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Yaudheya or Yaudheya Gana was an ancient militant confederation. The word Yaudheya is a derivative from yodha meaning warriors, they principally were kshatriya renown for their skills in warfare, as inscribed in the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman. The Yaudheyas emerged in the 5th century BCE, they not only survived the Maurya Empire and Shunga Empire, but the Kshatraps and Kushan Empire. The Yaudheya Republic flourished up to the middle to the 4th century when it was conquered by Samudragupta and incorporated into the Gupta Empire; the Yaudheyas formed in the land between the Indus river and the Ganges river, called Bahudhanyaka, with their capital in Khokrakot. Bahudhanyaka was composed of modern-day Haryana. Early Yaudheya coins were additionally found in East Punjab, North Rajasthan, Western Uttar Pradesh, they governed Garhwal and Himachal Pradesh, in their military campaigns. Yaudheya coins have been excavated as far as Bahawalpur in Pakistan. In the Mahabharata, the land Bahudhanyaka is stated to be among the countries subjugated by Nakula, the fourth Pandava in his conquest.

Bahudhanyaka was the first to fall in Nakulas in of the western direction toward Sakastan, which agrees with the Rohtak-Hisar area. Varahamihira in his Brihatsamhita placed them in the northern division of India. Puranas described Yaudheyas as the descendants of Nrigu. There are other references to them namely in the Mahabharata, Brihatsamhita, Puranas and Kashika. In the Mahabharata, the land Bahudhanyaka is stated to be among the countries subjugated by Nakula, the fourth Pandava. Bahudhanyaka was the first to fall to Nakulas conquest in of the western direction toward Sakastan, which agrees with the Rohtak-Hisar area. Varahamihira in his Brihatsamhita placed them in the northern division of India, they are mentioned in Ganapatha. The Yaudheyas emerged as an entity following the decline of the Kuru Kingdom; the Yaudheyas would encompass the land belonging to the Kurus, including their former capitals Indraprastha, Āsandīvat. The Kuru Kingdom, the prominent power in the Vedic age fell in importance when compared to the other Mahajanapadas.

The earliest references of the existence of the Yaudheyas is in Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi of and the Ganapatha. In his works the Yaudheyas are mentioned as ayudha-jivin sanghas i.e. a community living by the profession of arms. The region of Bahudhanyaka was ruled by the Yaudheyas who minted coins bearing the legend'Bahudhanyaka Yaudheyanam'; the Yaudheyas were incorporated into the Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya. They annexed the Pauravas. Chandragupta, under the tutelage of Chanakya, won over local kingdoms and republics in Punjab before conquering the Nanda Empire. Chandragupta relied on the Yaudheya Gana in his campaigns, his military had a high representation of similar republicans. Additionally, Yaudheya elites and chiefs in were appointed government positions; as recorded in the Bijoygarh inscription commissioned around Ashokas reign, the Yaudheya-gana-puraskrta appointed a chief who held the title of Maharaja-Senapati. This chief of the Yaudheya republic was appointed the Mahasenapati or'Great Commander of the Army' for the Mauryan military.

The Arthashastra written by Chanakya described the senapati as adept in all modes of warfare, all weapons, possessing modesty and restraint, capable of controlling all four wings of the army. Soon after the death of Pushyamitra Shunga and Menander I, the Yaudheyas asserted themselves independent. Yaudheyas mention military victories on their coins, it is thought. In the second and first century BC the Yaudheyas occupied the Haryana portion of Greater Punjab. During the second century CE when the Yaudheya gana revolted against the foreigners but they were soon checked by Rudradaman I; the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas "who would not submit because they were proud of their title "heroes among the Kshatriyas"", although the inscription claims that they were vanquished by Rudradaman. Rudradaman who by force destroyed the Yaudheyas who were loath to submit, rendered proud as they were by having manifested their' title of' heroes among all Kshatriyas.

It is thought that the Kushans became suzerains of the Yaudheyas when they endeavoured to hold the Mathura area. An indication is the fact that the Kushan ruler Huvishka featured Maaseno on his coins, the Kushan incarnation of the Hindu god Karttikeya, or Skanda, whose epithet was "Mahasena"; this god being important to the Yaudheyas, it may have been incorporated into Kushan coinage when the Kushans expanded into Yaudheya territory. The name of the Yaudheyas is mentioned in the Allahabad pillar inscription of the Gupta Empire ruler Samudragupta, as submitting to his rule. Formidable rule was propitiated with the payment of all tributes, execution of orders and visits for obeisance by such frontier rulers as those of Samataṭa, Ḍavāka, Kāmarūpa, Nēpāla, Kartṛipura, and, by the Mālavas, Ārjunāyanas, Yaudhēyas, Mādrakas, Ābhīras, Prārjunas, Sanakānīkas, Kākas and other." Alexander Cunningham hypothesized that the

Canada Cup

The Canada Cup was an invitational international ice hockey tournament held on five occasions between 1976 and 1991. The tournament was created to meet demand for a true world championship that allowed the best players from participating nations to compete regardless of their status as professional or amateur, it was sanctioned by the International Ice Hockey Federation, Hockey Canada and the National Hockey League. Canada won the tournament four times, it was succeeded by the World Cup of Hockey in 1996. Due to National Hockey League players' ineligibility in the Winter Olympics and the annual World Championships, both amateur competitions, Canada was not able to send its best players to top international tournaments. While the top players in Europe qualified as amateurs, all the best Canadian players competed in the professional NHL or World Hockey Association. Following the 1972 and 1974 Summit Series, in which Canadian players from the NHL and WHA competed against the top players from the Soviet Union, there was interest in a world hockey championship where each country could send its best players.

In a combined effort from Doug Fisher of Hockey Canada and Alan Eagleson of the NHL Players' Association, plans for such a tournament soon began. After successful negotiations with hockey officials from the Soviet Union in September 1974, Eagleson began arranging the Canada Cup tournament, which debuted in 1976. Eagleson would plead guilty to embezzling hundreds of thousands of dollars of Canada Cup proceeds. Taking place in the NHL off-season, it was the first international hockey tournament in which the best players and amateur alike, from the best ice hockey nations in the world could compete against one another. Six teams competed in each edition. In addition to Canada and the Soviet Union, Finland and the United States were regular competitors; the tournaments, held every three to five years, took place in North American venues. Of the five Canada Cup tournaments, four were won by Canada, while the Soviet Union won once, in 1981. Canada won the inaugural Canada Cup in 1976, defeating recent 1976 World Championship gold medalists Czechoslovakia in the best-of-three final.

The clinching game was won by a 5–4 score with Darryl Sittler scoring the game-winner in overtime. Five years the Soviets won their first and only Canada Cup with an 8–1 win over Canada in the one-game final; the Canadians re-captured the championship in the third edition of the tournament in 1984. After Canadian Mike Bossy scored an overtime game-winner to defeat the Soviets in the semi-finals, Canada won their second Canada Cup in a victory over Sweden in the final; the 1987 Canada Cup was noteworthy as Wayne Gretzky and Mario Lemieux considered two of the greatest hockey players of all-time, joined together as linemates on Team Canada to capture the country's third championship. All three games in the final between Canada and the Soviets ended in 6–5 scores, with two games going to overtime. Lemieux scored the championship-winning goal on a 2-on-1 pass from Gretzky in the final minutes of the deciding game at Copps Coliseum in Hamilton, Ontario; the final Canada Cup was held in 1991 with Canada defeating the United States in the tournament's first all-North American final, for their third straight championship and fourth overall.

Five years the Canada Cup was replaced by the World Cup of Hockey in 1996. The Canada Cup trophy is made of solid nickel, it was refined at the Inco nickel smelter in Sudbury, Ontario in 1976, commissioned by D. Scott McCann, President of Teledyne Canada. Donna Scott designed the cup, her inspiration was Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon album cover, it is on display at the residence of the Governor General in Ottawa. The 1981 win by the Soviet Union caused controversy when Canadian officials found the trophy in the Soviets' luggage and announced that the trophy would not go home with the winning team. Feeling this was unsportsmanlike, Canadian fans led by George Smith of Winnipeg, Manitoba raised money to produce a duplicate trophy to give to the Soviet team. $32,000 was raised. Three weeks the trophy was presented to the Soviet Union's ambassador Vladimir Mechulayev in Winnipeg. Most of the companies that made the trophy did the work for free and all of the money raised went to minor hockey in Winnipeg and Winkler, Manitoba.

National Hockey League International Ice Hockey Federation Ice Hockey World Championships List of international ice hockey competitions featuring NHL players 1972 Summit Series 1974 Summit Series World Cup of Hockey Ice hockey at the Olympic Games Super Series'76-77 Super Series CHL Canada/Russia Series 2007 Super Series NHL Challenge Rendez-vous'87 Victoria Cup List of KHL vs NHL games List of international ice hockey competitions featuring NHL players List of international games played by NHL teams Anderson, H. J, The Canada Cup of Hockey Fact and Stat Book, Trafford, ISBN 1-4120-5512-1 Willes, Ed, Gretzky to Lemieux: The Story of the 1987 Canada Cup, Emblem ed, ISBN 9780771088490 Canada Versus the Soviet Union: The Heyday of the Battle for World Hockey Supremacy

Falling Out into the Night

Falling Out into the Night is an EP by Mark Gardener and Goldrush, released in November 2003 on Truck Records. The EP followed on the heels of a number of live performances that featured the members of Goldrush as Mark Gardener's backing band; the EP includes the Gardener-penned song "Snow in Mexico", on which he is backed by Goldrush, the Goldrush song "Out of Reach". The third track on the EP is a cover of the song "Dreams Burn Down", featuring Gardener and Goldrush together equally. "Dreams Burn Down" had been released by Gardener's earlier band Ride in 1990. The first track on the EP, "Snow in Mexico", was included on Mark Gardener's debut solo album, These Beautiful Ghosts. During an interview for the Bucks Music Group website, Gardener stated that "Snow in Mexico" was inspired by a newspaper headline and is about "how people can blow hot and cold, be one way one minute and completely different, the next." "Snow in Mexico" - 4:14 "Out of Reach" - 4:11 "Dreams Burn Down" - 5:53


Fábio Daniel Januário known as Januário is a retired Brazilian professional footballer. He plays for Esteghlal in the Iran's Premier Football League before being released because of heavy injury, he played in the midfielder position. Januário started his professional career playing for a number of provencial league teams in Brazil before moving the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A team Esporte Clube Vitória. After a season at Esporte Clube Vitória he moved from the Campeonato Brasileira Seria A to the Portuguese Liga where he played for Gil Vicente and C. F. Os Belenenses, he moved to Iran where he started playing for Foolad in 2006. In 2008, he moved to Esteghlal, talent has went up and has been in the starting line-up for most of the 2008–09 season and has established great popularity with Esteghlal fans. On 27 April 2009, he netted his fourth goal of the season which made Esteghlal the league champions. On 26 May 2010, he joined Sepahan in the Iran Pro League with the contract amount of $1,200.000.

He returned to Esteghlal after spending two seasons in Sepahan by signing a one-year contract. However, before the season ends, he separated from the team due to foot injury in January 2013, he announced his retirement on 29 June 2013. * 1st Division of Campeonato Paranaense** 1st Division of Campeonato Capixaba Last update 26 September 2012 Assist goals EsteghlalIran Pro League: 2008–09SepahanIran Pro League: 2010–11, 2011–12 Stats in PersianLeague Official website

National Heritage Academies

National Heritage Academies, Inc. is a for-profit education management organization headquartered in Grand Rapids, Michigan. As of the 2019-20 school year, NHA operates 88 charter schools in nine states: Michigan, Ohio, New York, North Carolina, Georgia and Wisconsin. NHA is the largest charter school operator in Michigan and one of the largest charter school operators in the United States. NHA schools are prominent among charter institutions for employing the brick and mortar or traditional school concept. NHA was formed in 1995 by entrepreneur J. C. Huizenga. In 2015, National Heritage Academies managed charter schools enrolled over 58,000 students on a vendor operated school basis. NHA charge no tuition, they are authorized by state-approved institutions such as universities and school boards, therefore have no geographic boundaries. The schools focus on college preparedness and serve students from kindergarten through eighth grade, with some schools offering pre-kindergarten. According to a 2017 study by the Center for Research on Education Outcomes, students in NHA schools were found to show improved spring-to-spring academic growth in the subjects of reading and math, compared with their traditional public school peers.

NHA schools use the NWEA test as a measure of student performance. The Northwest Evaluation Association has instituted an assessment process for both mathematics and reading; this computerized assessment is administered to provide data on students' growth in the fields of math and reading. Foundations Academy Landmark Academy at Reunion Atlanta Heights Charter School Andrew J. Brown Academy Aspire Charter Academy Advantage Charter Academy Inspire Charter Academy Willow Charter Academy Achieve Charter Academy Burton Glen Charter Academy Canton Charter Academy Chandler Woods Charter Academy Cross Creek Charter Academy Detroit Enterprise Academy Detroit Merit Charter Academy Detroit Premier Academy Eagle Crest Charter Academy East Arbor Charter Academy Endeavor Charter Academy Excel Charter Academy Flagship Academy Fortis Academy Grand River Charter Academy Great Oaks Academy Hamtramck Academy Keystone Academy Knapp Charter Academy Lansing Charter Academy Laurus Academy Legacy Charter Academy Linden Charter Academy Metro Charter Academy North Saginaw Charter Academy Oakside Scholars Charter Academy Paragon Charter Academy Paramount Charter Academy Pembroke Academy Plymouth Scholars Charter Academy Prevail Academy Quest Charter Academy Reach Academy Regent Park Scholars Ridge Park Charter Academy River City Scholars South Arbor Charter Academy South Canton Scholars Charter Academy South Pointe Scholars Charter Academy Taylor Exemplar Academy Timberland Charter Academy Triumph Academy Vanderbilt Charter Academy Vanguard Charter Academy Vista Charter Academy Walker Charter Academy Walton Charter Academy Warrendale Charter Academy Westfield Charter Academy Windemere Park Charter Academy Brooklyn Dreams Charter School Brooklyn Excelsior Charter School Brooklyn Scholars Charter School Buffalo United Charter School Riverton Street Charter School Southside Academy Charter School Forsyth Academy Gate City Charter Academy Greensboro Academy Johnston Charter Academy Matthews Charter Academy Peak Charter Academy PreEminent Charter School Queens Grant Community School Research Triangle Charter Academy Rolesville Charter Academy Summerfield Charter Academy Wake Forest Charter Academy Winterville Charter Academy Alliance Academy of Cincinnati Apex Academy Bennett Venture Academy Emerson Academy North Dayton School of Discovery Orion Academy Pathway School of Discovery Pinnacle Academy Stambaugh Charter Academy Winterfield Venture Academy Milwaukee Scholars "Excel Charter School Gets Approval For Building," Grand Rapids Press, August 11, 1995, p. A12.

Franklin, Amy, "Federal Court Dismisses Lawsuit Against Charter School," Associated Press Newswires, September 27, 2000. Golden, Daniel, "Common Prayer: Old-Time Religion Gets a Boost at a Chain of Charter Schools," Wall Street Journal, September 15, 1999, p. A1. Kirkbride, Ron, "Banking Syndicate Raises $25 Million to Expand National Heritage Schools," Grand Rapids Press, July 12, 2002, p. A6. Knape, Chris, "National Heritage Remains in Class of Its Own," Grand Rapids Press, August 13, 2003, p. A10. Molinari, Deanne, "Peter Ruppert: Inside Track," Grand Rapids Business Journal, June 30, 1997, p. 5. "National Heritage Makes Money Running Charter Schools," Associated Press Newswires, December 2, 2001. Rent, Katy, "Going to the Head of the Class," Grand Rapids Business Journal, November 19, 2001, p. 3. Riede, Paul, "State Oks Southside Charter School," Post-Standard, December 21, 2001, p. A1. Schuetz and Roland Wilkerson, "Charter School Sale Would Fund Expansion," Grand Rapids Press, October 9, 1998, p. A1.

Singhania, Lisa, "Companies See Profit in Charter Schools," Associated Press Newswires, April 28, 2000. Weiker, Jim, "Charter Group Says It Has Funds To Grow," Grand Rapids Press, January 18, 2000, p. B1. Wyatt, Edward, "Charter School to Raise Topic of Creationism," New York Times, February 18, 2000, p. 1