A strut is a structural component found in engineering, aeronautics and anatomy. Struts work by resisting longitudinal compression, but they may serve in tension. Part of the functionality of the clavicle is to serve as a strut between the scapula and sternum, resisting forces that would otherwise bring the upper limb close to the thorax. Keeping the upper limb away from the thorax is vital for its range of motion. Complete lack of clavicles may be seen in cleidocranial dysostosis, the abnormal proximity of the shoulders to the median plane exemplifies the clavicle's importance as a strut. Strut is a common name in timber framing for a brace of scantlings lighter than a post. Struts are found in roof framing from either a tie beam or a king post to a principal rafter. Struts may be straight or curved. In the U. K. strut is used in a sense of a lighter duty piece: a king post carries a ridge beam but a king strut does not, a queen post carries a plate but a queen strut does not, a crown post carries a crown plate but a crown strut does not.
Strutting or blocking between floor joists adds strength to the floor system. Struts provide outwards-facing support in their lengthwise direction, which can be used to keep two other components separate, performing the opposite function of a tie. In piping, struts restrain movement of a component in one direction while allowing movement or contraction in another direction. Strut channel made from steel, aluminium, or fibre-reinforced plastic is used in the building industry and is used in the support of cable trays and other forms of cable management, pipes support systems. Bracing struts and wires of many kinds were extensively used in early aircraft to stiffen and strengthen, sometimes to form, the main functional airframe. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s they fell out of use in favour of the low-drag cantilever construction. Most aircraft bracing struts are principally loaded in compression, with wires taking the tension loads. Lift struts came into increasing use during the changeover period and remain in use on smaller aircraft today where ultimate performance is not an issue.
They are applied to a high-wing monoplane and act in tension during flight. Struts have been used for purely structural reasons to attach engines, landing gear and other loads; the oil-sprung legs of retractable landing gear are still called Oleo struts. As components of an automobile chassis, struts can be passive braces to reinforce the chassis and/or body, or active components of the suspension. An example of an active unit would be a coilover design in an automotive suspension; the coilover combines a spring in a single unit. A common form of automotive suspension strut in an automobile is the MacPherson strut. MacPherson struts are purchased by the automakers in sets of four completed sub-assemblies: These can be mounted on the car bodies as part of the manufacturers' own assembly operations. A MacPherson strut combines the primary function of a shock absorber, with the ability to support sideways loads not along its axis of compression, somewhat similar to a sliding pillar suspension, thus eliminating the need for an upper suspension arm.
This means that a strut must have a more rugged design, with mounting points near its middle for attachment of such loads. Another type common type of strut used in air suspension is an air strut which combines the shock absorber with an air spring and can be designed in the same fashion as a coilover device; these come available in most types of suspension setups including beam axle and MacPherson strut style design. Transportation-related struts are used in "load bearing" applications ranging from both highway and off-road suspensions to automobile hood and hatch window supports to aircraft wing supports; the majority of struts feature a bearing, but only for the cases, when the strut mounts operate as steering pivots. For such struts, the bearing is the wear item, as it is subject to constant impact of vibration and its condition reflects both wheel alignment and steering response. In vehicle suspension systems, struts are most an assembly of coil-over spring and shock absorber. Other variants to using a coil-over spring as the compressible load bearer include support via pressurized nitrogen gas acting as the spring, rigid support which provides neither longitudinal compression/extension nor damping.
Struts were created in the 1970's in which automakers transitioned from large rear-wheeled drive vehicles to more fuel-efficient front-wheeled drive vehicles. The entire suspension system was changed in accordance to meet the new style of vehicles; the new styles of vehicles left less room for the traditional system. This caused the MacPherson strut system to become the new standard for all automobiles including front-wheeled and rear-wheeled vehicles; the MacPherson strut system does not require an upper control arm, bushings, or a pivot shaft like previous models. Struts are not needed components on vehicles in which separate the springs and shock absorbers, while the shocks support no weight. There is some vehicles with the option of only having one pair of struts on one set of wheels while the other pair uses a separate selection of shocks and springs; this singular pair of struts are always a MacPherson strut. These choices are made for various reasons including the balance of initial cost and other elements.
Some vehicles use a "double wishbone," suspension system in which uses shock absorbers. Sports cars seem to favor this suspension style.
Philip Morrell Wilson was an international conman and swindler. He was best known for operating the fraudulent Bank of Sark. Wilson was born in Missouri, he started out as a life insurance salesman. From 1968 to 1972 he operated the Bank of Sark in Channel Islands; the bank consisted of a one-room office, a telephone, a telex machine. He managed to get the bank published in Polk's Bank Directory to lend an air of legitimacy, he used Bahamian accountant Samuel Wilkinson to certify financial statements that showed $72 million in assets, although the bank had no assets. At the same time he operated the First Liberty Fund Ltd. in Bahamas, a mutual fund, Trans Continental Casualty Co. an insurance company. He sold worthless bank drafts, letters of credit and certificates of deposit to other conmen, who used them to swindle banks and investors; the fraud netted an estimated $40 million to $70 million. For this fraud, Wilson received a three-year prison sentence and five years probation, served 1.5 years.
He moved to Hollywood and started Fraudmasters, Inc. a consulting company on fraud. In 1973 he testified before the United States Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations regarding securities frauds. In 1970, through his Bank of Sark operation involving advance fees, two of Wilson's associates were involved in swindling New Orleans crime family member Santo DiFatta. In an act of revenge using a car bomb, the mafia killed Continental Telephone Corp. president Philip J. Lucier in a case of mistaken identity, instead of their intended target, attorney Theodore F. Schwartz. Wilson was in prison on and off between 1976 and 1983 on charges of fraud, bail jumping, interstate transportation of stolen property and conspiracy, he was convicted in 1984 of conspiracy to smuggle drugs. In 1988 he was under investigation for his involvement in Omni Capital Corp. in Plantation, an advance fee operation. In 1990 he was charged with and convicted for fraud and grand theft for his involvement in the International Investment Trust, which issued worthless certificates, defrauding businesses and a Luxembourg bank.
Wilson was involved in a fraudulent venture capital scheme using bogus letters of credit between 1999 and 2001, but died in January 2003 before he could be arrested. Kwitny, Jonathan. "The Fountain Pen Conspiracy". Alfred A. Knopf. 1973. ISBN 978-0394479354
Schmitz Park known as Schmitz Preserve Park, is a 53.1-acre park around 15 blocks east of Alki Point in West Seattle, Washington. It features one of the last stands of old-growth forest in the city. Ferdinand and Emma Schmitz donated 30 acres of the park to the city in 1908, they wanted their land to be used as a park.. Additions to the park were purchased in 1909, 1930, 1947, 1958, making the park grow over 20 more acres. In 1949, a "preservation policy" was applied to Schmitz Park, it stated that only foot trails were allowed and all signs were to be removed from inside the park's borders. This policy still remains today. In 1953, Schmitz Park Elementary School opened to the public; the school sits adjacent to Schmitz Park. In January 2018 Seattle City Council Bill No. CB 119169 authorized the purchase of a 5,000-sq. ft. lot at the southeast edge of the park from Bruce Stotler for $225,000, less than half its assessed value. Parks Department page on Schmitz Park