central Army Group. NORTHAG consisted of the British Army of the Rhine's British I Corps, American III Corps Forward, German
The C1 Ariete is the main battle tank of the Italian Army, developed by Consorzio Iveco Oto Melara, a consortium formed by Iveco and Oto Melara. The chassis and engine were produced by Iveco, while the turret and fire-control system were supplied by Oto Melara; the vehicle carries the latest optical and digital-imaging and fire-control systems, enabling it to fight day and night and to fire on the move. Six prototypes were developed by 1988, which were subject to intensive testing the following year during which the vehicles travelled a combined 16,000 km. Deliveries in fact took place in 1995 due to delays. Final delivery occurred 8 years in August 2002; the tank has a conventional layout similar to other Western MBTs: a driver located at the front of the hull, the fighting compartment—towards the middle—and the engine compartment in the rear of the hull. The Ariete's main armament is a local version of the smoothbore Rheinmetall 120 mm gun, produced by Oto Melara and stress-hardened to increase durability over extended periods of firing, allowing the use of APFSDS-T and HEAT ammunition.
The gun is adapted to fire most NATO-standard rounds of the same calibre. It carries 42 rounds, 27 of which are stored in a special magazine inside the hull, to the left of the driver's station; the remaining ammunition is stored in the rear turret bustle, separated from the crew compartment with an armoured door. The gun barrel has a fume extractor. Secondary armament consists of a 7.62 mm MG 42/59 coaxial machine gun operated by the tank gunner or commander and an additional 7.62 mm MG 42/59 configured as an anti-aircraft weapon operated by the main-gun loader from his hatch. The tank's advanced fire-control system, manufactured by Galileo Avionica, is designated OG14L3 TURMS, includes day and night panoramic capability for the commander's SP-T-694 primary sight, a stabilized platform including a thermal gunner's sight and a laser rangefinder to increase accuracy and expedite target detection and targeting, a digital fire-control computer, capable of measuring wind speed and exterior weather conditions, combining them with the turret's angle of elevation and the barrel's physical wear to increase accuracy.
This computer is a component of the tank's navigation system and allows for the exchange of tactical information between vehicles in a network. The Ariete has a "hunter-killer" capability in which the commander spots and designates targets for the gunner in a 360° field of vision around the vehicle without changing his position or having to open the turret hatch for visual identification of targets; the commander's sight has a vertical traverse from −10° to +60° from the horizontal, which allows the tank to engage low-flying airborne threats—primarily helicopters. During night fighting, the commander and gunner both share the thermal sight, able to resolve a 2.3×x2.3 m target from a distance of 1,500 m. The Ariete's armour is a steel and composite blend, similar to the British Challenger 2 and the American M1 Abrams; the Ariete features two side-mounted, electronically fired grenade launchers. Each launcher consists of four barrels which can be intermixed with either chaff grenades; the smoke grenades are capable of shrouding the tank from visual or thermal detection, while the chaff grenades disperse the tank's radar cross section.
The tank is NBC protected. The Ariete is powered by a 25.8-litre turbo-charged Fiat-Iveco MTCA 12-cylinder diesel engine in a Vee configuration rated at 937 kilowatts at 2,300 rpm, with a maximum torque of 4,615 N·m at 1,600 rpm driving through a ZF LSG3000 automatic transmission, with four forward gears and two reverse, allowing for a top cruising speed of 70 km/h and a 0–32 km/h acceleration in 6 s. The computer-controlled transmission allows it to climb grades rated up to 60%, can ford waterways of up to 1.25 m on-the-fly. The entire engine and transmission assembly can be replaced in under 1 hour; the Ariete's independent suspension system consists of 14 torsion bars with suspension arms, 10 hydraulic shock absorbers and 14 friction dampers. During the first years of adoption, the Ariete MBT showed some deficiencies regarding the powerplant. While the original V12 1,250 hp FIAT-Iveco MTCA was a coupling of two of the V6 engines used by several Italian Army vehicles such as the Centauro tank destroyer and the Dardo IFV, it produced less power than the most advanced contemporary western designs.
The Ariete's engine had to run at a high RPM to perform well, thus reducing the operating time between failures. Moreover, to retain a good power-to-weight ratio, the total weight of the tank had to be kept below 60 tonnes; the light weight of the Ariete helped lower consumption and facilitated the transport and mobility of the MBT. This was obtained at the expense of the thickness of the armour that, only compensated by the good ballistic shape of the vehicle, raised some doubt about its ability to survive in the harshest environments; as an improvement, Iveco developed a new version of the MTCA engine. The stroke was lengthened, increasing displacement to 30 litres, with a new common rail direct fuel injection system along a new double turbocharger, increasing power output to 1,200 kW at 1,800 rpm and further reducing fuel consumption; the new engine had to be adopted during the first ge
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
The T-84 is a Ukrainian main battle tank, a development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank introduced in 1976. The T-84 was first built in 1994 and entered service in the Ukrainian Armed Forces in 1999; the T-84 is based on the diesel-engined T-80 version, the T-80UD. Its high-performance opposed-piston engine makes it one of the fastest MBTs in the world, with a power-to-weight ratio of about 26 horsepower per tonne; the T-84 Oplot is an advanced version incorporating an armoured ammunition compartment in a new turret bustle. The T-84-120 Yatagan is a prototype model intended for export, mounting a 120 mm gun capable of firing standard NATO ammunition and guided missiles; the T-84 is the latest Ukrainian development of the T-80 series, designed by KMDB in Kharkiv. A main design objective was to make Ukraine's arms industry independent of Russia's, after resulting difficulties in fulfilling a contract to supply T-80UD tanks to Pakistan. An external difference from earlier models is the new Ukrainian welded turret, replacing the T-80's Russian-built cast turret.
The T-84's outstanding feature is the 26 hp/t power-to-weight ratio. The tank is designed to perform well in hot climates, includes an air-conditioned crew compartment. Due to the collapse of Soviet Union, the Malyshev Factory was no longer able to obtain ceramic armour modules from Russia and only the initial batch of T-84 were produced with such. Instead batches of T-84's composite armour is composed of special purpose rubber sandwiched between steel and alloy plates; the exact difference in performance between the new and previous armor is not known and depends on performance of dynamic armor. Ukraine has demonstrated several upgraded prototypes of this tank, intended for both domestic employment and international sale. T-84 Ukrainian Modernization of the T-80UD. New welded turret and Shtora-1 countermeasures suite, new electronics, new main gun, new armor, 1,200 hp 6TD-2 diesel engine. T-84U Ukrainian upgrade of the T-84. New armoured side skirts, turret-conformal Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour, auxiliary power unit, thermal imaging sight, satellite navigation, commander's laser range-finder, muzzle reference system, other improvements.
T-84 Oplot T-84U with a new welded turret with separate crew and ammunition compartments with blowout panels on the ammunition compartment, a new bustle-mounted autoloader. T-84-120 Yatagan A prototype version of Oplot tailored for evaluation by the Turkish Army. Mounts a 120 mm main gun which fires both NATO 120 mm rounds and a special 120 mm version of the AT-11 Sniper ATGM, it has automated gear shifting in place of mechanical gear selector, driver's T-bar control replacing tiller bars, air conditioning, projectile muzzle velocity sensor, as well as differences in the fire control system, etc. T-84 Oplot-M, or "BM Oplot": The newest and most sophisticated version of the T-84 is an upgraded version of the "T-84 Oplot" mounting more advanced armor, new electronic countermeasure systems, others. One visible feature is the new PNK-6 panoramic tank sight. DesignThe BM Oplot is a further development of the previous Oplot, based on the T-84 main battle tank; the tank has a conventional layout with the driver's compartment at the front, fighting compartment in the middle and engine at the rear, accommodating a crew of three members.
The driver sitting in the centre is provided with a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the right. The commander on the right and the gunner on the left have single-piece hatches. Tank has a length of 9.7 m, a width of 3.4 m without removable side skirts, a height of 2.8 m. The combat weight of the tank is 51 tons. ArmamentThe Oplot MBT is armed with a 125 mm smoothbore KBA-3 cannon, a KT-7.62 Coaxial machine gun and a KT-12.7 anti-aircraft machine gun. The main gun is fed by a loading system equipped with automatic loader and control system; the ammunition includes high explosive fragmentation, armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding-sabot, high explosive anti tank and gun mount rounds. The main gun can fire a laser guided missile against battle tanks, armoured vehicles and hovering helicopters within the range of 5,000m; the missile can be fired on the move against travelling targets. The tandem warhead fitted on the missile can defeat targets equipped with explosive reactive armour and advanced spaced armour.
The Oplot has 46 rounds of ammunition for the main gun, of which 28 rounds are placed in the automatic loader. Other ammunition types carried are 1,250 rounds for KT-7.62 machine gun, 450 rounds for KT-12.7 machine gun and 450 rounds for AKS submachine gun. Fire ControlThe vehicle has three forward-facing periscopes in front of the driver's cupola; the centre periscope can be replaced with a night driving device. The fire control system includes a gunner's day sight, PNK-6 commander's panoramic sighting system, PTT-2 thermal imaging sight, anti-aircraft sight and anti-aircraft machine gun control system. Detection range of targets for thermal sighting system is up to 8 km; the tank is equipped with LIO-V ballistic computer, armament stabiliser and other systems. The advanced fire-control system enables the gunner or commander to lay and fire the main armament on the move; the stationary and moving targets can be hit with a high first round hit probability. ProtectionThe protection system includes multilayer passive armour, Duplet explosive reactive armour, Zaslon active protection
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29; the most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members. An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs; the combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.
Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024. On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization, established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland; the North Atlantic Treaty was dormant until the Korean War initiated the establishment of NATO to implement it, by means of an integrated military structure: This included the formation of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in 1951, which adopted the Western Union's military structures and plans.
In 1952 the post of Secretary General of NATO was established as the organization's chief civilian. That year saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization. Following the London and Paris Conferences, West Germany was permitted to rearm militarily, as they joined NATO in May 1955, in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion – doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966. In 1982 the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance; the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and focus on the continent of Europe.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At that time, European countries accounted for 34 percent of NATO's military spending. NATO began a gradual expansion to include newly autonomous Central and Eastern European nations, extended its activities into political and humanitarian situations that had not been NATO concerns. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, most of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.
The organization has operated a range of additional roles since including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, annexation of Crimea; the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established; the changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the NATO Military Command Structure, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.
Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional co
The M-84 is a Yugoslav third generation main battle tank, a variant of the Soviet T-72. The M-84 is still in service in Serbia, Croatia and other countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina use a minimal number; the M-84 is based on the Soviet T-72 but with several modifications, including a domestic fire-control system, improved composite armor, a 1000-hp engine. The M-84 entered service with the Yugoslav People's Army in 1984; the improved M-84A version entered service a few years later. There were about 240 Yugoslav factories which directly participated in the production of the M-84 and about 1,000 others which participated indirectly; the latest Serbian version of the M-84 is the M-84AS, unveiled in 2004. It features a new fire control system, Kontakt-5 ERA armor, AT-11 Sniper anti-tank missiles, Agava-2 thermal sight, the Shtora defensive suite, it is similar to the Russian T-90S, both in appearance and in capability. About 150 M-84 tanks were exported to Kuwait; the disintegration of Yugoslavia in the 1990s prevented further exports of the M-84.
The M-84A is armed with a 125 mm smoothbore cannon derived from the Soviet 2A46. The fume extractor positioned in the middle of the barrel is shielded with a thermal coating that minimizes deformation of the barrel from high temperatures and ensures it is cooled at the same rate during rapid firing; the M-84 uses an automatic loader. The cannon's ammunition is stowed underneath the turret within the hull of the tank; this concept was inherited from the original Soviet design for T-72 and is both a strength and weakness of the tank. While the lower hull beneath the turret is one of the least place to be hit and penetrated by antitank rounds or mines, it means, that in the event of penetration and secondary detonation of the ammunition, the crew and tank are unlikely to survive the resulting catastrophic explosion; this weakness was exploited by Croatian soldiers in the Croatian War of Independence to the detriment of the Yugoslav People's Army's tank crews. In stages of the conflict, losses were reduced by adjusting and improving tactics.
Along with its primary armament, the M-84 is armed with one 7.62mm coaxial machine gun, one 12.7mm anti-aircraft gun mounted on the commander's turret. All versions of the M-84 have a crew of three; the commander sits on the right side of the turret, the gunner on the left, the driver sits centrally at the front end of the vehicle. Like most Soviet derived vehicles, the M-84 series of tanks do not have a manual loader, due to the tank's autoloader system; the basic tank has a cast steel turret with maximal thickness of 410mm. The glacis uses laminate armor, glass in plastic resin between two steel plates, in the A version a 16mm steel plate was welded on the glacis. Total armor protection ranges between 560mm-700mm for the turret. During the wars in Yugoslavia the M-84's frontal armor proved effective against any type of AT threat. Side or rear hits result in a catastrophic ammo explosion. Twelve smoke grenades are positioned in front of the turret in banks of seven grenades. Night vision and gunner's sight are positioned on the top-right side of the turret.
The M-84 has a search light used in short-range combat situations. The M-84 tank has nuclear and chemical protection capabilities; the base M-84 engine is a 12-cylinder water-cooled V46-6 diesel engine, rated at 574 kW. The improved M-84A has a V46-TK 735 kW engine. With maximum fuel capacity the tank's range is 450 km, with external fuel tanks, this range can be extended to 650 km; the Croatian-made variants have enhanced power plants. The M-84A4 Sniper model has a German-built 820 kW engine, while the M-84D has an 895 kW engine, the most powerful of all M-84 variants; the M-84D has greater fuel capacity. The tank can ford 1.2 meters of water at any time, or up to 5 meters with a snorkel. M-84 - The initial version based on the Soviet T-72M and produced between 1984 and 1987. Less than 150 units manufactured. M-84A - An upgraded version similar to the Soviet T-72M1 but with a more powerful engine and additional armour plating, it comes with the new SUV-M-84 computerized fire-control system, including the DNNS-2 gunner's day/night sight, with independent stabilization in two planes and integral laser rangefinder.
It comes with the TNP-160 periscope, TNPA-65 auxiliary periscope, DNKS-2 day/night commander's periscopes, as well as the TNPO-168V driver's periscope. Produced between 1988 and 1991 analogous to the M-84AB. 450 vehicles manufactured including the M-84AB. M-84AB - Kuwaiti version of the M-84A. Additionally, the M-84AB is fitted with new intercom systems; the Kuwaiti 35th Ash-Shahid Armoured Brigade, armed with several dozen M-84ABs, took part in Operation Desert Storm. During the fighting, only two M-84AB's were lost, but both were recovered. Kuwait ordered over 200 tanks but received only 150 before the break-up of Yugoslavia and the resulting end of its production. M-84ABN - The M-84AB fitted with land navigation equipment. M-84ABK Command Tank -M-84AB version fitted with extensive communication equipment, land navigation equipment, a generator for the command role. M-84A4 Sniper - This version includes the all-new SCS-84 day/night sight, DBR-84 ballistic computer and improved elevation and traverse sensors.