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Sturmgeschütz III

The Sturmgeschütz III assault gun was Germany's most-produced tracked armoured fighting vehicle during World War II, second-most produced German armored combat vehicle of any type after the Sd. Kfz. 251 half-track. It was built on the chassis of the proven Panzer III tank, replacing the turret with an armored, fixed superstructure mounting a more powerful gun. Intended as a mobile assault gun for direct-fire support for infantry, the StuG III was continually modified, much like the Jagdpanzer, was employed as a tank destroyer; the Sturmgeschütz originated from German experiences in World War I, when it was discovered that, during the offensives on the Western Front, the infantry lacked the means to engage fortifications. The artillery of the time was heavy and not mobile enough to keep up with the advancing infantry to destroy bunkers and other minor fortifications with direct fire. Although the problem was well known in the German army, it was General Erich von Manstein, considered the father of the Sturmartillerie.

The initial proposal was from von Manstein and submitted to General Ludwig Beck in 1935, suggesting that Sturmartillerie units should be used in a direct-fire support role for infantry divisions. On 15 June 1936, Daimler-Benz AG received an order to develop an armoured infantry support vehicle capable of mounting a 7.5 cm calibre artillery piece. The gun mount's fixed integrated casemate superstructure was to allow a limited traverse of a minimum of 25° and provide overhead protection for the crew; the height of the vehicle was not to exceed that of the average soldier. Daimler-Benz AG used the chassis and running gear of its recent Panzer III medium tank as a basis for the new vehicle. Prototype manufacture was passed over to Alkett, which produced five prototypes in 1937 on Panzer III Ausf. B chassis; these prototypes featured a mild steel superstructure and a Krupp short-barrelled, howitzer-like in appearance, 7.5 cm StuK 37 L/24 cannon. Production vehicles with this gun were known as Gepanzerte Selbstfahrlafette für Sturmgeschütz 7.5 cm Kanone Ausführung A bis D.

While the StuG was considered self-propelled artillery, it was not clear which land combat arm of the German Army would handle the new weapon. The Panzerwaffe, the natural user of tracked fighting vehicles, had no resources to spare for the formation of StuG units and neither did the infantry, it was agreed. The StuGs were followed their own doctrine. Infantry support using direct-fire was its intended role. There was a strong emphasis on its use as an anti-tank gun; as the StuG was designed to fill an infantry close support combat role, early models were fitted with a howitzer-pattern, low-velocity 7.5 cm StuK 37 L/24 gun, much as the earliest versions of the turreted Panzer IV were. Low-velocity shells are built of thin steel and carry a large charge of explosive, to destroy soft-skin targets and blast fortifications; such shells do not penetrate armour well. After the Germans encountered the Soviet KV-1 and T-34 tanks, the StuG was first equipped with a high-velocity 7.5 cm StuK 40 L/43 main gun and in the autumn of 1942 with the longer 7.5 cm StuK 40 L/48 gun.

These high-velocity guns were the same as those mounted on the Panzer IV for anti-tank use but the heavy steel wall high-velocity shells carried much less explosive and had a lower blast effect for use against infantry or field fortifications. These versions were known as the 7.5 cm Sturmgeschütz 40 Ausf. F, Ausf. F/8 and Ausf. G. Beginning with the StuG III Ausf. G from December 1942, a 7.92 mm MG34 machine gun could be mounted on a shield on top of the superstructure for added anti-infantry protection. Some of the F/8 models were retrofitted with a shield. An additional coaxial 7.92 mm MG34 was introduced in Mid 1944 for some production and all production by autumn 1944. The vehicles of the Sturmgeschütz series were cheaper and faster to build than contemporary German tanks. M, which cost 103,163 RM; this was due to the omission of the turret, which simplified manufacture and allowed the chassis to carry a larger gun. By the end of the war, ~11,300 StuG IIIs and StuH 42s had been built. Estimated effective range against targets, assuming a 30-degree sideward angle.

Taken from a Wa Prüf 1 report dated 5 October 1944. The Sturmgeschütz III-series of vehicles proved successful and served on all fronts, from Russia to North Africa and Western Europe to Italy, as assault guns and tank destroyers; because of their low silhouette, StuG IIIs were easy to camouflage and be hidden and were difficult targets to destroy. As of 10 April 1945, there were 1,053 StuG IIIs and 277 StuH 42s in German service; the StuG assault guns were cost-effective compared to the heavier German tanks such as the Tiger I and the Panther, although as anti-tank guns they were best used defensively as the lack of a traversable turret and its generally-thin armour was a severe disadvantage in the attack role. As the situation for the German military deteriorated further in the war, more StuGs were built than tanks due to its ease of production. In 1943 and 1944, the Finnish Army received 59 StuG III Ausf. Gs from Germany and used them against the Soviet Union. Thirty of the vehicles were received in 1943 and a further twenty-nine obtained in 1944.

The first batch from 1943 destroyed at least eighty-seven enemy tanks for a loss of only eight StuGs. The batch from 1944 saw n

Bayard, Iowa

Bayard is a city in Guthrie County, United States. The population was 471 in the 2010 census, a decline from 536 in 2000 census, it is part of the Des Moines–West Des Moines Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bayard was platted in 1882. Bayard's longitude and latitude coordinatesin decimal form are 41.852198, -94.557261. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.46 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 471 people, 202 households, 121 families living in the city; the population density was 1,023.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 232 housing units at an average density of 504.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.7% White, 0.2% African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 202 households of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.5% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.1% were non-families.

35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age in the city was 39.8 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.7 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 536 people, 221 households, 135 families living in the city; the population density was 1,124.9 people per square mile. There were 244 housing units at an average density of 512.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.07% White, 0.19% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.12% of the population. There were 221 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families. 35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 19.6% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 29.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,444, the median income for a family was $32,344. Males had a median income of $27,143 versus $16,477 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,073. About 16.8% of families and 23.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.3% of those under age 18 and 20.6% of those age 65 or over. Allen Long was elected mayor in 2015 and will serve until 2019. Thomas Wardyn was elected mayor in 2020 and will serve until 2024 Krushchev in Iowa Trail Lemonade Ride City-Data Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Bayard

Hang On Little Tomato

Hang On Little Tomato is the second full-length album from the band Pink Martini. Seven years after their debut album, it was released on October 19, 2004 by Pink Martini's own record label, Heinz Records, it has sold over 550,000 copies, reached #1 on Amazon.com, gone gold in France, Canada and Turkey. It was certified double platinum in France by the UPFI in 2013. In 2014 it was awarded a platinum certification from the Independent Music Companies Association, which indicated sales of at least 400,000 copies throughout Europe; as of 2013 worldwide it has sold over 750,000 copies. As a change from their first album, Pink Martini's second album Hang On Little Tomato features original songs written by band members, sung in seven different languages; the song title is a reference to the Hunt's Ketchup ad campaign "Hang On, Little Tomato!" in a 1964 issue of Life magazine. All tracks are written by Thomas Lauderdale except as noted; the 2004 Audiogram Canada CD release contains the bonus track "Sympathique" - 03:32 "Una Notte a Napoli" "Let's Never Stop Falling in Love" "Lilly" Hang On Little Tomato - official album page, with audio samples - the original Life Magazine ad that gave the album its name