Heracles, born Alcaeus or Alcides was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon. He was a half-brother of Perseus, he was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae, a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules, with whom the Roman emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian identified themselves; the Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean. Details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well. Many popular stories were told of the most famous being The Twelve Labours of Heracles, his figure, which drew on Near Eastern motifs such as the lion-fight, was known. Heracles was the greatest of Hellenic chthonic heroes, but unlike other Greek heroes, no tomb was identified as his.
Heracles was both god, as Pindar says heros theos. The core of the story of Heracles has been identified by Walter Burkert as originating in Neolithic hunter culture and traditions of shamanistic crossings into the netherworld, it is possible that the myths surrounding Heracles were based on the life of a real person or several people whose accomplishments became exaggerated with time. Based on commonalities in the legends of Heracles and Odysseus, author Steven Sora suggested that they were both based on the same historical person, who made his mark prior to recorded history. Heracles' role as a culture hero, whose death could be a subject of mythic telling, was accepted into the Olympian Pantheon during Classical times; this created an awkwardness in the encounter with Odysseus in the episode of Odyssey XI, called the Nekuia, where Odysseus encounters Heracles in Hades: Ancient critics were aware of the problem of the aside that interrupts the vivid and complete description, in which Heracles recognizes Odysseus and hails him, modern critics find good reasons for denying that the verses beginning, in Fagles' translation His ghost I mean... were part of the original composition: "once people knew of Heracles' admission to Olympus, they would not tolerate his presence in the underworld", remarks Friedrich Solmsen, noting that the interpolated verses represent a compromise between conflicting representations of Heracles.
In Christian circles a Euhemerist reading of the widespread Heracles cult was attributed to a historical figure, offered cult status after his death. Thus Eusebius, Preparation of the Gospel, reported that Clement could offer historical dates for Hercules as a king in Argos: "from the reign of Hercules in Argos to the deification of Hercules himself and of Asclepius there are comprised thirty-eight years, according to Apollodorus the chronicler: and from that point to the deification of Castor and Pollux fifty-three years: and somewhere about this time was the capture of Troy." Readers with a literalist bent, following Clement's reasoning, have asserted from this remark that, since Heracles ruled over Tiryns in Argos at the same time that Eurystheus ruled over Mycenae, since at about this time Linus was Heracles' teacher, one can conclude, based on Jerome's date—in his universal history, his Chronicon—given to Linus' notoriety in teaching Heracles in 1264 BCE, that Heracles' death and deification occurred 38 years in 1226 BCE.
The ancient Greeks celebrated the festival of the Heracleia, which commemorated the death of Heracles, on the second day of the month of Metageitnion. What is believed to be an Egyptian Temple of Heracles in the Bahariya Oasis dates to 21 BCE. A reassessment of Ptolemy's descriptions of the island of Malta attempted to link the site at Ras ir-Raħeb with a temple to Heracles, but the arguments are not conclusive. Several ancient cities were named Heraclea in his honor. Although the Athenians were among the first to worship Heracles as a god, there were Greek cities that refused to recognize the hero's divine status. There are several polis that provided two separate sanctuaries for Heracles, one recognizing him as a god, the other only as a hero; this ambiguity helped create the Heracles cult when historians and artists encouraged worship such as the painters during the time of the Peisistratos, who presented Heracles entering Olympus in their works. Some sources explained that the cult of Heracles persisted because of the hero's ascent to heaven and his suffering, which became the basis for festivals, ritual and the organization of mysteries.
There is the observation, for example, that sufferings gave rise to the rituals of grief and mourning, which came before the joy in the mysteries in the sequence of cult rituals. Like the case of Apollo, the cult of Hercules has been sustained through the years by absorbing local cult figures such as those who share the same nature, he was constantly invoked as a patron for men the young ones. For example, he was considered the ideal in warfare so he presided over gymnasiums and the ephebes or those men undergoing military training. There were ancient towns and cities that adopted Hera
Stymphalus or Stymphalos, or Stymphelus or Stymphelos, or Stymphelum or Stymphelon, or Stymphalum, or Stymphala, was a town in the northeast of ancient Arcadia. The territory of Stymphalus is a plain, about six miles in length, bounded by Achaea on the north and Phliasia on the east, the territory of Mantineia on the south, that of Orchomenus and Pheneus on the west This plain is shut in on all sides by mountains. On the north rises the gigantic mass of Cyllene, from which a projecting spur, called Mount Stymphalus, descends into the plain; the mountain at the southern end of the plain, opposite Cyllene, was called Apelaurum, at its foot is the subterranean outlet of the lake of Stymphalus. This lake is formed by the rain-water descending from Cyllene and Apelaurum, by three streams which flow into it from different parts of the plain. From the west descends a small stream, which rises in Mount Geronteium in the neighbourhood of Kastanía, but the most important of the three streams is the one which rises on the northern side of the plain, from a copious subterranean outlet.
Metope is mentioned by Callimachus, with the epithet πολύστειος. The water, which formed the source of the Stymphalus, was conducted to Corinth by the emperor Hadrian, by means of an aqueduct, of which considerable remains may still be traced. Pausanias reported. In the time of Pausanias there occurred such an inundation, ascribed to the anger of Artemis; the water was said to have covered the plain to the extent of 400 stadia. Strabo relates that Iphicrates, when besieging Stymphalus without success, attempted to obstruct the outlet, but was diverted from his purpose by a sign from heaven. Strabo states that there was no subterranean outlet for the waters of the lake, so that the city, in his time 50 stadia from the lake, was situated upon its margin, but this is an error if his statement refers to old Stymphalus, for the breadth of the whole lake is less than 20 stadia. The city derived its name from a son of Elatus and grandson of Arcas; the modern city lay upon the southern edge of the lake, about a mile and a half from the outlet, upon a rocky promontory connected with the mountains behind.
Stymphalus is mentioned by Homer in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad, by Pindar, who calls it the mother of Arcadia. Its name does not occur in the ancient historians, it owes its chief importance to its being situated upon one of the most frequented routes leading to the westward from Argolis and Corinth, it was taken by Apollonides, a general of Cassander, subsequently belonged to the Achaean League. In the time of Pausanias it was included in Argolis; the only building of the city mentioned by Pausanias, was a temple of Artemis Stymphalia, under the roof of which were figures of the Stymphalian birds. These birds, so celebrated in mythology, the destruction of, one of the labours of Heracles, are said by Pausanias to be as large as cranes, but resembling in form the ibis, only that they have stronger beaks, not crooked like those of the ibis. On some of the coins of Stymphalus, they are represented in accordance with the description of Pausanias. Pindar mentions an Olympic victor in the mule-cart race in his sixth Olympian Ode, urges the members of the choir to venerate their virginal Hera, a survival of pre-Olympian religion.
Pausanias mentions a statue of Dromeus, a long-distance runner from Stymphalus who won at twice at the Dolichos at the Panhellenic Games in 484 BCE and 480 BCE. The temple of Artemis seems still to have been in use in Roman times. One unusual aspect of the goddess is that her sanctuary is referred to in an inscription of the early 2nd century BCE as that of Brauronian Artemis, an Athenian cult. An inscription commemorating Stymphalian hospitality to the people of Elateia was to be set up in the agora of Elateia and in the sanctuary of Brauronian Artemis at Stymphalus. Cults of Demeter and Hermes are epigraphically attested, its site is located near the modern Stymfalia. Anastasios Orlandos excavated parts of the site for the Archaeological Society of Athens between 1924 and 1930. Since 1982, excavations of the site on the north shore of Lake Stymphalia have been under way, directed by Hector Williams for the University of British Columbia. Archaeological surveys and excavations have revealed a town refounded in the 4th century BCE.
The city was laid out on a grid plan, with
In Greek mythology, Eurystheus was king of Tiryns, one of three Mycenaean strongholds in the Argolid, although other authors including Homer and Euripides cast him as ruler of Argos. Eurystheus was the son of Sthenelus and Nicippe, he was a grandson of the hero Perseus, as was his opponent Heracles, he was married to daughter of Amphidamas. In the contest of wills between Hera and Zeus over whose candidate would be hero, fated to defeat the remaining creatures representing an old order and bring about the reign of the Twelve Olympians, Eurystheus was Hera's candidate and Heracles – though his name implies that at one archaic stage of myth-making he had carried "Hera's fame" – was the candidate of Zeus; the arena for the actions that would bring about this deep change are the Twelve Labors imposed on Heracles by Eurystheus. The immediate necessity for the Labours of Heracles is as penance for Heracles' murder of his own family, in a fit of madness, sent by Hera. Details of the individual episodes may be found in the article on the Labours of Heracles, but Hera was connected with all of the opponents Heracles had to overcome.
Heracles' human stepfather Amphitryon was a grandson of Perseus, since Amphitryon's father was older than Eurystheus' father, he might have received the kingdom, but Sthenelus had banished Amphitryon for accidentally killing the eldest son in the family. When, shortly before his son Heracles was born, Zeus proclaimed the next-born descendant of Perseus should get the kingdom, Hera thwarted his ambitions by delaying Alcmene's labour and having her candidate Eurystheus born prematurely. Heracles' first task was to slay the Nemean Lion and bring back its skin, which Heracles decided to wear. Eurystheus was so scared by Heracles' fearsome guise that he hid in a subterranean bronze winejar, from that moment forth all labors were communicated to Heracles through a herald, Copreus. For his second labour, to slay the Lernaean Hydra, Heracles took with him his nephew, Iolaus, as a charioteer; when Eurystheus found out that Heracles' nephew had helped him he declared that the labour had not been completed alone and as a result did not count towards the ten labours set for him.
Eurystheus' third task did not involve killing a beast, but capturing one alive - the Ceryneian Hind, a golden-horned stag sacred to Artemis. Heracles knew that he had to return the hind, as he had promised, to Artemis, so he agreed to hand it over on the condition that Eurystheus himself come out and take it from him. Eurystheus did come out, but the moment Heracles let the hind go, she sprinted back to her mistress, Heracles departed, saying that Eurystheus had not been quick enough; when Heracles returned with the Erymanthian Boar, Eurystheus was again frightened and hid in his jar, begging Heracles to get rid of the beast. The fifth labour proposed by Eurystheus was to clear out the numerous stables of Augeias. Striking a deal with Augeias, Heracles proposed a payment of a tenth of Augeias' cattle if the labour was completed successfully. Not believing the task feasible, Augeias agreed. Heracles rerouted two nearby rivers through the stable; when Augeias learned of Heracles' bargain for the task, he refused payment.
Heracles brought the case to court, Phyleus testified against his father. Enraged, Augeias banished both Phyleus and Heracles from the land before the court had cast their vote. However, Eurystheus refused to credit the labour to Heracles. So Heracles drove Augeias out of the kingdom and installed Phyleus as king. Heracles took his tenth of the cattle and left them to graze in a field by his home. For his sixth labour, Heracles had to drive the Stymphalian Birds off the marshes, he did so, shooting down several birds with his Hydra-poisoned arrows and bringing them back to Eurystheus as proof. For his seventh labour, Heracles captured the Cretan Bull, he rode it back to his cousin. Eurystheus offered to sacrifice the bull to Hera his patron, she refused the sacrifice. The bull was wandered to Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull; when Heracles brought back the man-eating Mares of Diomedes Eurystheus dedicated the horses to Hera and allowed them to roam in the Argolid. Bucephalus, Alexander the Great's horse, was said to be descended from these mares.
To acquire the belt of Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons was Heracles ninth task. This task was at the request of Admete. For the tenth labour, he stole the cattle of the giant Geryon, which Eurystheus had sacrificed to Hera. To extend what may have once been ten Labours to the canonical dozen, it was said that Eurystheus didn't count the Hydra, as he was assisted, nor the Augean stables, as Heracles received payment for his work. For the eleventh labour Heracles had to obtain the Apples of the Hesperides. For his final labour, he was to capture Cerberus, the three-headed hound that guarded the entrance to Hades; when he managed to bring the struggling animal back, the terrified Eurystheus hid in his jar one more time, begging Heracles to leave for good and take the dog with him. After Heracles died, Eurystheus remained bitter over the ind
A legendary and mythological creature traditionally called a fabulous beast and fabulous creature, is a fictitious and supernatural animal a hybrid, sometimes part human, whose existence has not or cannot be proved and, described in folklore or fiction but in historical accounts before history became a science. In the classical era, monstrous creatures such as the cyclops and the Minotaur appear in heroic tales for the protagonist to destroy. Other creatures, such as the unicorn, were claimed in accounts of natural history by various scholars of antiquity; some legendary creatures have their origin in traditional mythology and were believed to be real creatures, for example dragons and unicorns. Others were based on real encounters, originating in garbled accounts of travelers' tales, such as the Vegetable Lamb of Tartary, which grew tethered to the earth. A variety of mythical animals appear in the art and stories of the Classical era. For example, in the Odyssey, monstrous creatures include the Cyclops and Charybdis for the hero Odysseus to confront.
In other tales there appear the Medusa to be defeated by Perseus, the Minotaur to be destroyed by Theseus, the Hydra to be killed by Heracles, while Aeneas battles with the harpies. These monsters thus have the basic function of emphasizing the greatness of the heroes involved; some classical era creatures, such as the centaur, chimaera and the flying horse, are found in Indian art. Sphinxes appear as winged lions in Indian art and the Piasa Bird of North America. In medieval art, both real and mythical, played important roles; these included decorative forms as in medieval jewellery, sometimes with their limbs intricately interlaced. Animal forms were used to add majesty to objects. In Christian art, animals carried symbolic meanings, where for example the lamb symbolized Christ, a dove indicated the Holy Spirit, the classical griffin represented a guardian of the dead. Medieval bestiaries included animals regardless of biological reality. One function of mythical animals in the Middle Ages was allegory.
Unicorns, for example, were described as extraordinarily swift and uncatchable by traditional methods. It was believed; the unicorn was supposed to leap into her lap and go to sleep, at which point a hunter could capture it. In terms of symbolism, the unicorn was a metaphor for Christ. Unicorns represented the idea of purity. In the King James Bible, Psalm 92:10 states, "My horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn." This is because the translators of the King James erroneously translated the Hebrew word re'em as unicorn. Versions translate this as wild ox; the unicorn's small size signifies the humility of Christ. Another common legendary creature which served allegorical functions within the Middle Ages was the dragon. Dragons were identified with serpents, though their attributes were intensified; the dragon was supposed to have been larger than all other animals. It was believed that the dragon had no harmful poison but was able to slay anything it embraced without any need for venom. Biblical scriptures speak of the dragon in reference to the devil, they were used to denote sin in general during the Middle Ages.
Dragons were said to have dwelled in places like Ethiopia and India, based on the idea that there was always heat present in these locations. Physical detail was not the central focus of the artists depicting such animals, medieval bestiaries were not conceived as biological categorizations. Creatures like the unicorn and griffin were not categorized in a separate "mythological" section in medieval bestiaries, as the symbolic implications were of primary importance. Animals we know to have existed were still presented with a fantastical approach, it seems the religious and moral implications of animals were far more significant than matching a physical likeness in these renderings. Nona C. Flores explains, "By the tenth century, artists were bound by allegorical interpretation, abandoned naturalistic depictions." The historian Richard Kieckhefer explains, "Magic is not meant to work but to express wishes, or to encode in symbols a perception of how things do or should work." Cryptozoology Lists of legendary creatures List of legendary creatures by type Mythical creature in the New World Encyclopedia
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, a harpy was a half-human and half-bird personification of storm winds, in Homeric poems. They were depicted as birds with the heads of maidens, faces pale with hunger and long claws on their hands. Roman and Byzantine writers detailed their ugliness. Pottery art depicting the harpies featured beautiful women with wings. Ovid described them as human-vultures. To Hesiod, they were imagined as fair-locked and winged maidens, who surpassed winds and birds in the rapidity of their flight. "...the Harpyiai of the lovely hair and Aello, these two in the speed of their wings keep pace with the blowing winds, or birds in flight, as they soar and swoop, high aloft." But as early as the time of Aeschylus, they are described as ugly creatures with wings, writers carry their notions of the harpies so far as to represent them as most disgusting monsters. The Pythian priestess of Apollo recounted the appearance of the harpies in the following lines:"Before this man an extraordinary band of women slept, seated on thrones.
No! Not women, but rather Gorgons I call them. Once before I saw some creatures in a painting, carrying off the feast of Phineus. I have never seen the tribe that produced this company, nor the land that boasts of rearing this brood with impunity and does not grieve for its labor afterwards." "Bird-bodied, girl-faced things they are. The harpies seem to have been wind spirits, their name means "snatchers" or "swift robbers" and they steal food from their victims while they are eating and carry evildoers to the Erinyes. When a person disappeared from the earth, it was said that he had been carried off by the harpies. Thus, they gave them as servants to the Erinyes. In this form they were agents of punishment who abducted people and tortured them on their way to Tartarus, they were vicious and violent. The harpies were called "the hounds of mighty Zeus" thus "ministers of the Thunderer". Writers listed the harpies among the guardians of the underworld among other monstrosities including the Centaurs, Briareus, Lernaean Hydra, Chimera and Geryon.
Their abode is either the islands called Strophades, a place at the entrance of Orcus, or a cave in Crete. Hesiod calls them two "lovely-haired" creatures, the daughters of Thaumas and the Oceanid Electra and sisters of Iris. Hyginus, cited a certain Ozomene as the mother of the harpies but he recounted that Electra was the mother of these beings in the same source; this can be explained by the fact. The harpies were siblings of the river-god Hydaspes and Arke, as they were called sisters of Iris and children of Thaumas. According to Valerius, Typhoeus was said to be the father of these monsters while a different version by Servius told that the harpies were daughters of Pontus and Gaea or of Poseidon, they are named Aello and Ocypete, Virgil added Celaeno as a third. Homer knew of a harpy named Podarge. Aello, is sometimes spelled Aellopus or Nicothoe. Homer called the harpy Podarge as the mother of the two horses of Achilles sired by the West Wind Zephyrus while according to Nonnus and Podarkes, horses of the Athenian king Erechtheus, were born to Aello and the North Wind Boreas.
Other progeny of Podarge were Phlogeus and Harpagos, horses given by Hermes to the Dioscuri, who competed for the chariot-race in celebration of the funeral games of Pelias. The swift horse Arion was said to begotten by loud-piping Zephyrus on a harpy, as attested by Quintus Smyrnaeus; the most celebrated story in which the harpies play a part is that of King Phineus of Thrace, given the gift of prophecy by Zeus. Angry that Phineus gave away the god's secret plan, Zeus punished him by blinding him and putting him on an island with a buffet of food which he could never eat because the harpies always arrived to steal the food out of his hands before he could satisfy his hunger. Writers add that they either devoured the food themselves, or that they dirtied it by dropping upon it some stinking substance, so as to render it unfit to be eaten; this continued until the arrival of Jason and the Argonauts. Phineus promised to instruct them respecting the course they had to take, if they would deliver him from the harpies.
The Boreads, sons of Boreas, the North Wind, who could fly, succeeded in driving off the harpies. According to an ancient oracle, the harpies were to perish by the hands of the Boreades, but the latter were to die if they could not overtake the harpies; the latter fled, but one fell into the river Tigris, hence called Harpys, the other reached the Echinades, as she never returned, the islands were called Strophades. But being worn out with fatigue, she fell down with her pursuer.
Pterosaurs were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria. They existed during most of the Mesozoic: from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous. Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight, their wings were formed by a membrane of skin and other tissues stretching from the ankles to a lengthened fourth finger. Early species had long toothed jaws and long tails, while forms had a reduced tail, some lacked teeth. Many sported furry coats made up of hair-like filaments known as pycnofibers, which covered their bodies and parts of their wings. Pterosaurs spanned a wide range of adult sizes, from the small anurognathids to the largest known flying creatures of all time, including Quetzalcoatlus and Hatzegopteryx. Pterosaurs are referred to in the popular media and by the general public as "flying dinosaurs", but the term "dinosaur" is restricted to just those reptiles descended from the last common ancestor of the groups Saurischia and Ornithischia, current scientific consensus is that this group excludes the pterosaurs, as well as the various groups of extinct marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs and mosasaurs.
Unlike these other reptiles, pterosaurs are nonetheless more related to birds and dinosaurs than to crocodiles or any other living reptile. Pterosaurs are colloquially referred to as pterodactyls in fiction and by journalists. However, pterodactyl only refers to members of the genus Pterodactylus, more broadly to members of the suborder Pterodactyloidea of the pterosaurs; the anatomy of pterosaurs was modified from their reptilian ancestors by the adaption to flight. Pterosaur bones were air-filled, like the bones of birds, they had a keeled breastbone, developed for the attachment of flight muscles and an enlarged brain that shows specialised features associated with flight. In some pterosaurs, the backbone over the shoulders fused into a structure known as a notarium, which served to stiffen the torso during flight, provide a stable support for the shoulder blade. Pterosaur wings were formed by membranes of skin and other tissues; the primary membranes attached to the long fourth finger of each arm and extended along the sides of the body to the ankles.
While thought of as simple leathery structures composed of skin, research has since shown that the wing membranes of pterosaurs were complex dynamic structures suited to an active style of flight. The outer wings were strengthened by spaced fibers called actinofibrils; the actinofibrils themselves consisted of three distinct layers in the wing, forming a crisscross pattern when superimposed on one another. The function of the actinofibrils is unknown. Depending on their exact composition, they may have been stiffening or strengthening agents in the outer part of the wing; the wing membranes contained a thin layer of muscle, fibrous tissue, a unique, complex circulatory system of looping blood vessels. As shown by cavities in the wing bones of larger species and soft tissue preserved in at least one specimen, some pterosaurs extended their system of respiratory air sacs into the wing membrane; the pterosaur wing membrane is divided into three basic units. The first, called the propatagium, was the forward-most part of the wing and attached between the wrist and shoulder, creating the "leading edge" during flight.
This membrane may have incorporated the first three fingers of the hand, as evidenced in some specimens. The brachiopatagium was the primary component of the wing, stretching from the elongated fourth finger of the hand to the hind limbs. At least some pterosaur groups had a membrane that stretched between the legs connecting to or incorporating the tail, called the uropatagium, it is agreed though that non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs had a broader uro/cruropatagium, with pterodactyloids only having membranes running along the legs. A bone unique to pterosaurs, known as the pteroid, connected to the wrist and helped to support a forward membrane between the wrist and shoulder. Evidence of webbing between the three free fingers of the pterosaur forelimb suggests that this forward membrane may have been more extensive than the simple pteroid-to-shoulder connection traditionally depicted in life restorations; the position of the pteroid bone itself has been controversial. Some scientists, notably Matthew Wilkinson, have argued that the pteroid pointed forward, extending the forward membrane.
This view was contradicted in a 2007 paper by Chris Bennett, who showed that the pteroid did not articulate as thought and could not have pointed forward, but rather inward toward the body as traditionally thought. Peters proposed that the pteroid articulated with the ‘saddle' of the radiale and both the pteroid and preaxial carpal were migrated centralia; this view of the articulation of the pteroid has since been supported by specimens of Changchengopterus pani and Darwinopterus linglongtaensis, both of which show the pteroid in articulation with the proximal syncarpal. The pterosaur
Maurus Servius Honoratus
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy. These works, In tria Virgilii Opera Expositio, constituted the first incunable to be printed at Florence, by Bernardo Cennini, 1471. In the Saturnalia of Macrobius, Servius appears as one of the interlocutors; the commentary on Virgil has survived in two distinct manuscript traditions. The first is a comparatively short commentary, attributed to Servius in the superscription in the manuscripts and by other internal evidence. A second class of manuscripts, all deriving from the 10th and 11th centuries, embed the same text in a much expanded commentary; the copious additions are in contrast to the style of the original. "The added matter is undoubtedly ancient, dating from a time but little removed from that of Servius, is founded to a large extent on historical and antiquarian literature, now lost. The writer is anonymous and a Christian", although not if, as is suggested, he is Aelius Donatus.
A third class of manuscripts, written for the most part in Italy, gives the core text with interpolated scholia, which demonstrate the continued usefulness of the Virgilii Opera Expositio. The authentic commentary of Maurus Servius Honoratus is in effect the only complete extant edition of a classic author written before the collapse of the Empire in the West, it is constructed much on the principle of a modern edition, is founded on an extensive Virgilian critical literature, much of, known only from the fragments and facts preserved in this commentary. The notices of Virgil's text, though or never authoritative in face of the existing manuscripts, which go back to, or beyond, the time of Servius, yet supply valuable information concerning the ancient recensions and textual criticism of Virgil. In the grammatical interpretation of his author's language, Servius does not rise above the stiff and overwrought subtleties of his time. Servius set his face against the prevalent allegorical methods of exposition of text.
For the antiquarian and the historian, the abiding value of his work lies in his preservation of facts in Roman history, religion and language, which but for him might have perished. Not a little of the laborious erudition of Varro and other ancient scholars has survived in his pages. Besides the Virgilian commentary, other works of Servius are extant: a collection of notes on the grammar of Aelius Donatus; the edition of Georg Thilo and Hermann Hagen, remains the only edition of the whole of Servius' work. In development is the Harvard Servius. Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article: Maurus Servius Honoratus Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil at the Perseus Project in Latin. Commentary on the Eclogues of Vergil at the Perseus Project in Latin. De Centum Metris at Intratext.com De Centum Metris at Forum Romanorum Servii grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii carmina commentarii, Georius Thilo, Hermannus Hagen, 3 voll. Lipsiae in aedibus B. G. Teubneri, 1881-1902: vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3 part 1, vol. 3 part 2