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Stuttgart

Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron", it lies an hour from the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 634,830, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.8 million people live in the city's administrative region and 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP. Stuttgart was one of the host cities of the official tournaments for the 1974 and 2006 FIFA World Cup. Since the 7th millennium BC, the Stuttgart area has been an important agricultural area and has been host to a number of cultures seeking to utilize the rich soil of the Neckar valley; the Roman Empire conquered the area in 83 AD and built a massive castrum near Bad Cannstatt, making it the most important regional centre for several centuries.

Stuttgart's roots were laid in the 10th century with its founding by Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, as a stud farm for his warhorses. Overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt, the town grew and was granted a charter in 1320; the fortunes of Stuttgart turned with those of the House of Württemberg, they made it the capital of their county and kingdom from the 15th century to 1918. Stuttgart prospered despite setbacks in the Thirty Years' War and devastating air raids by the Allies on the city and its automobile production during World War II. However, by 1952, the city had bounced back and it became the major economic, industrial and publishing centre it is today. Stuttgart is a transport junction, possesses the sixth-largest airport in Germany. Several major companies are headquartered in Stuttgart, including Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Daimler AG, Dinkelacker. Stuttgart is unusual in the scheme of German cities, it is spread across a variety of hills and parks. This surprises visitors who associate the city with its reputation as the "cradle of the automobile".

The city's tourism slogan is "Stuttgart offers more". Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure, the city unveiled a new logo and slogan in March 2008 describing itself as "Das neue Herz Europas". For business, it describes itself as "Where business meets the future". In July 2010, Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area. Stuttgart is a city with a high number of immigrants. According to Dorling Kindersley's Eyewitness Travel Guide to Germany, "In the city of Stuttgart, every third inhabitant is a foreigner." 40% of Stuttgart's residents, 64% of the population below the age of five, are of immigrant background. Stuttgart nicknamed the "Schwabenmetropole" in reference to its location in the centre of Swabia and the local dialect spoken by the native Swabians, has its etymological roots in the Old High German word Stuotgarten, or "stud farm", because the city was founded in 950 AD by Duke Liudolf of Swabia to breed warhorses.

The most important location in the Neckar river valley was the hilly rim of the Stuttgart basin at what is today Bad Cannstatt. Thus, the first settlement of Stuttgart was a massive Roman Castra stativa built c. 90 AD to protect the Villas and vineyards blanketing the landscape and the road from Mogontiacum to Augusta Vindelicorum. As with many military installations, a settlement sprang up nearby and remained there after the Limes moved further east; when they did, the town was left in the capable hands of a local brickworks that produced sophisticated architectural ceramics and pottery. When the Romans were driven back past the Rhine and Danube rivers in the 3rd century by the Alamanni, the settlement temporarily vanished from history until the 7th century. In 700, Duke Gotfrid mentions a "Chan Stada" in a document regarding property. Archaeological evidence shows that Merovingian era Frankish farmers continued to till the same land the Romans did. Cannstatt is mentioned in the Abbey of St. Gall's archives as "Canstat ad Neccarum" in 708.

The etymology of the name "Cannstatt" is not clear, but as the site is mentioned as condistat in the Annals of Metz, it is derived from the Latin word condita, suggesting that the name of the Roman settlement might have had the prefix "Condi-." Alternatively, Sommer suggested that the Roman site corresponds to the Civitas Aurelia G attested to in an inscription found near Öhringen. There have been attempts at a derivation from a Gaulish *kondâti- "confluence". In 950 AD, Duke Liudolf of Swabia, son of the current Holy Roman Emperor Otto I, decided to establish a stud farm for his cavalry during the Hungarian invasions of Europe on a widened area of the Nesenbach river valley 5 kilometres south of the old Roman castrum; the land and title of Duke of Swabia remained in Liudolf's hands until his rebellion was quashed by his father four years later. In 1089, Bruno of Calw built the precursor b

Thomas Barnes (journalist)

Thomas Barnes was an English journalist and editor. He is best known for his work with The Times which he edited from 1817 until his death in 1841. Barnes was the eldest son of John Barnes, a solicitor, his wife Mary, née Anderson. After his mother's death, Barnes was raised by his grandmother before beginning his education at Christ's Hospital; when the school moved to Horsham in 1902 he had a boarding house named after him. While he was there he was a contemporary of Leigh Hunt and Thomas Mitchell a prominent academic. From there Barnes went up to Pembroke College, Cambridge where he excelled both academically and athletically. While at Pembroke, Barnes studied classics, he took his degree in 1808 as head of the senior optimes. After considering a career as an academic, Barnes acceded to his family's wishes and embarked on a career in the law, moving to London in 1809 and entering the Inner Temple. While working at his new profession, Barnes joined the famous literary circle of which Hunt, Charles Lamb and William Hazlitt were prominent members.

Barnes enjoyed the entertainments of the West End, he indulged his appetites much to the detriment of his physical appearance. With his legal career characterised by drudgery, Barnes sought an outlet for his talents, he found this through his friendship with Barron Field, the theatre critic for The Times. Through Field, Barnes met John Walter, who soon employed Barnes as a journalist reporting on law cases and the theatre. Upon Field's retirement Barnes succeeded him as theatre critic, in 1811 he became a member of the parliamentary staff; as part of his duties he penned a number of parliamentary sketches, which were collected and published in a book, Parliamentary Portraits, in 1815. During this period, he wrote for Leigh Hunt's publications the Examiner and the Reflector. Walter's trust in Barnes was soon demonstrated when in 1815 Walter empowered him revise the controversial leading articles written by the intemperate John Stoddart the editor of the paper. Upon Stoddart's dismissal at the end of 1816 Barnes was named as his successor as editor, assuming a position which he held until his death.

As editor, Barnes came to enjoy a greater degree of control over the paper than his predecessors, received a share of ownership in the paper. He used it to reshape the paper, analysing events rather than summarising them, making the leading article a central component of the paper. With the Peterloo Massacre in August 1819 he inaugurated a policy of support for the Whig opposition in Parliament that contrasted with his predecessor's staunchly pro-Tory stance, he became a close friend of Henry Brougham, an important source of information for Barnes's leading articles. During Barnes's editorship, the influence and the scope of The Times grew, with it its prominence in public affairs. Moved by what he saw during a trip to Ireland, Barnes became a passionate supporter of Catholic Emancipation. By the early 1830s his paper had earned the nickname "The Thunderer", with Robert Peel declaring it to be "a powerful advocate of Reform" and his colleague Lord Lyndhurst describing Barnes as "the most powerful man in the country."

It was during this period that Barnes shifted politically, opposing the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 and falling out with Brougham. Barnes feuded with Lord Palmerston, who manipulated public opinion to enhance his control of foreign affairs. Palmerston leaked secrets to the press, published selected documents, released letters to give himself more control and more publicity, all the while stirring up British nationalism. Barnes refused to play along with his propaganda ploys. Though Barnes never married, he had a relationship for over two decades with Dinah Mary Mondet. Together they lived at 49 Nelson Square Southwark, London from 1821 to 1836 and at 25 Soho Square, London. After Barnes's death in 1841, Dinah Mondet continued to live in their home in Soho Square until her own death in 1852, after which she was buried next to Barnes in Kensal Green Cemetery. "Barnes, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Barnes, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. 1885–1900. "Barnes, Thomas". A Cambridge Alumni Database.

University of Cambridge. Hudson, Derek. Thomas Barnes of "The Times". London: Cambridge University Press. Jenkins, Roy. Portraits and Miniatures. London: Macmillan. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 3. 2004

1964 in Iceland

The following lists events that happened in 1964 in Iceland. President – Ásgeir Ásgeirsson Prime Minister – Bjarni Benediktsson 22 January – María Ellingsen, actress 27 january – Geir Sveinsson, handball player. 23 April – Halla Margrét Árnadóttir, singer 27 April – Thorir Hergeirsson, handballer 2 August – Einar Thor, film director 24 August – Svandís Svavarsdóttir, politician 10 November – Magnús Scheving, writer and entrepreneur