In Greek mythology, Styx is a deity and a river that forms the boundary between Earth and the Underworld called "Hades", the name of its ruler. The rivers Acheron, Lethe and Styx all converge at the center of the underworld on a great marsh, which sometimes is called the Styx. According to Herodotus, the river Styx originates near Feneos. Styx is a goddess with prehistoric roots in Greek mythology as a daughter of Tethys, after whom the river is named and because of whom it had miraculous powers; the deities of the Greek pantheon swore all their oaths upon the river Styx because, according to classical mythology, during the Titan war, the goddess of the river, sided with Zeus. After the war, Zeus declared. Zeus swore to give Semele whatever she wanted and was obliged to follow through when he realized to his horror that her request would lead to her death. Helios promised his son Phaëton whatever he desired resulting in the boy's death. Myths related to such early deities did not survive long enough to be included in historic records, but tantalizing references exist among those that have been discovered.

According to some versions, Styx could make someone invulnerable. According to one tradition, Achilles was dipped in the waters of the river by his mother during his childhood, acquiring invulnerability, with exception of his heel, by which his mother held him; the only spot where Achilles was vulnerable was therefore that heel, where he was struck and killed by Paris's arrow during the Trojan War. This is the source of a metaphor for a vulnerable spot. Styx was a feature in the afterworld of classical Greek mythology, similar to the Christian area of Hell in texts such as The Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost; the ferryman Charon is described as having transported the souls of the newly dead across this river into the underworld. Dante put Phlegyas as ferryman over the Styx and made it the fifth circle of Hell, where the wrathful and sullen are punished by being drowned in the muddy waters for eternity, with the wrathful fighting each other. In ancient times some believed that a coin placed in the mouth of a dead person would pay the toll for the ferry across the river to the entrance of the underworld.

It was said. The ritual was performed by the relatives of the dead; the variant spelling Stix was sometimes used in translations of Classical Greek before the 20th century. By metonymy, the adjective stygian came to refer to anything dark and murky. Styx was the name of an Oceanid nymph, one of the three thousand daughters of Tethys and Oceanus, the goddess of the River Styx. In classical myths, her husband was Pallas and she gave birth to Zelus, Nike and Bia. In these myths, Styx supported Zeus in the Titanomachy, where she was said to be the first to rush to his aid. For this reason, her name was given the honor of being a binding oath for the deities. Knowledge of whether this was the original reason for the tradition did not survive into historical records following the religious transition that led to the pantheon of the classical era; as of 2 July 2013, "Styx" became the name of one of Pluto's moons. The other moons of Pluto have names from Greco-Roman mythology related to the underworld. Gjöll - Norse mythology Hubur - Mesopotamian mythology Sanzu River - Japanese Buddhism Vaitarna River - Hinduism and Buddhism Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Styx". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

San Fruttuoso abbey

The Abbey of San Fruttuoso is on the Italian Riviera between Camogli and Portofino. It is the seat of the Catholic parish of the same name of the Vicariate of Recco-Uscio-Camogli, Archdiocese of Genoa; the abbey is located in a small bay beneath a steep wooded hill. It can only be reached by sea or by hiking trails, there is no road access; the abbey is dedicated to Saint Fructuosus, a third-century bishop of Tarraco, martyred under the persecutions of the Roman Emperor Valerian. In the eighth century the relics of Fructuosus were moved here by Greek monks. St Fructuosus's ashes are still kept at the abbey; the abbey was founded by the Order of Saint Benedict and most of its buildings date to the tenth and eleventh centuries. The original tenth-century church tower had a Byzantine-style spherical top; the cloisters were modified in the sixteenth century by Andrea Doria. The building facing the sea was built in the thirteenth century to a similar design to the noble palaces of Genoa; the abbey contains tombs of members of the noble Genoan Doria family dating from 1275 to 1305, along with other tombs and an ancient Roman sarcophagus.

The Doria tombs have typical of Ligurian architecture of the period. Above the abbey stands Torre Doria, a watchtower erected in 1562 by the family of Admiral Andrea Doria, who defended the abbey and its supply of fresh water from Barbary pirates. In the 17th century the abbey went into decline, parts of it were used for keeping sheep. In 1730 Camillo Doria restored the abbey, returned the church to liturgical use; some of the buildings were damaged by flooding in 1915, these were restored by the Italian state in 1933. In 1983 the Doria Pamphili family donated the San Fruttuoso complex to the heritage organisation Fondo Ambiente Italiano. Restoration of the buildings started in 1985 and was completed in 2017; the underwater statue Christ of the Abyss was installed in the sea off San Fruttuoso in 1954, at a depth of 17 metres. "San Fruttuoso". Website on the abbey and its surroundings

Punniya Boomi

Punniya Boomi is a 1978 Indian Tamil film, directed by K. Vijayan and produced by N. V. Ramasamy; the film stars Sivaji Ganesan, Sangeeta, Bhavani, M. N. Nambiar and V. K. Ramasamy in lead roles; the film had musical score by M. S. Viswanathan, it a remake of the 1957 Hindi Mother India, remade in Telugu in 1971 as Bangaru Thalli. Sivaji Ganesan as Manickam / Raju Vanisri as Lakshmi Sangeeta Bhavani Y. Vijaya M. N. Nambiar V. K. Ramasamy as Paramasivam Manorama as Ponnammal C. K. Saraswathi The Movies All Lyrics Writer Kannadasan "Ninaivu Podhum" "Kadavulin Aanai" "Marughu Ennavo" "Jil Jil Endradhu" "Adi Manjal Veppilai Ittu" Punniya Boomi on IMDb