Henry Starr was an American criminal of the wild west and an American actor of the silent film era. Starr was a horse train robber, he was convicted of murder once, in the killing of U. S. Deputy Marshal Floyd Wilson on December 13, 1892. Starr claimed in court to not have known he was a U. S. Marshal and only to know that a man had opened fire on him without provocation. Distantly related to Sam Starr, husband of Belle Starr, he was the last in a long line of Starr family criminals. Twice sentenced by Judge Isaac Parker to hang for murder, he managed to escape the noose due to technicalities and went on to form a notorious gang that terrorized and robbed throughout northwest Arkansas around the start of the 20th century, he was imprisoned in 1915, wrote his memoirs and portrayed himself in the silent film, A Debtor to the Law. He was killed by W. J. Myers with a.38 caliber Winchester rifle while attempting to rob a bank in Harrison, Arkansas, in 1921. Henry Starr was the first bank robber to use a car for his getaway in the United States, in Harrison.
For decades afterward, Starr supporters targeted the by-then blind W. J. Myers and his family. Myers' grandson was targeted for kidnapping and ransom
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks. The historic American cowboy of the late 19th century arose from the vaquero traditions of northern Mexico and became a figure of special significance and legend. A subtype, called a wrangler tends the horses used to work cattle. In addition to ranch work, some cowboys participate in rodeos. Cowgirls, first defined as such in the late 19th century, had a less-well documented historical role, but in the modern world work at identical tasks and have obtained considerable respect for their achievements. Cattle handlers in many other parts of the world South America and Australia, perform work similar to the cowboy; the cowboy has deep historic roots tracing back to Spain and the earliest European settlers of the Americas. Over the centuries, differences in terrain and climate, the influence of cattle-handling traditions from multiple cultures, created several distinct styles of equipment and animal handling.
As the ever-practical cowboy adapted to the modern world, his equipment and techniques adapted, though many classic traditions are preserved. The English word cowboy has an origin from several earlier terms that referred to both age and to cattle or cattle-tending work; the English word cowboy was a direct English translation of vaquero, a Spanish word for an individual who managed cattle while mounted on horseback. It was derived from vaca, it was first used in print by Jonathan Swift in 1725. It was used in Britain from 1820 to 1850 to describe young boys who tended the family or community cows; the English word "cowherd" was used to describe a cattle herder, referred to a pre-adolescent or early adolescent boy, who worked on foot. This word is old in the English language, originating prior to the year 1000. By 1849 "cowboy" had developed its modern sense as an adult cattle handler of the American West. Variations on the word appeared later. "Cowhand" appeared in 1852, "cowpoke" in 1881 restricted to the individuals who prodded cattle with long poles to load them onto railroad cars for shipping.
Names for a cowboy in American English include buckaroo, cowpoke and cowpuncher. Another English word for a cowboy, buckaroo, is an anglicization of vaquero.. Today, "cowboy" is a term common throughout the west and in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains, "buckaroo" is used in the Great Basin and California, "cowpuncher" in Texas and surrounding states. Equestrianism required skills and an investment in horses and equipment available to or entrusted to a child, though in some cultures boys rode a donkey while going to and from pasture. In antiquity, herding of sheep and goats was the job of minors, still is a task for young people in various third world cultures; because of the time and physical ability needed to develop necessary skills, both historic and modern cowboys began as an adolescent. Cowboys earned wages as soon as they developed sufficient skill to be hired. If not crippled by injury, cowboys may handle horses for a lifetime. In the United States, a few women took on the tasks of ranching and learned the necessary skills, though the "cowgirl" did not become recognized or acknowledged until the close of the 19th century.
On western ranches today, the working cowboy is an adult. Responsibility for herding cattle or other livestock is no longer considered suitable for children or early adolescents. However, both boys and girls growing up in a ranch environment learn to ride horses and perform basic ranch skills as soon as they are physically able under adult supervision; such youths, by their late teens, are given responsibilities for "cowboy" work on the ranch. "Cowboy" was used during the American Revolution to describe American fighters who opposed the movement for independence. Claudius Smith, an outlaw identified with the Loyalist cause, was called the "Cow-boy of the Ramapos" due to his penchant for stealing oxen and horses from colonists and giving them to the British. In the same period, a number of guerrilla bands operated in Westchester County, which marked the dividing line between the British and American forces; these groups were made up of local farmhands who would ambush convoys and carry out raids on both sides.
There were two separate groups: the "skinners" fought for the pro-independence side, while the "cowboys" supported the British. In the Tombstone, Arizona area during the 1880s, the term "cowboy" or "cow-boy" was used pejoratively to describe men, implicated in various crimes. One loosely organized band was dubbed "The Cowboys," and profited from smuggling cattle and tobacco across the U. S.–Mexico border. The San Francisco Examiner wrote in an editorial, "Cowboys the most reckless class of outlaws in that wild country... infinitely worse than the ordinary robber." It became an insult in the area to call someone a "cowboy", as it suggested he was a horse thief, robber, or outlaw. Cattlemen were called herders or ranchers; the Cowboys' activities were curtailed by the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral and the resulting Earp Vendetta Ride; the origins of the cowboy tradition come from Spain, beginning with the hacienda system of medieval Spain. This style of cattle ranching spread throughout much of the Iberian peninsula, was imported to the Americas.
Both regions possessed a dry climate with sp
Sally Carrera is a fictional character in the Pixar computer animated film Cars. She is protagonist Lightning McQueen's love interest, she is voiced by Bonnie Hunt. In the film, Sally owns the Cozy Cone Motel, a newly refurbished tourist court similar in design to the Wigwam Motels but with each individual motel room constructed as an oversized traffic cone, she has cones all around her shop and out. Neon lighting at the Cozy Cone, one of the first historic restoration efforts in Radiator Springs, displays the "100% Refrigerated Air" slogan of Tucumcari's historic US 66 Blue Swallow Motel, she once was a successful California lawyer but, chose to leave the state to settle in the small U. S. Route 66 town. "It's pretty simple. I was an attorney in LA. livin' life in the fast lane and well, my life. And you know what? It never felt happy. So I left California. Just drove and drove and broke down right here. Doc fixed me up, Flo took me in. Well, they all did, and I never left." Sally is a 2002 Porsche 911 Carrera on a slightly-shortened wheelbase and has a pinstripe tattoo on her back.
Pixar had wanted a classic Porsche for the role, but were convinced by Bob Carlson at Porsche to make her the latest model. Pixar's animators and sound crews obtained access to real Porsche 911-series vehicles to meticulously create an animated Sally who looks and responds in a similar manner to the original automobile. "It's the nicest body I've had on film. I'm telling you, it's a luxury. I thought they were going to cast me as a Buick." According to director John Lasseter. "Sally is the one modern car in the town of Radiator Springs. She's beautiful. It's interesting that people think of a Porsche as powerful and a guy's car, but the lines on a Porsche are so beautiful that it fits for the character of Sally."Her character is modeled on Dawn Welch of the historic Rock Café on U. S. Route 66 in Oklahoma, an advocate of the promotion and restoration of Stroud, Oklahoma after the town had been both bypassed by the Turner Turnpike and damaged by a 1999 F3 tornado. Welch had long traveled rallying support for keeping it alive.
Like Sally, Dawn Welch is a relative newcomer to U. S. Route 66, having left the travel industry to purchase the Rock Café in 1993 and list it on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. Sally was going to be a Ford Mustang, but Pixar animators found that the large grill too resembled a mustache. "We met people out on Route 66 and we're thinking, at first,'What are you doing here? You've travelled the world. You're educated. You speak three languages, but you run a restaurant out in the middle of nowhere.' But after an hour of having dinner with this person, you think,'Wow, this is perfect. I'm so glad you're here because you're keeping it alive.'" Sally is instrumental in convincing the local judge to direct McQueen to repair the town's Main Street, a section of the now-bypassed U. S. Route 66, as a community service obligation upon his conviction in traffic court. Sally calls Lightning McQueen "Stickers", at first because of his fake headlights and as a friendly nickname, her desire that McQueen stay to assist in rebuilding the town places her at odds with Doc's intransigence that "I want him out of my courtroom.
I want him out of our town!", motivated by his desire to break all ties with a racing community which once abandoned him. Sally leads McQueen on a leisurely drive on picturesque but serpentine mountain roads through Tailfin Pass to the vacant Wheel Well Motel, an abandoned motor court and filling station near a scenic lookout point with a wide panoramic view of Ornament Valley, Radiator Springs and the entire surrounding region. Surrounding scenery resembles Arizona landmarks such as Havasu Falls near Grand Canyon National Park or Monument Valley, she appears to be able to speak Italian at least when she sometimes talks to Guido. She explains the history of the town with a nostalgic flashback, describing the two-lane Route 66's busy heyday and the construction of the parallel but unconnected six-lane I-40; the disappearance of cars from Main Street on the new highway's completion is every bit as abrupt as that when I-40 opened in Seligman on September 22, 1978. When Interstate 40 is completed, US 66, Radiator Springs and Ornament Valley are all seen to vanish from road maps as all highway traffic on 66 disappears and local businesses close, their business names fading into the underlying brickwork.
Forty years ago, that Interstate down there didn't exist. Back cars came across the country a whole different way. Well, the road didn't cut through the land like that Interstate, it moved with the land, it rose, it fell, it curved. Cars didn't drive on it to make great time, they drove on it to have a great time. Lamenting that "the town got bypassed just to save ten minutes of driving", she wishes to have seen the community in its heyday, her efforts are devoted to historic restoration and tireless promotion of "Radiator Springs, the glorious jewel strung on the necklace of Route 66, the mother road". The town has been without clients for years though there are no services on the new road; as the task of rebuilding is huge she needs to convince a long-demoralised local populace not only that th
Pixar is an American computer animation film studio based in Emeryville, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company. Pixar began in 1979 as the Graphics Group, part of the Lucasfilm computer division, before its spin-out as a corporation in 1986, with funding by Apple Inc. co-founder Steve Jobs, who became the majority shareholder. Disney purchased Pixar in 2006 at a valuation of $7.4 billion by converting each share of Pixar stock to 2.3 shares of Disney stock, a transaction that resulted in Jobs becoming Disney's largest single shareholder at the time. Pixar is best known for CGI-animated feature films created with RenderMan, Pixar's own implementation of the industry-standard RenderMan image-rendering application programming interface, used to generate high-quality images. Pixar has produced 20 feature films, beginning with Toy Story, the first-ever computer-animated feature film. All of the studio's films have debuted with CinemaScore ratings of at least an "A−," indicating positive receptions with audiences.
The studio has produced dozens of short films. As of August 2018, its feature films have earned $13 billion at the worldwide box office, with an average worldwide gross of $659.7 million per film. Finding Nemo, along with its sequel Finding Dory, as well as Toy Story 3 and Incredibles 2 are among the 50 highest-grossing films of all time, with the latter being the second-highest-grossing animated film of all time with a gross of $1.2 billion. Fifteen of Pixar's films are among the 50 highest-grossing animated films of all time; the studio has earned 19 Academy Awards, 8 Golden Globe Awards, 11 Grammy Awards, among many other awards and acknowledgments. Many of Pixar's films have been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature since its inauguration in 2001, with nine winning. Monsters, Inc. Cars, Incredibles 2 are the only three films that were nominated for the award without winning it, while Cars 2, Monsters University, The Good Dinosaur, Finding Dory, Cars 3 were not nominated.
Up and Toy Story 3 were the respective second and third animated films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the first being Walt Disney Animation Studios' Beauty and the Beast. Luxo Jr. a character from the studio's 1986 short film of the same name, is the studio's mascot. On September 6, 2009, Pixar executives John Lasseter, Brad Bird, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton, Lee Unkrich were presented with the Golden Lion award for Lifetime Achievement by the Venice Film Festival; the award was given to Lucasfilm's founder George Lucas. Pixar got its start in 1974 when New York Institute of Technology's founder Alexander Schure, the owner of a traditional animation studio, established the Computer Graphics Lab, recruited computer scientists who shared his ambitions about creating the world's first computer-animated film. Edwin Catmull and Malcolm Blanchard were the first to be hired and were soon joined by Alvy Ray Smith and David DiFrancesco some months which were the four original members of the Computer Graphics Lab.
Schure kept pouring money into the computer graphics lab, an estimated $15 million, giving the group everything they desired and driving NYIT into serious financial troubles. The group realized they needed to work in a real film studio in order to reach their goal. Francis Ford Coppola invited Smith to his house for a three-day media conference, where Coppola and George Lucas shared their visions for the future of digital moviemaking; when Lucas approached them and offered them a job at his studio, six employees decided to move over to Lucasfilm. During the following months, they resigned from CGL, found temporary jobs for about a year to avoid making Schure suspicious, before they joined The Graphics Group at Lucasfilm; the Graphics Group, one-third of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm, was launched in 1979 with the hiring of Catmull from NYIT, where he was in charge of the Computer Graphics Lab. He was reunited with Smith, who made the journey from NYIT to Lucasfilm, was made the director of The Graphics Group.
At NYIT, the researchers pioneered many of the CG foundation techniques—in particular the invention of the alpha channel. Years the CGL produced a few frames of an experimental film called The Works. After moving to Lucasfilm, the team worked on creating the precursor to RenderMan, called REYES and developed a number of critical technologies for CG—including "particle effects" and various animation tools. In 1982, the team began working on special effects film sequences with Industrial Magic. After years of research, key milestones such as the Genesis Effect in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and the Stained Glass Knight in Young Sherlock Holmes, the group, which numbered 40 individuals, was spun out as a corporation in February 1986 by Catmull and Smith. Among the 38 remaining employees, there were Malcolm Blanchard, David DiFrancesco, Ralph Guggenheim, Bill Reeves, part of the team since the days of NYIT. Tom Duff an NYIT member, would join Pixar after its formation. With Lucas' 1983 divorce, which coincided with the sudden dropoff in revenues from Star Wars licenses following the release of Return of the Jedi, they knew he would most sell the whole Graphics Group.
Worried that the
U.S. Route 66
U. S. Route 66 known as the Will Rogers Highway, the Main Street of America or the Mother Road, was one of the original highways in the U. S. Highway System. US 66 was established on November 1926, with road signs erected the following year; the highway, which became one of the most famous roads in the United States ran from Chicago, through Missouri, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona before ending in Santa Monica in Los Angeles County, covering a total of 2,448 miles. It was recognized in popular culture by both the hit song " Route 66" and the Route 66 television show in the 1960s. In John Steinbeck's classic American novel, The Grapes of Wrath, the road, "Highway 66", was turned into a powerful symbol of escape and loss. US 66 served as a primary route for those who migrated west during the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, the road supported the economies of the communities through which it passed. People doing business along the route became prosperous due to the growing popularity of the highway, those same people fought to keep the highway alive in the face of the growing threat of being bypassed by the new Interstate Highway System.
US 66 underwent many improvements and realignments over its lifetime, but was removed from the United States Highway System in 1985 after it had been replaced in its entirety by segments of the Interstate Highway System. Portions of the road that passed through Illinois, New Mexico, Arizona have been communally designated a National Scenic Byway of the name "Historic Route 66", returning the name to some maps. Several states have adopted significant bypassed sections of the former US 66 into their state road networks as State Route 66; the corridor is being redeveloped into U. S. Bicycle Route 66, a part of the United States Bicycle Route System, developed in the 2010s. In 1857, Lt. Edward Fitzgerald Beale, a Naval officer in the service of the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, was ordered by the War Department to build a government-funded wagon road along the 35th Parallel, his secondary orders were to test the feasibility of the use of camels as pack animals in the southwestern desert.
This road became part of US 66. Parts of the original Route 66 from 1913, prior to its official naming and commissioning, can still be seen north of the Cajon Pass; the paved road becomes a dirt road, south of Cajon, the original Route 66. Before a nationwide network of numbered highways was adopted by the states, named auto trails were marked by private organizations; the route that would become US 66 was covered by three highways. The Lone Star Route passed through St. Louis on its way from Chicago to Cameron, though US 66 would take a shorter route through Bloomington rather than Peoria; the transcontinental National Old Trails Road led via St. Louis to Los Angeles, but was not followed until New Mexico. Again, a shorter route was taken, here following the Postal Highway between Oklahoma City and Amarillo; the National Old Trails Road became the rest of the route to Los Angeles. While legislation for public highways first appeared in 1916, with revisions in 1921, it was not until Congress enacted an more comprehensive version of the act in 1925 that the government executed its plan for national highway construction.
The original inspiration for a roadway between Chicago and Los Angeles was planned by entrepreneurs Cyrus Avery of Tulsa and John Woodruff of Springfield, Missouri. The pair lobbied the American Association of State Highway Officials for the creation of a route following the 1925 plans. From the outset, public road planners intended US 66 to connect the main streets of rural and urban communities along its course for the most practical of reasons: most small towns had no prior access to a major national thoroughfare; the numerical designation 66 was assigned to the Chicago-to-Los Angeles route on April 30, 1926, in Springfield, Missouri. A placard in Park Central Square was dedicated to the city by the Route 66 Association of Missouri, traces of the "Mother Road" are still visible in downtown Springfield along Kearney Street, Glenstone Avenue, St. Louis streets and on Route 266 to Halltown, Missouri. Championed by Avery when the first talks about a national highway system began, US 66 was first signed into law in 1927 as one of the original U.
S. Highways, although it was not paved until 1938. Avery was adamant that the highway had proposed number 60 to identify it. A controversy erupted over the number 60 from delegates from Kentucky who wanted a Virginia Beach–Los Angeles highway to be US 60 and US 62 between Chicago and Springfield, Missouri. Arguments and counterarguments continued throughout February, including a proposal to split the proposed route through Kentucky into Route 60 North and Route 60 South; the final conclusion was to have US 60 run between Virginia Beach and Springfield, the Chicago–L. A. Route be US 62. Avery and highway engineer John Page settled on "66,", unassigned, despite the fact that in its entirety, US 66 was north of US 60; the state of Missouri released its 1926 state highway map with the highway labeled as US 60. After the new federal highway system was created, Cyrus Avery called for the establishment of the U. S. Highway 66 Association to promote the complete paving of the highway from end to end and to promote travel down the highway.
In 1927, in Tulsa, the association was established with John T. Woodr
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income