Beach House is an American dream pop duo formed in Baltimore, Maryland in 2004. The band consists of vocalist and keyboardist Victoria Legrand and guitarist and backup vocalist Alex Scally, their self-titled debut album was released in 2006 to critical acclaim and has been followed by Devotion, Teen Dream, Depression Cherry, Thank Your Lucky Stars, B-sides and Rarities, 7. Vocalist and organist Victoria Legrand, who graduated from Vassar College in 2003, guitarist Alex Scally, who graduated from Oberlin College in 2004, formed the band in 2004 after meeting in Baltimore's indie rock scene, producing music composed of organ, programmed drums, slide guitar. Of the origins of the band name Scally said: "We’d been writing music, we had all these songs, there was that moment where you say ‘what do we call ourselves?’ We tried to intellectualize it, it didn’t work. There were different plant-names, that kind of thing. Stupid stuff. But, once we stopped trying, it just came out, it just happened, and it just seemed perfect."
In an interview with Pitchfork, Legrand addressed their being a two-member status thus: "t's a way to challenge ourselves: What do you do when it's just the two of you?... ne of the reasons this has been such a fulfilling experience for me is that with two people, it's so much easier to achieve things that feel exciting and new."Then, in August 2006, their song "Apple Orchard" was featured on a Pitchfork MP3 mixtape. By October 2006 the band's self-titled debut album, Beach House, was released through Carpark Records, was ranked 16th on Pitchfork's Best Albums of that year. Beach House's second album, was released on February 26, 2008, it was received with similar acclaim as the first album and was included in Pitchfork's Best Albums of 2008 list. On October 21, 2008, the group released the single "Used to Be". Beach House recorded a cover of Queen's "Play the Game" for the iTunes Store release of the Red Hot Organization's 2009 compilation Dark Was The Night. In 2009, Legrand provided backing vocals on the song "Two Weeks" by the indie rock band Grizzly Bear.
She collaborated with the band again by providing vocals to "Slow Life", the band's contribution to the soundtrack for the film Twilight: New Moon. In October 2010, the band contributed a charity T-shirt for the Yellow Bird Project to raise money for the House of Ruth women's shelter in Maryland for victims of domestic violence. Teen Dream, the duo's "dynamic and intense" third album, was released on Sub Pop on January 26, 2010, it was released in the UK in Mexico by Arts & Crafts. It contains a newer version of their 2008 single "Used to Be". Meanwhile, "Norway" was made available as a free download on the band's website on November 17, 2009; the album was engineered by Chris Coady. Music videos were made both for songs, "Silver Soul" and "Real Love", created by famed collective, The Masses; the album's unanimously positive reviews garnered the band a larger fan base, with Jay-Z and Beyoncé being spotted at the band's shows. Teen Dream was listed as No. 5 on Pitchfork's Top 50 Albums of 2010 with the following notes: Teen Dream did little to alter Beach House's core characteristics---slow-motion beats layered with hazy keyboard drones, rippling guitar figures, Victoria Legrand's melancholic melodies---but amplified them to the point of redefining the band's essence, from that of introverted knee-gazers into an assured assertive force.
-- Stuart BermanOf the success of the album and it being dubbed the group's "breakout" record by numerous publications, Legrand stated: "I see this as just another step in a direction. I would not want to say that 2010 will be our year I hope it’s just another year in which we do good work. I don’t want to be defined by this year, I want it to just be a beginning."The album was included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. On March 7, 2012 the band streamed a new song, "Myth", from their website; the album Bloom was released on May 2012 via Sub Pop. A second song from the album, "Lazuli", was released on April 13, 2012. Beach House was featured on the cover of Issue #80 of the Fader. A music video for "Lazuli" was released on June 6, 2012, it was directed by Allen Cordell, who directed the video for "Walk in the Park" from Teen Dream. A music video for the track "Wild" has been released. A music video for "Wishes" directed by Eric Wareheim and starring Ray Wise was released on March 7, 2013.
The band released a short film, Forever Still, on February 4, 2013. The film, directed by the band and Max Goldman, was inspired by Pink Floyd's Live at Pompeii and features the band performing songs from Bloom at various sites around Tornillo, where the album was recorded; the idea for the film came from the band's desire to make quality promotional content they could control artistically: "We had been involved in too many live sessions, radio tapings, photo shoots, etc. where the outcome was far below our personal artistic standards. We felt a need to distance ourselves from the'content' culture of the internet that rewards quantity over quality and shock over nuance." On May 26, 2015 the band announced the release of their fifth album Depression Cherry. The album was released on August 28 via Sub Pop and the band announced a world tour in support. Talking of the direction of the new album, the band said "In general, this record shows a return to simplicity, with songs structured around a melody and a few instruments, with live drums playing a far les
Olympia is the capital of the U. S. state of Washington and the county seat of Thurston County. European settlers claimed the area in 1846, with the Treaty of Medicine Creek initiated in 1854, the Treaty of Olympia initiated in January 1856. Olympia was incorporated as a town on January 28, 1859, as a City in 1882; the population was 46,479 as of the 2010 census. The city borders Lacey to the Tumwater to the south. Olympia is a cultural center of the southern Puget Sound region. Olympia is located 60 miles southwest of the largest city in the state of Washington; the site of Olympia has been home to Lushootseed-speaking peoples known as the Steh-Chass for thousands of years. Other Native Americans visited the head of Budd Inlet and the Steh-Chass including the other ancestor tribes of the Squaxin, as well as the Nisqually, Chehalis and Duwamish; the first recorded Europeans came to Olympia in 1792. Peter Puget and a crew from the British Vancouver Expedition are said to have explored the site, but neither recorded any encounters with the resident Indigenous population here.
In 1846, Edmund Sylvester and Levi Smith jointly claimed the land that now comprises downtown Olympia. In 1851, the U. S. Congress established the Customs District of Puget Sound for Washington Territory and Olympia became the home of the customs house, its population expanded from Oregon Trail immigrants. In 1850, the town settled on the name Olympia, at the suggestion of local resident Colonel Isaac N. Ebey, due to its view of the Olympic Mountains to the Northwest; the area began to be served by a small fleet of steamboats known as the Puget Sound Mosquito Fleet. Over the course of two days, December 24–26, 1854, Governor Isaac I. Stevens negotiated the Treaty of Medicine Creek with the representatives of the Nisqually, Squawksin, Steh'Chass, Noo-Seh-Chatl, Squi-Aitl, T'Peeksin, Sah-Heh-Wa-Mish, S'Hotl-Ma-Mish tribes. Stevens' treaty included the preservation of Indigenous fishing, hunting and other rights, it included a section which, at least as interpreted by United States officials, required the Native American signatories to move to one of three reservations.
Doing so would force the Nisqually people to cede their prime farming and living space. One of the leaders of the Nisqually, Chief Leschi. Outraged, refused to give up ownership of this land and instead fought for his peoples' right to their territory, sparking the beginning of the Puget Sound War; the war ended in the controversial execution of Leschi. In 1896, Olympia became the home of the Olympia Brewing Company, which brewed Olympia Beer until 2003; the 1949 Olympia earthquake damaged many historic buildings beyond repair, they were demolished. Parts of the city suffered damage from earthquakes in 1965 and 2001. Olympia is located at 47°2′33″N 122°53′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.68 square miles, of which 17.82 sq mi are land and 1.86 sq mi are water. The city of Olympia is located at the southern end of Puget Sound on Budd Inlet; the Deschutes River estuary was dammed in 1951 to create Capitol Lake. Much of the lower area of downtown Olympia sits on reclaimed land.
The cities of Lacey and Tumwater border Olympia. The region surrounding Olympia has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, whereas the local microclimate has dry summers and cool July and August overnight lows, it is part of USDA Hardiness zone 8a, with isolated pockets around Puget Sound falling under zone 8b. Most of western Washington's weather is brought in by weather systems that form near the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, it contains cold moist air, which brings western Washington cold rain and fog. November through January are Olympia's rainiest months. City streets and rivers can flood during the months of November through February; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 38.4 °F in December to 64.1 °F in August. Seasonal snowfall for 1981–2010 averaged 10.8 inches but has ranged from trace amounts in 1991–92 to 81.5 in in 1968–69. Olympia averages 50 inches of precipitation annually and has a year-round average of 75% cloud cover. Annual precipitation has ranged from 29.92 in in 1952 to 66.71 in in 1950.
With a period of record dating back to 1948, extreme temperatures have ranged from −8 °F on January 1, 1979, up to 104 °F, most on July 29, 2009. On average, there are 6.3 days annually with temperatures reaching 90 °F, 1.8 days where the temperature stays at or below freezing all day, 78 nights where the low reaches the freezing mark. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 8 through May 3, allowing a growing season of 157 days, nearly 100 days shorter than in nearby Seattle. Olympia has a wide array of public parks and nature conservation areas; the Woodard Bay Natural Resources Conservation Area is a 600-acre parcel that preserves more than 5 miles of Puget Sound waterfront along the Woodard and Chapman Bays of the Henderson Inlet. Percival Landing Park includes 0.9 miles of boardwalk along Budd Inlet, as well as a playground, picnic areas, a large open space. Percival Landing closed in 2010 for an extensive remodel after saltwater degradation a
A fanzine is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon for the pleasure of others who share their interest. The term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and first popularized within science fiction fandom, from there it was adopted by other communities. Publishers, editors and other contributors of articles or illustrations to fanzines are not paid. Fanzines are traditionally circulated free of charge, or for a nominal cost to defray postage or production expenses. Copies are offered in exchange for similar publications, or for contributions of art, articles, or letters of comment, which are published; some fanzines are photocopied by amateurs using standard home office equipment. A few fanzines have developed into professional publications, many professional writers were first published in fanzines; the term fanzine is sometimes confused with "fan magazine", but the latter term most refers to commercially produced publications for fans.
The origins of amateur fanac "fan" publications are obscure, but can be traced at least back to 19th century literary groups in the United States which formed amateur press associations to publish collections of amateur fiction and commentary, such as H. P. Lovecraft's United Amateur; these publications were produced first on small tabletop printing presses by students. As professional printing technology progressed, so did the technology of fanzines. Early fanzines were hand-drafted or typed on a manual typewriter and printed using primitive reproduction techniques. Only a small number of copies could be made at a time, so circulation was limited; the use of mimeograph machines enabled greater press runs, the photocopier increased the speed and ease of publishing once more. Today, thanks to the advent of desktop publishing and self-publication, there is little difference between the appearance of a fanzine and a professional magazine; when Hugo Gernsback published the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, he allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses.
By 1927 readers young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine. Science fiction fanzines had their beginnings in Constructive correspondence. Fans finding themselves writing the same letter to several correspondents sought to save themselves a lot of typing by duplicating their letters. Early efforts included simple carbon copies but that proved insufficient; the first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis; the term "fanzine" was coined by Russ Chauvenet in the October 1940 edition of his fanzine Detours. "Fanzines" were distinguished from "prozines,":. Prior to that, the fan publications were known as "fanmags" or "letterzines". Science fiction fanzines used a variety of printing methods. Typewriters, school dittos, church mimeos and multi-color letterpress or other mid-to-high level printing; some fans wanted their news spread, others reveled in the beauty of fine printing.
The hectograph, introduced around 1876, was so named because it could produce up to a hundred copies. Hecto used an aniline dye, transferred to a tray of gelatin, paper would be placed on the gel, one sheet at a time, for transfer. Messy and smelly, the process could create vibrant colors for the few copies produced, the easiest aniline dye to make being purple; the next small but significant technological step after hecto is the spirit duplicator the hectography process using a drum instead of the gelatin. Introduced by Ditto Corporation in 1923, these machines were known for the next six decades as Ditto Machines and used by fans because they were cheap to use and could print in color; the mimeograph machine, which forced ink through a wax paper stencil cut by the keys of a typewriter, was the standard for many decades. A second-hand mimeo could print in color; the electronic stencil cutter could add illustrations to a mimeo stencil. A mimeo'd zine could look terrible or look beautiful, depending more on the skill of the mimeo operator than the quality of the equipment.
Only a few fans could afford more professional printers, or the time it took them to print, until photocopying became cheap and ubiquitous in the 1970s. With the advent of computer printers and desktop publishing in the 1980s, fanzines began to look far more professional; the rise of the internet made correspondence cheaper and much faster, the World Wide Web has made publishing a fanzine as simple as coding a web page. The printing technology affected the style of writing. For example, there were alphanumeric contractions which are precursors to "leet-speak". Fanspeak is rich with concatenations. Where teenagers labored to save typing on ditto masters, they now save keystrokes when text messaging. Ackerman invented nonstoparagraphing as a space-saving measure. Whe
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Evergreen State College
The Evergreen State College is a public liberal arts college in Olympia, Washington. Founded in 1967, Evergreen offers a non-traditional undergraduate curriculum in which students design their own paths of study. Full-time students enroll in interdisciplinary academic programs instead of classes. Programs offer students the opportunity to study several disciplines in a coordinated manner. Faculty write narrative evaluations of students' work in place of issuing grades. Evergreen's main campus spans 1,000 acres of forest bordering the southernmost waters of Puget Sound, it has a satellite campus in nearby Tacoma; the school offers a Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Arts and Bachelor of Science, Master of Environmental Studies, Master in Teaching, Master of Public Administration, Master of Public Administration in Tribal Governance. As of 2018, there were 3,327 students, 3,018 of whom were undergraduates, 223 faculty. Evergreen was one of many alternative colleges and programs launched in the 1960s and 1970s described as “experiments.”
While the vast majority of these have either closed or adopted more mainstream approaches, Evergreen is one of the few that have remained steadfast in pursuing its original mission. In 1964, a report was issued by the Council of Presidents of Washington State baccalaureate institutions stating that another college was needed in the state to balance the geographical distribution of the existing state institutions; this report spurred the 1965 Washington legislature to create the Temporary Advisory Council on Public Higher Education to study the need and possible location for a new state college. In 1965–66, the Temporary Advisory Council on Public Higher Education concluded "at the earliest possible time a new college should be authorized", to be located at a suburban site in Thurston County within a radius of 10 miles from Olympia. Evergreen's enabling legislation – HB 596 – stated that the campus should be no smaller than 600 acres, making it the largest campus in the state as well as the first public four-year college created in Washington in the 20th century.
On January 24, 1968, The Evergreen State College was selected from 31 choices as the name of the new institution. On November 1, 1968, Charles J. McCann assumed the first presidency of the college. McCann and the founding faculty held the first day of classes October 1971 with 1128 students. McCann served from 1968 until stepping down to join the faculty June 6, 1977 when former Governor Daniel J. Evans, who signed the legislation creating Evergreen, assumed the presidency. Evans left the president's office in 1983 when he was appointed to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy created by the death of Senator Henry M. Jackson; the largest building on campus is named in honor of the Daniel J. Evans Library Building; the entrance to the campus bears the Charles J. McCann plaza. In the 1992-93 school year, students chose Leonard Peltier to give the address at commencement, the first with a graduating class of more than 1,000; the selection was described as "perhaps the most unconventional commencement speaker" in a published round-up of the most controversial graduation speakers on campuses nationwide that year.
Peltier, in federal prison, submitted his remarks in writing, to be read by a graduating senior. In 1999, Mumia Abu-Jamal was invited to deliver the keynote address by audiotape for the graduating class at the college; the event was protested by some. In 2004, the college completed the 170,000-square-foot Seminar II building, a significant remodel of the Daniel J. Evans Library was completed. In 2015, George Sumner Bridges became the sixth president of Evergreen State College, not counting interim appointments. Bridges had served as president of Whitman College in Walla Walla, WA, he followed Thomas L. “Les” Purce, Jane L. Jervis, Joseph D. Olander; every April since the 1970s until 2018, Evergreen has held a daylong event called Day of Absence, inspired by the Douglas Turner Ward play of the same name, during which minority students and faculty members voluntarily stay off campus to raise awareness of the contributions of minorities and to discuss racial and campus issues. As of 2017 25% of Evergreen students were racial minorities.
Since 1992, the Day of Absence has been followed by the Day of Presence, when the campus community reunites. In 2017, the Day of Absence was altered after students of color voiced concerns about feeling unwelcome on campus following the 2016 U. S. Presidential election. For that year's event, white students and faculty were invited to stay off campus. Events for students of color were held on the Evergreen campus. Bret Weinstein, a professor of biology at Evergreen, wrote a letter in March to Evergreen faculty explaining his objections to the change in format: "On a college campus, one’s right to speak — or to be — must never be based on skin color." And "There is a huge difference between a group or coalition deciding to voluntarily absent themselves from a shared space to highlight their vital and under-appreciated roles and a group or coalition encouraging another group to go away." Weinstein's emails were leaked and shared among conservative media outlets such as Breitbart and Heat Street, which led to harassment and threats towards school officials.
In late May 2017, student protests—focused in part on the comments by Weinstein—disrupted the campus and called for a number of changes to the college. Weinstein says he was told that campus police could not protect him and that they encouraged him not to be on campus, which caused Weinstein to hold his biology class in a public park. W
Nirvana was an American rock band formed in Aberdeen, Washington, in 1987. It was founded by guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic. Nirvana went through a succession of drummers, the longest-lasting and best-known being Dave Grohl, who joined in 1990. Though the band dissolved in 1994 after the death of Cobain, their music maintains a popular following and continues to influence modern rock and roll culture. In the late 1980s, Nirvana established itself as part of the Seattle grunge scene, releasing its first album, for the independent record label Sub Pop in 1989, they developed a sound that relied on dynamic contrasts between quiet verses and loud, heavy choruses. After signing to major label DGC Records, Nirvana found unexpected worldwide success with "Smells Like Teen Spirit", the first single from the band's second album Nevermind, which has now been ranked as one of the greatest songs in the history of rock music. Nevermind has been called one of the greatest albums of all time and has sold over 30 million copies worldwide.
Nirvana's sudden success popularized alternative rock and grunge, Cobain found himself referred to in the media as the "spokesman of a generation", with Nirvana considered the "flagship band" of Generation X. After touring and releasing Incesticide and Hormoaning, Nirvana's third studio album, In Utero, was released to critical acclaim; the album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 album chart and featured an abrasive, less mainstream sound and challenged the group's audience and has since sold over 15 million copies worldwide. In Utero would be Nirvana's last studio album in their active career. Nirvana's active career ended following the death of Cobain in 1994, but many various posthumous releases have been issued since, overseen by Novoselic and Cobain's widow Courtney Love; the posthumous release MTV Unplugged in New York won the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album in 1996. Overall, Nirvana have received twelve awards from twenty-five nominations winning an American Music Award, Brit Award, Grammy Award, seven MTV Video Music Awards and two NME Awards Since its debut, the band has sold over 25 million records in the United States alone, over 75 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time.
Nirvana has been ranked as one of the greatest music artists of all time with Rolling Stone placing them at number 27 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" in 2004, at number 30 on their updated list in 2011. Nirvana was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its first year of eligibility. Cobain and Novoselic met while attending Aberdeen High School, although they never connected, according to Cobain; the pair became friends while frequenting the practice space of the Melvins. Cobain wanted to form a band with Novoselic, but Novoselic did not respond for a long period of time. In persuading Novoselic to form a band, Cobain gave him a demo tape of his project Fecal Matter. Three years after the two first met, Novoselic notified Cobain that he had listened to the Fecal Matter demo and suggested they start a group; the pair recruited Bob McFadden on drums. In early 1987, Cobain and Novoselic recruited drummer Aaron Burckhard; the three practiced material from Cobain's Fecal Matter tape but started writing new material soon after forming.
During its initial months, the band went through a series of names, starting with Skid Row and including Fecal Matter and Ted Ed Fred. The group settled on Nirvana, which Cobain said was chosen because "I wanted a name, kind of beautiful or nice and pretty instead of a mean, raunchy punk name like the Angry Samoans". With Novoselic and Cobain having moved to Tacoma and Olympia, Washington the two temporarily lost contact with Burckhard; the pair instead practiced with Dale Crover of the Melvins, Nirvana recorded its first demos in January 1988. In early 1988, Crover moved to San Francisco but recommended Dave Foster to the band as his replacement on drums. Foster's tenure with Nirvana lasted only a few months. Cobain and Novoselic put an ad in Seattle music publication The Rocket seeking a replacement drummer, which only yielded unsatisfactory responses. Meanwhile, a mutual friend introduced them to Chad Channing, the three musicians agreed to jam together. Channing continued to jam with Cobain and Novoselic, although the drummer noted, "They never said'okay, you're in,'" and Channing played his first show with the group that May.
Nirvana released its first single, a cover of Shocking Blue's "Love Buzz", in November 1988 on the Seattle independent record label Sub Pop. They did their first interview with John Robb in Sounds who made the release single of the week; the following month, the band began recording its debut album, with local producer Jack Endino. Bleach was influenced by the heavy dirge-rock of the Melvins and Mudhoney, 1980s punk rock, the 1970s heavy metal of Black Sabbath. Novoselic said in a 2001 interview with Rolling Stone that the band had played a tape in their van while on tour that had an album by The Smithereens on one side and an album by the extreme metal band Celtic Frost on the other, noted that the combination played an influence as well; the money for the recording sessions for Bleach, listed as $606.17 on the album sleeve, was supplied by Jason Everman, subsequently brought into the band as the second guitarist. Though Everman did not play on the album, he received a credit on