A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs maintaining some of its founding principles. Subcultures develop their own norms and values regarding cultural and sexual matters. Subcultures are part of society. Examples of subcultures include hippies and bikers; the concept of subcultures was developed in sociology and cultural studies. Subcultures differ from countercultures. While exact definitions vary, the Oxford English Dictionary defines a subculture as "a cultural group within a larger culture having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture." As early as 1950, David Riesman distinguished between a majority, "which passively accepted commercially provided styles and meanings, a'subculture' which sought a minority style... and interpreted it in accordance with subversive values". In his 1979 book Subculture: The Meaning of Style, Dick Hebdige argued that a subculture is a subversion to normalcy.
He wrote that subcultures can be perceived as negative due to their nature of criticism to the dominant societal standard. Hebdige argued that subcultures bring together like-minded individuals who feel neglected by societal standards and allow them to develop a sense of identity. In 1995, Sarah Thornton, drawing on Pierre Bourdieu, described "subcultural capital" as the cultural knowledge and commodities acquired by members of a subculture, raising their status and helping differentiate themselves from members of other groups. In 2007, Ken Gelder proposed to distinguish subcultures from countercultures based on the level of immersion in society. Gelder further proposed six key ways in which subcultures can be identified through their: negative relations to work. Sociologists Gary Alan Fine and Sherryl Kleinman argued that their 1979 research showed that a subculture is a group that serves to motivate a potential member to adopt the artifacts, behaviors and values characteristic of the group.
The evolution of subcultural studies has three main steps: The earliest subcultures studies came from the so-called Chicago School, who interpreted them as forms of deviance and delinquency. Starting with what they called Social Disorganization Theory, they claimed that subcultures emerged on one hand because of some population sectors’ lack of socialisation with the mainstream culture and, on the other, because of their adoption of alternative axiological and normative models; as Robert E. Park, Ernest Burgess and Louis Wirth suggested, by means of selection and segregation processes, there thus appear in society natural areas or moral regions where deviant models concentrate and are re-inforced. Subcultures, are not only the result of alternative action strategies but of labelling processes on the basis of which, as Howard S. Becker explains, society defines them as outsiders; as Cohen clarifies, every subculture’s style, consisting of image and language becomes its recognition trait. And an individual’s progressive adoption of a subcultural model will furnish him/her with growing status within this context but it will in tandem, deprive him/her of status in the broader social context outside where a different model prevails.
In the work of John Clarke, Stuart Hall, Tony Jefferson and Brian Roberts of the Birmingham CCCS, subcultures are interpreted as forms of resistance. Society is seen as being divided into two fundamental classes, the working class and the middle class, each with its own class culture, middle-class culture being dominant. In the working class, subcultures grow out of the presence of specific interests and affiliations around which cultural models spring up, in conflict with both their parent culture and mainstream culture. Facing a weakening of class identity, subcultures are new forms of collective identification expressing what Cohen called symbolic resistance against the mainstream culture and developing imaginary solutions for structural problems; as Paul Willis and Dick Hebdige underline and resistance are expressed through the development of a distinctive style which, by a re-signification and ‘bricolage’ operation, use cultural industry goods to communicate and express one’s own conflict.
Yet the cultural industry is capable of re-absorbing the components of such a style and once again transforming them into goods. At the same time the mass media, while they participate in building subcultures by broadcasting their images weaken them by depriving them of their subversive content or by spreading a stigmatized image of them; the most recent interpretations see subcultures as forms of distinction. In an attempt to overcome the idea of subcultures as forms of deviance or resistance, they describe subcultures as collectivities which, on a cultural level, are sufficiently homogeneous internally and heterogeneous with respect to the outside world to be capable of developing, as Paul Hodkinson points out, co
Momtazuddin Ahmed was a Bangladeshi philosopher and educationist. Ahmed was born in East Bengal, he studied in Dhaka University and obtained MA in philosophy in 1927. In 1937 he earned his PhD degree in Philosophy from University College London, his research for dissertation was on metaphysics and logic under the advisers John Cook Wilson and Bradley Stamp. Ahmed began his career as a lecturer at Dhaka University and became the Head of the Department of Philosophy, he left the University in 1939 to become the first Muslim Principal of Dhaka College. He served as the principal of Rajshahi College during 1945 to 1950, he moved to Dhaka as Assistant Director of Public Instructions. He was elevated to the position of the Director of Public Instructions of East Pakistan in 1952, in 1956 was appointed Education Adviser to the Government of Pakistan and concurrently held the position of the permanent secretary, Ministry of Education and Culture, Pakistan Government, he was appointed the Vice Chancellor of Rajshahi University in 1957 and stayed in the position until 1965.
Some of Ahmed's national and international affiliations include the following. Member of the Commission on National Education Member of the Pakistan Commission on Students Welfare Member of the Board of Trustees of the Pakistan National Press Trust Member of the Board of Governors of the Central Institute of Islamic Research Member of the Central Board for the Development of Bengali President of the Inter-University Board in erstwhile Pakistan Presidentof the Eighth Congress of the Pakistan Philosophical Society, Karachi President of the Pakistan Philosophical Congress Member of the Dhaka University Syndicate Member of Islamabad University Senate Ahmed represented the Government of Pakistan in many international initiatives, in bi-lateral and multilateral dialogues and fora including leading high level government delegations; these include leading delegations to Turkey, Burma, Uruguay,India, France, the UK, the US to name some of them. He acted in the executive boards of international organizations and philanthropic foundations namely, the UNESCO General Conference in New Delhi in 1957 where he was elected a member of the Executive Board of UNESCO, the Nuffield Foundation, UK, others.
He attended the International Conference on Education in Geneva in 1956. Dr. Ahmed had been special guest to the White House, he died in Dhaka. Rajshahi University has named its Arts Building as Momtaz Uddin Academic Building after him in appreciation of his contributions to the institution
Whitehead Light is a lighthouse on Whitehead Island, on Muscle Ridge Channel, in the southwestern entrance to Penobscot Bay, Maine. It is in the town of St. George. Established in 1804, it is one of Maine's oldest light stations, with its present tower built in 1852 to a design attributed to Alexander Parris, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Whitehead Light Station on March 14, 1988. The property is now owned by not for profit Pine Island Camp. Whitehead light station offers to the public various stays at the light station from getaway weekends to learning retreats and renting the station as a vacation home; the light itself remains an active aid to navigation, maintained by the United States Coast Guard. Whitehead Island is a 90-acre island off the northeastern coast of St. George, near the southwestern approach to Penobscot Bay. In addition to the lighthouse complex, the island is home to the former Whitehead Lifesaving Station, located near its southwestern point.
The light station is located at the island's southeastern point, includes the lighthouse, keeper's house, a fog signal building. The tower is built out of cut granite blocks, rising to a sixteen-sided lantern house surrounded by an iron walkway and railing. A small brick service room projects from one side. Adjacent to the tower is the keeper's house, a 1-1/2 story wood frame structure with a gabled roof and a T-shaped configuration; the oilhouse is an entrance on one side. The fog signal is a square brick building with a hip roof; the light station on Whitehead Island was authorized in 1804 by President Thomas Jefferson, went into service in 1807. The present tower was built in 1852, its design attributed to Alexander Parris, on the basis of its similarity to the Monhegan Island Light, known to be Parris' work; the keeper's house is a replacement, built in 1891. The fog signal was added in a consequence of the area's frequent foggy conditions; the complex included covered ways between the major buildings, but these have been removed.
The station was automated in 1982. In 1996, as part of the Maine Lights Program, Whitehead Light Station became property of Pine Island Camp, a 100+ year old non profit institution in central Maine. Whitehead Light Station keepers house and school house were painstakingly renovated over a 12-year period and are now beautifully restored; the light station offers adult enrichment programs during the summer months and is available for rent by the week. The house has 7 bedrooms each with its own bathroom, three sitting rooms, a modern kitchen and dining room. Source: Ellis Dolph Ebenezer Otis Charles Haskell Samuel Davis William Perry, Jr. Joshua Bartlett Dennis Pillsbury Samuel B. Stackpole Albert Thomas, assistant Edwin R. Stackpole Eugene Stackpole, assistant Elisha Snow. Assistant Isaac Sterns Thomas Shoutts, assistant Samuel Ludwig, assistant William Spear William Spear, Jr. assistant Ephraim Quinn William Perry, assistant Archibald McKellar James McKellar, assistant Edward Spaulding E. Cooper Spaulding, assistant Hezekiah Long Horace Norton, assistant Abbie B.
Long, assistant Isaac N. Grant Abbie B. Grant, assistant Knot Perry, assistant George L. Upton Frank N. Jellison Daniel Stevens George Matthews, assistant Joseph W. Jellison, second assistant Walden B. Hodgkins, second assistant Otto A. Wilson, second assistant George S. Connors, second assistant Edward T. Merritt, second assistant Elmer Reed, assistant keeper George M. Joyce, second assistant A. Faulkingham, second assistant first assistant Stephen F. Flood, first assistant Frank B. Ingalls, second assistant Fairfield H, first assistant John E. Purrington, second assistant Lester Leighton, second assistant Charles Robinson, assistant Hervey H, first assistant Arthur B. Mitchell Arthur Marston Arthur J. Beal Frank Alley, second assistant George Lester Alley, first assistant Clyde Grant Gordon P. Eaton Richard Ames Russell A Lane Ronald Upton National Register of Historic Places listings in Knox County, Maine Pine Island Camp - Whitehead Island Whitehead Light Station web site