Clash cymbals are cymbals played in matched pairs by holding one cymbal in each hand and striking the two together. They are called hand cymbals. In musical scores, clash cymbals are indicated as cymbals or sometimes C. C. If another type of cymbal, for example a suspended cymbal, is required in an orchestral score for historical reasons this is also indicated cymbals; some composers and arrangers use the plural cymbals or crash cymbals to indicate clash cymbals, with the singular cymbal to indicate a suspended cymbal. Composers will condense the clash cymbals and a suspended cymbal into the same part. There are a number of techniques used to indicate, desired. Whenever with stick or with mallet is written, a suspended cymbal is used. A return to clash cymbals can be specified with the Italian phrase a 2. Russian composers developed a notation to differentiate between clash and suspended cymbals in which a + is written over a note to be played on suspended cymbal and a ° is written over a note to be played with clash cymbals.
Designers of various sound banks, such as the Garritan Personal Orchestra, distinguish between handheld and suspended cymbals by referring to the former as "Piatti cymbals", having reserved the term "crash cymbal" for the latter. Since "piatti" is the Italian term for "cymbal", this may be an redundant term. Clash cymbals are conventionally played by a standing percussionist. In a marching band context, the stationary percussionist prepares for the crash by holding the cymbals parallel a few inches apart, with the surfaces vertical, one at waist height and the other some distance above it, they are struck together by bringing the upper cymbal down and the lower up to meet in the middle. If only a single crash is to be played, the sounding cymbals are raised in a follow-through and held vertical but no longer parallel, but instead in the same plane with their concave surfaces facing the audience and head-high on either side of the percussionist; this allows the cymbals to resonate freely. Alternatively, if another stroke is to follow, the cymbals are allowed to follow through only until they have reached the same heights as they started, are ready in position for the next stroke.
For softer strokes, in preparation the cymbals are held not quite vertically but at a slight angle, but still parallel, the upper cymbal is allowed to fall towards the lower. The follow-through is reduced or omitted after softer strokes; because clash cymbals can be maneuvered like pom-poms or other handheld devices, cymbalists will employ various feats of showmanship, such as spinning and flashing, striking cymbals between cymbalists, or creating visual designs. Some of these serve a functional purpose—waving cymbals after a grand stroke allows for the clash to resonate more clearly. There are numerous techniques for playing cymbals, many different from those listed above. In an orchestral or wind band context, the cymbals are held parallel a few inches apart at chest height. For best crashes, the cymbals are held just at a slight angle. For piano crashes the cymbals are brought together from centimetres apart and allowed to'fizz' for a millisecond. Whereas for forte crashes, using both arms in an upward sweeping motion, the cymbals are brought together with equal force from left and right hands.
Ideally, the percussionist would allow the edge furthest away from his or her body to make contact first, with the rest following milliseconds later. They are held horizontal, with the left cymbal on bottom; this is recognised as terrible technique and does not bring out anything from the cymbals other than a weak'crash' with no depth of sound or timbre. Other common techniques are to choke the sounding cymbals by bringing them together and damping one or both against the body. A skilled percussionist can produce elaborate rhythms, with fine cymbals can exercise precise control over the loudness and decay and apparent duration of each crash. Less skilled percussionists and cartoon characters are seen playing cymbals by beating them together with a purely horizontal motion; this technique has been used by some avant-garde composers, but produces poor control of the sound and risks damage to fine cymbals, which are not designed for such usage. A drum kit contains one pair of clash cymbals mounted on a pedal-operated hi-hat stand.
These are far smaller and lighter than hand-operated clash cymbals, are played with drum sticks as well as clashed together using the pedal. In the orchestra, clash cymbals are matched pairs, they are found in three weights: Francese, leggero, or light, the lightest and thinnest. Viennese, medio, or medium. Germanic, Wagnerian, pesante, or heavy, the heaviest and thickest. Instruments in all weights range in size from 14" to 22" diameter; the smallest and thickest tend to have the higher pitch, the thinner ones allow for greater expression, the largest the greatest volume. Clash cymbals are used in military and marching bands, percussion ensembles, theatrical performances, state and religious ceremonies; these range in
The celesta or celeste is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. It looks similar to an upright piano, albeit with smaller keys and a much smaller cabinet, or a large wooden music box; the keys connect to hammers that strike a graduated set of metal plates or bars suspended over wooden resonators. Four- or five-octave models have a damper pedal that sustains or damps the sound; the three-octave instruments do not have a pedal because of their small "table-top" design. One of the best-known works that uses the celesta is Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy" from The Nutcracker; the sound of the celesta is similar to that of the glockenspiel, but with a much softer and more subtle timbre. This quality gave the instrument its name, meaning "heavenly" in French; the celesta is used to enhance a melody line played by another instrument or section. The delicate, bell-like sound is not loud enough to be used in full ensemble sections; the celesta is a transposing instrument. Its sounding range is considered to be C4 to C8.
The original French instrument had a five-octave range, but because the lowest octave was considered somewhat unsatisfactory, it was omitted from models. The standard French four-octave instrument is now being replaced in symphony orchestras by a larger, five-octave German model. Although it is a member of the percussion family, in orchestral terms it is more properly considered a member of the keyboard section and played by a keyboardist; the celesta part is written on two braced staves, called a grand staff. The celesta was invented in 1886 by the Parisian harmonium builder Auguste Mustel, his father, Victor Mustel, had developed the forerunner of the celesta, the typophone, in 1860. This instrument produced sound by striking tuning forks instead of the metal plates that would be used in the celesta; the dulcitone was developed concurrently in Scotland. The typophone/dulcitone's uses were limited by its low volume, too quiet to be heard in a full orchestra. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is cited as the first major composer to use this instrument in a work for full symphony orchestra.
He first used it in his symphonic poem The Voyevoda, Op. posth. 78, premiered in November 1891. The following year, he used the celesta in passages in his ballet The Nutcracker, most notably in the Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy, which appears in the derived Nutcracker Suite, Op. 71a. However, Ernest Chausson preceded Tchaikovsky by employing the celesta in December 1888 in his incidental music, written for a small orchestra, for La tempête; the celesta is notably used in Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 6 in the 1st, 2nd and 4th movements, in his Symphony No. 8 and Das Lied von der Erde. Karol Szymanowski featured it in his Symphony No. 3. Gustav Holst employed the instrument in his 1918 orchestral work The Planets in the final movement, the Mystic, it features prominently in Béla Bartók's 1936 Music for Strings and Celesta. George Gershwin included a celesta solo in the score to An American in Paris. Ferde Grofe wrote an extended cadenza for the instrument in the third movement of his Grand Canyon Suite.
Dmitri Shostakovich included parts for celesta in seven out of his fifteen symphonies, with a notable use in the fourth symphony's coda. Twentieth-century American composer Morton Feldman used the celesta in many of his large-scale chamber pieces such as Crippled Symmetry and For Philip Guston, it figured in much of his orchestral music and other pieces. In some works, such as "Five Pianos" one of the players doubles on celesta; the celesta is used in many 20th-century opera scores, including Giacomo Puccini's Tosca, Maurice Ravel's L'heure espagnole and L'enfant et les sortileges, Richard Strauss's Ariadne auf Naxos, Die Frau ohne Schatten, while "an excellent example of its beauty when well employed", is the Silver Rose scene in his Der Rosenkavalier, Ferruccio Busoni's Arlecchino and Doktor Faust, Carl Orff's Carmina Burana and Der Mond, Gian Carlo Menotti's Amelia Goes to the Ball, Benjamin Britten's The Turn of the Screw and A Midsummer Night's Dream, Conrad Susa's Transformations, Philip Glass' Akhnaten.
The keyboard glockenspiel part in Mozart's The Magic Flute is nowadays played by a celesta. Since Earl Hines took it up in 1928, other jazz pianists have used the celesta as an alternative instrument. In the 1930s, Fats Waller sometimes played celesta with his right hand and piano with his left hand. Other notable jazz pianists who played the celesta include Memphis Slim, Meade "Lux" Lewis, Willie "The Lion" Smith, Art Tatum, Duke Ellington, Thelonious Monk, Buddy Greco, Oscar Peterson, McCoy Tyner, Sun Ra, Keith Jarrett, Herbie Hancock. A celesta provides the introduction to Someday You'll Be Sorry, a song Louis Armstrong recorded for RCA, is featured prominently throughout the piece. A number of recordings Frank Sinatra made for Columbia in the 1940s feature the instrument, as do many of his albums recorded for Capitol in the 1950s; the instrument is used prominently in the introduction to the 1928 recording by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five of "Basin Street Blues". No
Triangle (musical instrument)
The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. It is a bar of metal steel but sometimes other metals such as beryllium copper, bent into a triangle shape; the instrument is held by a loop of some form of thread or wire at the top curve. "It is theoretically an instrument of indefinite pitch, for its fundamental pitch is obscured by its nonharmonic overtones." Triangle has a prestigious history. The triangle in its ancient form had rings strung to the lower bar, yet the first mention we find of a triangle in tenth-century manuscript, is of an instrument without rings. A triangle without rings is depicted in the King Wenceslaus IV Bible and again on a mid-fifteenth-century window in the Beauchamp Chapel, St Mary's, Warwick; this latter triangle with its open corner has a curiously modern appearance, except that at the top angle the steel bar is twisted into a loop through which the thumb of the performer passes. Like its ancestor the sistrum, the triangle was used for religious ceremonies, quite in mediaeval churches.
The triangle occurs more than any other instrument except the cymbals in paintings of Bacchic processions and similar occasions, angels will be seen singing and playing a triangle at the same time. With the development of the genre—opera, the instrument triangle has been used in opera works. In many of the operas by Mozart, Beethoven's 9th symphony and Liszt's bE major piano concerto, triangle has been used. Triangle is considered as a tool to polish the melody with clear sound. In contemporary work, triangle's beauty has been further discovered and, as a percussion instrument, it has been more used from chamber music level to orchestral level. On a triangle instrument, one of the angles is left open, with the ends of the bar not quite touching."One corner of the triangle is left open to keep the instrument from having a specific pitch and to allow it to generate ethereal, scintillating overtones instead". It is either suspended from one of the other corners by a piece of, most fishing line, leaving it free to vibrate, or hooked over the hand.
It is struck with a metal beater, giving a high-pitched, ringing tone. Although today the shape is in the form of an equilateral triangle, early instruments were formed as non-equilateral isosceles triangles. In the early days the triangles had jingling rings along the lower side. Early examples of triangles include ornamental work at the open end in a scroll pattern; the triangle has been manufactured from a solid iron and steel rod and bent into a triangular shape equilateral. In modern times, the scroll pattern has been abandoned and triangles are made from either steel or brass; the triangle is the subject of jokes and one liners as an archetypal instrument that has no musical function and requires no skill to play. However, triangle parts in classical music can be demanding, James Blades in the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians writes that "the triangle is by no means a simple instrument to play". A triangle roll, similar to a snare roll, is notated with three lines through the stem of the note.
It requires the player to move the wand back and forth in the upper corner, bouncing or "rolling" the wand between the two sides. In European classical music, the triangle has been used in the western classical orchestra since around the middle of the 18th century. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven all used it, though sparingly in imitation of Janissary bands; the first piece to use the triangle prominently was Franz Liszt's Piano Concerto No. 1, where it is used as a solo instrument in the third movement, giving this concerto the nickname of "triangle concerto". In Romantic era music, the triangle was used in some music by Richard Wagner, such as the "Bridal chorus" from Lohengrin. Johannes Brahms uses the triangle to particular effect in the third movement of his Fourth Symphony; the triangle is used extensively in Hans Rott's Symphony in E major in the BIS recording. Most difficulties in playing the triangle come from the complex rhythms which are sometimes written for it, although it can be quite difficult to control the level of volume.
Quiet notes can be obtained by using a much lighter beater: knitting needles are sometimes used for the quietest notes. Composers sometimes call for a wooden beater to be used instead of a metal one, which gives a rather "duller" and quieter tone; when the instrument is played with one beater, the hand that holds the triangle can be used to damp or modify the tone. For complex rapid rhythms, the instrument may be suspended from a stand and played with two beaters, although this makes it more difficult to control. In folk music, forró, cajun music and rock music a triangle is hooked over the hand so that one side can be damped by the fingers to vary the tone; the pitch can be modulated by varying the area struck and by more subtle damping. The triangle is popular in Cajun music where it serves as the strong beat if no drums are present. In the Brazilian music style Forró it used together with an accordion, it forms together with the zabumba the rhythmic section. It provides an ongoing pulse, damping the tone on the first second and fourth while opening the hand on the third beat to let most frequencies sound.
It can be used though extensively for breaks. A
A hi-hat is a combination of two cymbals and a foot pedal, all mounted on a metal stand. It is a part of the standard drum kit used by drummers in many styles of music including rock and blues. Hi-hats consist of a matching pair of small to medium-sized cymbals mounted on a stand, with the two cymbals facing each other; the bottom cymbal is fixed and the top is mounted on a rod which moves the top cymbal towards the bottom one when the pedal is depressed. The hi-hat evolved from a "sock cymbal", a pair of similar cymbals mounted at ground level on a hinged, spring-loaded foot apparatus. Drummers invented the first sock cymbals to enable one drummer to play multiple percussion instruments at the same time. Over time these became mounted on short stands - known as "low-boys" - and activated by foot pedals similar to those used in the 2010s; when extended upwards 3' they were known as "high sock" cymbals, which evolved over time to the familiar "high-hat" term. The cymbals may be played by closing them together with the foot pedal, which creates a "chck" sound or striking them with a stick, which may be done with them open, closed and closed after striking to dampen the ring, or closed and opened to create a shimmering effect at the end of the note.
Depending on how hard a hi-hat is struck and whether it is "open", a hi-hat can produce a range of dynamics, from quiet "chck" sounds, done with gently pressing the pedal. While the term hi-hat refers to the entire setup, in some cases, drummers use it to refer to the two cymbals themselves. Initial versions of the hi-hat were called clangers, which were small cymbals mounted onto a bass drum rim and struck with an arm on the bass drum pedal. Came shoes, which were two hinged boards with cymbals on the ends that were clashed together. Next was the low-sock, low-boy or low-hat, pedal-activated cymbals employing an ankle-high apparatus similar to a modern hi-hat stand. A standard size was some with heavy bells up to 5 inches wide. Hi-hats that were raised and could be played by hand as well as foot may have been developed around 1926 by Barney Walberg of the drum accessory company Walberg and Auge; the first recognized master of the new instrument was "Papa" Jo Jones, whose playing of timekeeping "ride" rhythms while striking the hi-hat as it opened and closed inspired the innovation of the ride cymbal.
Another claim, published in Jazz Profiles Blogspot on August 8, 2008, to the invention of the hi-hat is attributed to drummer William "O'Neil" Spencer. Legendary Jazz drummer, "Philly Jo Jones", was quoted describing his understanding about the hi-hat history. Jones said, "I dug O'Neil, he came to club in Philadelphia where I was working in 1943, I think it was, talked to me about the hi-hat. I was using the low-hat. O'Neil was the one. I believe man, he suggested' when playing 4/4 time. The idea seemed so right hadn't heard anyone do that before." The editor of the 2008 Jazz Profiles article made specific mention to others who are thought to invent the hi-hat, including Jo Jones, but Kaiser Marshall. Not to take away from Papa Jones accomplishments in drumming style and technique, a 2013 Modern Drummer article credits Papa Jones with being the first to use brushes on drums and shifting time keeping from the bass drum to the hi-hat; until the late 1960s, standard hi-hats were 14 inches, with 13 inches available as a less-common alternative in professional cymbal ranges, smaller sizes down to 12 inches restricted to children's kits.
In the early 1970s, hard rock drummers began to use 15-inch hi-hats, such as the Paiste Giant Beat. In the late 1980s, Zildjian released its revolutionary 12-inch Special Recording hats, which were small, heavy hi-hat cymbals intended for close miking either live or recording, other manufacturers followed suit, Sabian for example with their 10-inch mini hats. In the early to mid-1990s, Paiste offered 8-inch mini hi-hats as part of its Visions series, which were among the world's smallest hi-hats. Starting in the 1980s, a number of manufacturers experimented with rivets in the lower cymbal, but by the end of the 1990s, the standard size was again 14 inches, with 13 inches a less-common alternative, smaller hats used for special sounds. Rivets in hi-hats failed to catch on. Modern hi-hat cymbals are much heavier than modern crash cymbals, reflecting the trend to lighter and thinner crash cymbals as well as to heavier hi-hats. Another evolution is that a pair of hi-hat cymbals may not be identical, with the bottom heavier than the top, vented.
Some examples are Sabian's Fusion Hats with holes in the bottom cymbal, the Sabian X-cellerator, Zildjian Master Sound and Zildjian Quick Beats, Paiste Sound Edge, Meinl Soundwave. Some drummers use mismatched hi-hats from different cymbal ranges, of different manufacturers, of different sizes. Max Roach was known for using a 15-in
Claves are a percussion instrument, consisting of a pair of short (about 20–30 cm, thick dowels. Traditionally they are made of wood rosewood, ebony or grenadilla. In modern times they are made of fibreglass or plastics; when struck they produce a bright clicking noise. Claves are sometimes hollow and carved in the middle to amplify the sound. Many examples of clave-like instruments can be found around the world; the basic principle when playing claves is to allow at least one of them to resonate. The usual technique is to hold one with the thumb and fingertips of the non-dominant hand, with the palm up; this forms the hand into a resonating chamber for the clave. Holding the clave on top of finger nails makes the sound clearer; the other is held by the dominant hand at one end with a firmer grip, much like how one holds a drumstick. With the end of this clave, the player strikes the resting clave in the center. Traditionally, the striking clave is called el macho and the resting clave is called la hembra.
This terminology is used when the claves are identical. A roll can be achieved on the claves by holding one clave between the thumb and first two fingers, alternating pressure between the two fingers to move the clave back and forth; this clave is placed against the resonating clave to produce a roll. Claves are important in Cuban music, such as the son and guaguancó, they are used to play a repeating rhythmic figure throughout a piece, known as clave, a key pattern, found in African music and Brazilian music. Among the better known rock recordings featuring claves are the Beatles' recording "And I Love Her," and "Magic Bus" by the Who; the Cuban Overture of George Gershwin includes claves. Steve Reich's Music for Pieces of Wood is written for five pairs of claves. Clapsticks Lummi stick F. Ortiz, La Clave, Editorial Letras Cubanas, La Habana, Cuba, 1995. D. Peñalosa, The Clave Matrix – Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins, Bembe Books, Redway California, U. S. A. 2009. O. A. Rodríguez, From Afro-Cuban Music to Salsa, Berlin, 1998.
E. Uribe, The Essence of Afro-Cuban Percussion and Drum Set, Warner Brothers Publications, Florida, 1996
Tubular bells are musical instruments in the percussion family. Their sound resembles that of carillon, or a bell tower; each bell is 30 -- 38 mm in diameter, tuned by altering its length. Its standard range is C4–F5, though many professional instruments reach G5. Tubular bells are replaced by studio chimes, which are a smaller and less expensive instrument. Studio chimes are similar in appearance to tubular bells, but each bell has a smaller diameter than the corresponding bell on tubular bells. Tubular bells are sometimes struck on the top edge of the tube with a rawhide- or plastic-headed hammer. A sustain pedal will be attached to allow extended ringing of the bells, they can be bowed at the bottom of the tube to produce a loud high-pitched overtone. The tubes used provide a purer tone than solid cylindrical chimes, such as those on a mark tree. Chimes are used in concert band pieces, it plays melody, instead being used most as a color to add to the ensemble sound. It does have solos often depicting church bells.
Play In tubular bells, modes 4, 5, 6 appear to determine the strike tone and have frequencies in the ratios 92:112:132, or 81:121:169, "which are close enough to the ratios 2:3:4 for the ear to consider them nearly harmonic and to use them as a basis for establishing a virtual pitch". The perceived "strike pitch" is thus an octave below the fourth mode. Multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield has used tubular bells on many of his studio albums, most notably Tubular Bells, Tubular Bells II and Tubular Bells III, he has used them on most of his other albums such as Hergest Ridge, Incantations, Crises and Amarok. Tubular bells appear on Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon on the song "Brain Damage", but are rendered inaudible on the original stereo mix and quadrophonic mix. Tubular bells appear as part of the fascist rally in a scene from the movie adaptation of Pink Floyd's The Wall, they serve to emphasize the delusional Pink's inflammatory cries for the beginnings of an ethnic cleansing. Percussionist Carl Palmer used tubular bells on Emerson, Lake & Palmer's Brain Salad Surgery tour, featuring them on the song "Toccata" as well as during his solo.
Queensrÿche drummer Scott Rockenfield used tubular bells on the song "En Force" both in the studio and live. Culture Club guitarist Roy Hay used tubular bells on the song "Time"; the Flaming Lips' 2002 track "Do You Realize??" Features tubular bells. Film composer James Horner took advantage of the heraldic quality of tubular bells in his score for the Civil War film Glory; the animated television series Futurama's theme is played on tubular bells. The "funding for this program provided by..." rider that followed the end credits of the children's television show Sesame Street in the 1970-80s prominently featured tubular bells. The tune, by Sesame Street music director Joe Raposo, is sometimes referred to as "Funky Chimes"; the Smashing Pumpkins' 1994 recording "Disarm" uses tubular bells. Tracey Ullman's 1983 cover of Kirsty MacColl's "They Don't Know" features tubular bells in a celebratory manner, reminiscent of wedding bells. Rush drummer Neil Peart used tubular bells on the songs "Xanadu" and "Closer to the Heart".
He has used them on concert tours, as heard on the live album Exit... Stage Left and the accompanying video release. On tours, Peart replaced the tubular bells with a more compact MIDI controller modeled on a marimba, allowing him to reproduce a wide variety of percussion sounds. However, on the band's R40 tour, the second set featured a retro 1970s-style kit complete with tubular bells, used on the songs "Jacob's Ladder", "Closer to the Heart" and "Xanadu"; the award ceremony scene from the game Mario Kart Wii has some tubular bell phrases played on its theme music. Tubular bells can be used as church bells, such as at St. Alban's Anglican Church in Copenhagen, Denmark; these were donated by Prince of Wales. Tubular bells are used in longcase clocks because they produce a louder sound than gongs and regular chime-rods and therefore could be heard more easily. Giuseppe Verdi – Rigoletto Giuseppe Verdi – Il trovatore Giuseppe Verdi – Un ballo in maschera Modest Mussorgsky – Boris Godunov Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky – 1812 Overture Pietro Mascagni – Cavalleria rusticana Ruggero Leoncavallo – The Bajazzo Gustav Mahler – Symphony No. 2 Giacomo Puccini – Tosca Alexander Scriabin – Le Poème de l'extase Anton Webern – Six Pieces for large orchestra Claude Debussy – Ibéria Gustav Holst – The Planets Giacomo Puccini – Turandot Edgard Varèse – Ionisation Richard Strauss – Die schweigsame Frau Paul Hindemith – Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber Benjamin Britten – Albert Herring Aaron Copland – Symphony No. 3 Olivier Messiaen – Turangalîla-symphonie Carl Orff – Antigonae Dmitri Shostakovich – Symphony No. 11 Olivier Messiaen – Chronochromie Information about tubular bells – Vienna Symphonic Library
A crash cymbal is a type of cymbal that produces a loud, sharp "crash" and is used for occasional accents, as opposed to in ostinato. They can be played with a drum stick, or by hand in pairs. One or two crash cymbals are a standard part of a drum kit. Suspended crash cymbals are used in bands and orchestras, either played with a drumstick or rolled with a pair of mallets to produce a slower, swelling crash. Sometimes a drummer may hit two different crash cymbals in a kit at the same time to produce a loud accent in rock music. Although crash cymbals range in thickness from paper-thin to heavy, all crash cymbals have a thin edge, they are 14 to 18 inches in diameter, but sizes down to 8 inches and up to 24 inches are manufactured. Custom crash cymbals up to 28 inches in diameter have been used by big bands. Different thicknesses are used for different kinds of music, the alloy for each manufacturer's models varies. A thick cymbal is to be used by a metal or rock band, while thinner cymbals are used in lighter rock.
Darker crashes are best used for jazz. The sound of a crash is changed by its luster. A cleaner cymbal creates a crisper sound, whereas a cymbal showing signs of oxidation creates a duller sound. Two crashes are best for a drum set. Crash cymbals were traditionally placed on the left side of the drum set since the larger ride cymbal is on the right, however some drummers set up their crash on the right. A drummer will have multiple crashes, so may set them up with one or two on each side or, less one mounted closely above another larger crash or ride. Crash cymbals are the first ones in a drum set to warp and crack, due to repeated striking of the edge. Cracking is in the form of a fracture along the edge, or across the bow originating from the edge. Cracks are caused by poor technique or excessive playing or more as a result of a defect originating from manufacture or damage to the cymbal not caused by playing, for example dropping. If a crack is left untreated, it will begin to follow the lathe grooves around the cymbal and could spread all the way around and back to the point where it started, causing the outer portion of a cymbal to drop off.
Lower quality sheet cymbals are more to crack, due to stress caused in some areas by pressing sheet metal. Thicker cymbals are more to crack due to their brittleness and less freedom to vibrate. Cymbal manufacturers suggest that wear on the cymbal can be reduced by playing with glancing blows, angled to the side and away from the vertical, about a quarter of the way between the edge and the center and allowing the drum stick to bounce off rather than forcing the stick down at the cymbal head-on; this allows the cymbal to vibrate and for little stress to be caused on the edge or at the center hole, thus reducing the chance of a crack. Cracked cymbals are fixed either temporarily or permanently by drilling a hole at either end of the crack or removing the cracked portion or cutting the cymbal's edge down, although this method can drastically alter a cymbal's sound. Both of these methods are ineffective at stopping cracks, but slow the spread of a crack down. A pair of identical crash cymbals held in both hands by leather thongs passing through holes in each cymbals bell is called clash cymbals and is a standard part of an orchestral percussion section.
Two tones are used by major orchestras, known as Germanic or Wagnerian and Viennese. Clash cymbals are used in stage, concert and military bands. Choke cymbal