The Ford Fiesta is a supermini marketed by Ford since 1976 over seven generations, including in Europe, Brazil, Mexico, India and South Africa. It has been manufactured in many countries. In 2008, the seventh generation Fiesta was introduced worldwide, making it the first Fiesta model to be sold in North America since the Fiesta Mark I was discontinued at the end of 1980. Ford has sold over 16 million Fiestas since 1976, making it one of the best selling Ford marques behind the Escort and the F-Series; the Fiesta was developed under the project name "Bobcat" and approved for development by Henry Ford II in September 1972, just after the launch of two comparable cars – the Fiat 127 and Renault 5. More than a decade earlier, Ford had decided against producing a new small car to rival BMC's Mini as the production cost was deemed too high, but the 1973 oil crisis saw a rise in the growing demand for smaller cars; the Fiesta was an all new car in the supermini segment, was the smallest car yet made by Ford.
Development targets indicated a production cost US$100 less than the current Escort. The car was to have a wheelbase longer than that of the Fiat 127, but with overall length shorter than that of Ford's Escort; the final proposal was developed by Tom Tjaarda at Ghia. The project was approved for production in late 1973, with Ford's engineering centres in Cologne and Dunton collaborating. Ford estimated that 500,000 Fiestas a year would be produced, built an all-new factory near Valencia, Spain. Final assembly took place in Valencia; the name Fiesta belonged to General Motors, used as a trim level on Oldsmobile station wagons, when the car was designed and was given for Ford to use on their new B-class car. After years of speculation by the motoring press about Ford's new car, it was subject to a succession of crafted press leaks from the end of 1975. A Fiesta was on display at the Le Mans 24 Hour Race in June 1976, the car went on sale in France and Germany in September 1976, its initial competitors in Europe, apart from the Fiat 127 and Renault 5, included the Volkswagen Polo and Vauxhall Chevette.
Chrysler UK were about to launch the Sunbeam by this stage, British Leyland was working on a new supermini, launched as the Austin Metro in 1980. The Fiesta was available in Europe with the Valencia 957 cc I4, 1,117 cc engines and in Base, Popular Plus, L, GL, Ghia and S trim, as well as a van; the US Mark I Fiesta was built in Cologne, West Germany, but to different specifications. These trim levels changed little in the Fiesta's three-year run in the US, from 1978 to 1980. All US models featured the more powerful 1,596 cc engine, fitted with a catalytic converter and air pump to satisfy strict Californian emission regulations), energy-absorbing bumpers, side-marker lamps, round sealed-beam headlamps, improved crash dynamics and fuel system integrity as well as optional air conditioning. In the US market, the Ford Escort replaced both the Fiesta and the compact Pinto in 1981, competing with the Chevrolet Chevette and Chevrolet Cavalier. A sporting derivative was offered in Europe for the 1980 model year, using the 1.3 L Kent Crossflow engine to test the market for the similar XR2 introduced a year which featured a 1.6 L version of the same engine.
Black plastic trim was added to the interior. The small square headlights were replaced with larger circular ones, with the front indicators being moved into the bumper to accommodate the change. For the 1979 auto show season, Ford in conjunction with its Ghia Operations in Turin, produced the Ford Fiesta Tuareg off-road car, it was touted in press materials as "a concept vehicle designed and equipped for practical, off-road recreational use."Minor revisions appeared across the range in late 1981, with larger bumpers to meet crash worthiness regulations and other small improvements in a bid to maintain showroom appeal ahead of the forthcoming second generation. The Fiesta Mark II appeared in August 1983 with a revised front end and interior, a bootlid mirroring the swage lines from the sides of the car; the 1.3 L OHV engine was dropped, being replaced in 1984 by a CVH powerplant of similar capacity, itself superseded by the lean burn 1.4 L two years later. The 957 and 1,117 cc Kent/Valencia engines continued with only slight alterations and for the first time a Fiesta diesel was produced with a 1,600 cc engine adapted from the Escort.
The new CTX continuously variable transmission fitted in the Fiat Uno appeared early in 1987 on 1.1 L models only. The Mk2 Fiesta core range was made up of the following model variants; the second generation Fiesta featured a different dashboard on the lower-series trim levels compared to the more expensive variants. The XR2 model was updated with a larger bodykit, it featured a 96 bhp 1.6 L CVH engine as seen in the Ford Escort XR3, five-speed gearbox, rather than t
American Austin Car Company
The American Austin Car Company was an American automobile manufacturing corporation. The company was founded in 1929, produced motorcars licensed from the British Austin Motor Company from 1930 through 1934, when it filed for bankruptcy. In 1935 the company was reorganized under the name American Bantam. Production resumed in 1937 and continued through 1941, including the first prototype of what became the Jeep. American Austin Car Company was founded in 1929, in Butler, Pennsylvania, in premises that had belonged to the Standard Steel Car Company, their intention was to assemble and sell in the United States a version of the Austin 7 car, called American Austin. After some initial success the Great Depression set in, sales fell off to the point that production was suspended. In 1934 the company filed for bankruptcy; the automobile was designed in the hopes of creating a market for small-car enthusiasts in the United States. The cars had 747 cc inline-four engines, enabling the car to return 40 mpg‑US, travel 1,000 miles or 1,600 kilometres per 2 US qt fill of oil.
It was capable of 50 mph in high gear. Styling resembled small Chevrolets, with Stutz- and Marmon-style horizontal hood louvres; the bodies were made by the Hayes Body Company of Detroit. The coupe was billed as a sedan, sold for $445 less than a Ford V8 roadster; the Great Depression made the cheaper secondhand cars more appealing, so sales dropped off. More than 8,000 cars were sold during the company's first year of sales, but sales fell off to the point that production was suspended in 1932, it restarted in 1934 with bodies now made in-house, but stopped again between 1935 and 1937. About 20,000 cars were produced. Beginning in the 1960s, the car gained a following with hot rodders, as well as among drag racers; the 75 in wheelbase made it attractive compared to the Anglia. In 1935, Roy Evans, a former salesman for Austin, bought out the bankrupt company, reorganized under the name American Bantam; the formal connection with UK Austin was severed. A series of changes was made to the American Austin car design, including a modified engine, an exterior sheetmetal designed by Alexis de Sakhnoffsky.
Production was resumed in 1937, continued through 1941. Despite a wide range of Bantam body styles, ranging from light trucks to woodie station wagons, only about 6,000 Bantams of all types were produced. American Bantam's 1938 model was the inspiration for Donald Duck's car, first seen in Don Donald. American Bantam is credited with the design of the first Jeep by Karl Probst, built 2675 of these. More than half of the initial production went to the British Army; some of the motors and chassis were imported from Ohio. The Bantam company produced the most fuel-efficient engine and first prototype under the original US government tender specifications and was awarded the first contract, but because Willys Overland used a more powerful engine, because elements favorable to Ford within the Quartermaster Corps claimed that Bantam lacked production capacity to produce the vehicle on the scale needed by the United States Department of War, the awarding of ongoing contracts was reopened; the U. S. Army gave the BRC 40 designs to Willys-Overland and awarded the bulk of orders to Willys and Ford, while Bantam went on to produce Jeep trailers.
After Jeep production stopped, Bantam made two-wheel trailers. This continued until the company was taken over by American Rolling Mills in 1956. AmericanBantam.com American Austin Bantam Club Austin & Bantam on wmpear.com Austin & Bantam on oldmotors.com American Bantam Photo Galleries at RemarkableCars.com Voice of America broadcast a report on the Bantam Jeep American Austin coupe at the Internet Movie Cars Database American Austin roadster at the Internet Movie Cars Database
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
The Chevrolet Aveo is a subcompact car manufactured since 2002, marketed worldwide in 120 countries under seven brands. The second generation Aveo was marketed as the Sonic. GM Daewoo introduced the "Daewoo Kalos" in September 2002, based on a then-new T200 platform, replacing the Daewoo Lanos. Under development before Daewoo's bankruptcy, the Kalos was the company's first new model introduction following its subsequent takeover by General Motors. Manufacture of the Kalos began in early March 2002, with pre-production prototypes shown at the Geneva Auto Show in April 2002; the nameplate Kalos derives from the Greek word καλός for "beautiful" and "good". Designed by Italdesign, the Kalos derives directly from the "Kalos Dream" concept vehicle first presented at the 2000 Paris Motor Show and subsequent developmental concepts at the 2001 Frankfurt Motor Show, 2002 Geneva Auto Show, 2003 at the Geneva Show. During this three-year development period Daewoo was struggling financially, with the ultimate fate of the company and the concept vehicle remaining uncertain.
The Kalos was sold in three and four available body styles: a 4-door sedan and 5-door hatchback from the beginning of production in 2002, a 3-door hatchback available in certain European markets beginning in 2005. Two different T200 front-end styling designs were sold; when released in 2002, the T200 headlamps were detached from the horizontal amber turn signal strip, located directly below. This detached style, used in South Korea and North America, was used in conjunction with a semi-elliptical grille; when sales in Europe began in 2003, the headlights were an integrated unit that slanted upwards from the "V-shaped" grille towards the front fenders. In Australia, when the Daewoo Kalos was introduced in 2003, the hatchback featured the integrated lighting arrangement, with the detached style used to differentiate the sedans. In South Korea, where the detached lights were used at first, the integrated design was utilized as a facelift; the T200 sedan and five-door hatchback featured a swage line running along the lower body to the rear door, which kinks downward prominently on the five-door.
Five-doors feature a side window in the C/D pillar with a distinctively angled lower edge. Interiors feature a circular motif throughout. GM introduced a facelifted sedan at Auto Shanghai 2005, designed in cooperation with PATAC. Bearing the internal code T250 and sold in South Korea as the "Daewoo Gentra", revisions included exterior styling changes, a new interior instrument panel and minor equipment changes, including increased sound deadening. Incorporation of the radio antenna into the rear glass and extensive wind tunnel testing helped reduce the coefficient of drag from 0.348 to 0.326. A facelifted hatchback with the sedan's updated instrument panel was presented as the Chevrolet Aveo during the Frankfurt Motor Show 2007, to be marketed in Europe and North America; the Korean market received its own distinct restyle of the hatchback, the Gentra X, whose bumper without the distinctly "Chevrolet" split grille was used for the Pontiac and Suzuki variants. With launch of the Gentra X in South Korea, GMDAT had replaced engines of T250.
1.2 L S-TEC II engine was updated with features such as dual overhead camshaft and timing chain system. 1.6 L E-TEC II engine has been replaced with an updated GEN-III Ecotec Family 1 engine with new features such as variable valve timing mechanism. The facelifted Chevrolet Aveo T250 sedan was launched to the Russian market in 2016 as Ravon Nexia R3; the car is produced at the GM Uzbekistan plant. The Ravon Nexia R3 is available with the 1.5-liter petrol engine paired with the 5-speed manual or the 6-speed automatic. A version of the T250 is sold in the Brazilian market under the name Chevrolet Cobalt since 2011. Unrelated to the previous car sold in North America, this Cobalt replaced the aging local Chevrolet Corsa; the car is equipped with 1.8 Econo. Flex engine. Although sporting a similar front end style, it is not directly related to the Chevrolet Agile, since it shares the overall underpinnings with the Sonic, while the Agile is derived from the older Opel Corsa B, from 1993; the second generation Aveo now renamed Sonic debuted at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, using the Gamma II global subcompact platform.
It had been previewed earlier in the year as the Aveo RS concept, shown in concept form with 19-inch wheels and a M32 six-speed manual transmission mated to a 1.4-liter turbocharged Ecotec engine, rated at 103 kW. Development of the second-generation Aveo was led by GM Korea, with Opel engineers leading platform development along with significant input from engineers from Australia's Holden and Chevrolet of the United States; the Aveo marked the debut of the Gamma II global subcompact platform. Exterior design was led by Australian designer Ondrej Koromhaz, of Holden, on assignment to GM Korea from 2005 to 2007. Koromhaz described his goal for the Aveo as being a "four-seat motorcycle" and took design inspiration from motorcycles, notably in the Aveo's exposed headlights and motorcycle-style instrument cluster. For Chevrolet Sonic models built in the United States, the Sonic features suspension tuning by Corvette Racing engineer John Buttermore. Chevrolet markets the new Aveo under the Chevrolet Sonic nameplate in the U.
S. Canadian, Colombian, Brazilian, Japanese, Middle East, South African and ASEAN markets. In Australia and New Zealand it was sold as the Holden Barina until stocks ran out in early 2019; the North American-spec Sonic is available as a 4-door sedan or five-door hatchb
The A-segment is a category in the passenger car classification system defined by the European Commission. It is used for city cars, the smallest category of passenger cars defined. In Europe the term city car is used; the popularity of the segment increased in the late 1950s, due to the introduction of the Fiat 500 and the BMC Mini. As of 2017, A-segment sales account for 8℅ market share in Europe. In the United States, A-segment cars represented 0.8% of the market and the segment was dominated by the Mini and Fiat 500. In India, traditionally the A-segment cars had clocked the highest sales. However, sales have been in decline in recent years, falling from 70,000 sales per month in 2014 to 47,000 sales per month in 2016. In Italy, A-segment cars represented 36.8 of car sales in the first half of 2018. The top five selling A-segment cars in Europe are the Fiat 500, Fiat Panda, Volkswagen Up!, Hyundai i10 and Toyota Aygo
The Nash Metropolitan was an American automobile, sold from 1953 to 1961. It conforms to two classes of vehicle: subcompact car. In today’s terminology the Metropolitan is a “subcompact”, but this category had not yet come into use when the car was made. At that time, it was variously categorized, for example as a "small automobile" as well as an "economy car"; the Metropolitan was sold as a Hudson when Nash and Hudson merged in 1954 to form the American Motors Corporation, as a standalone marque during the Rambler years, as well as in the United Kingdom and other markets. While most U. S. automobile makers were following a "bigger-is-better" philosophy, Nash Motor Company executives were examining the market to offer American buyers an economical transportation alternative. The Metropolitan was designed in the U. S. and it was patterned from a concept car, the NXI, built by Detroit-based independent designer William J. Flajole for Nash-Kelvinator, it was designed as the second car in a two car family, for Mom taking the kids to school or shopping or for Dad to drive to the railroad station to ride to work: the "commuter/shopping car" with resemblance to the big Nash, but the scale was tiny as the Met's wheelbase was shorter than the Volkswagen Beetle's.
The NXI design study incorporated many innovative features, attempted to make use of interchangeable front and rear components. Although more complex, the new vehicle incorporated Nash's advanced single-unit construction, it was displayed at a number of "surviews", commencing on 4 January 1950 at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York, to gauge the reaction of the American motoring public to a car of this size. The result of these surviews convinced Nash that there was indeed a market for such a car, if it could be built at a competitive price. A series of prototypes followed that incorporated many of the improvements from the "surviews" that included roll-up glass side windows, a more powerful engine, a column-mounted transmission shifter with bench seat; the model was named NKI, it featured revised styling incorporating a hood blister and rear wheel cutouts. Nash was positioning this new product for the emerging postwar market for "personal use" autos; these specific use vehicles were as a second car for an economical commuter car.
The Metropolitan was aimed at returning Nash to overseas markets. However and Nash management calculated that it would not be viable to build such a car from scratch in the U. S. because the tooling costs would have been prohibitive. The only cost-effective option was to build overseas using existing mechanical components, leaving only the tooling cost for body panels and other unique components. With this in mind, Nash Motors negotiated with several European companies. On October 5, 1952, they announced that they had selected the Austin Motor Company and Fisher & Ludlow, both English companies based in Birmingham and vicinity. Fisher & Ludlow would produce the bodywork, while the mechanicals would be provided, as well as final assembly undertaken, by the Austin Motor Company; this was the first time an American-designed car, to be marketed in North America, had been built in Europe. It became a captive import – a foreign-built vehicle sold and serviced by Nash through its dealer distribution system.
It is believed that the first pre-production prototype was completed by Austin on December 2, 1952. In all, five pre-production prototypes were built by Austin Motors and tested prior to the start of production; the total tooling cost amounted to US$1,018,475.94, a fraction of the tooling cost for a U. S.-built vehicle. The styling for all Nash vehicles at that time was an amalgam of designs from Pinin Farina and his design house of Italy and the in-house Nash design team; the different models from Ambassador down to the Metropolitan utilised similar design features. Whilst Nash used the fact that styling was by Pinin Farina in their advertising for their larger models, Farina refused to allow his name to be associated with the Metropolitan as he felt it would damage his reputation with other Italian car companies to be linked to such a small car; the new Metropolitan was made in two body designs: hardtop. All came with several standard features. Among these factory-installed benefits for customers were a map light, electric windshield wipers, cigar lighter, a "continental-type" rear-mounted spare tire with cover.
To give a "luxury" image to the interior, "Bedford cord" upholstery trimmed with leather was used. An AM radio, "Weather Eye" heater, whitewall tires were offered as optional extras for the U. S. market. The Metropolitan was the first postwar American car, marketed to women; the Dodge La Femme was introduced one year later. The first spokesperson for the car was Miss America 1954, Evelyn Ay Sempier, the car was prominently advertised in Women's Wear Daily. American Motor
Supermini is a British car classification or vehicle size class for a small car in a hatchback body style. It an equivalent of the European B-segment or American subcompact categories; the term is used by Euro NCAP for a size class including B-segment and the smaller A-segment cars. In the UK the supermini is the top-selling vehicle type. For years the Ford Fiesta has been the leader of the class, most-sold car in the UK overall, competiting against the Vauxhall Corsa, Volkswagen Polo, Renault Clio, Peugeot 208, many others; the term developed in the 1970s as an informal categorisation, by 1977 was used by the British newspaper The Times. By the mid-1980s, it had widespread use in Britain; the term was adopted by Euro NCAP as the smallest size class for passenger vehicles for the launch of Euro NCAP in 1997. The first round of NCAP tests was of seven supermini cars; the term is used by the Euro NCAP system as a size class for A-segment and B-segment. In 1977, the Ford Fiesta and Vauxhall Chevette were among Britain's top 10 best-selling cars.
Other superminis of the mid-1980s included the Austin Metro, Vauxhall Nova, Nissan Micra, Peugeot 205, Volkswagen Polo and Renault 5. The 1983 Fiat Uno was won the European Car of the Year award; the 1990 Renault Clio and 1994 Fiat Punto were significant models in the supermini category during the 1990s.. Both the Clio and Punto were recipients of the European Car of the Year Award; the Clio replaced the long-running Renault 5, although the Renault 5 remained in production until 1996. In 1993, the Nissan Micra, became the first Japanese car company to be receive the European Car of the Year award. In 1999, the Toyota Yaris received the European Car of the Year award, was noted for its high roof which allowed for improved interior space. Retro styling became popular across Europe from the late-1990s, the first successful retro-themed supermini was the 2000 launch of the BMW-owned Mini Hatch; the Fiat 500— launched in 2007 on the fiftieth anniversary of the release of the original model— was another popular retro-themed supermini, popular in Europe