The subcutaneous tissue called the hypodermis, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. The types of cells found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, macrophages; the hypodermis is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis is an epidermal layer of cells; the term refers to a layer of cells lying below the epidermis of plants. The hypodermis is beneath the dermis, beneath the epidermis, it is used for fat storage. A layer of tissue lies below the dermis of vertebrate skin, it is referred to as subcutaneous tissue though this is a less precise and anatomically inaccurate term. The hypodermis consists of loose connective tissue and lobules of fat, it contains larger nerves than those found in the dermis. Fibrous bands anchoring the skin to the deep fascia Collagen and elastin fibers attaching it to the dermis Fat is absent from the eyelids, penis, much of pinna, scrotum Blood vessels on route to the dermis Lymphatic vessels on route from the dermis The glandular part of some sweat glands.
In some plants, the hypodermis is a layer of cells below the epidermis of leaves. It is mechanically strengthened, for example, in pine leaves, forming an extra protective layer or a water storage tissue. Subcutaneous fat is the layer of subcutaneous tissue, most distributed, it is composed of adipocytes. The number of adipocytes varies among different areas of the body, while their size varies according to the body's nutritional state, it acts as padding and as an energy reserve, as well as providing some minor thermoregulation via insulation. Subcutaneous fat is found just beneath the skin, as opposed to visceral fat, found in the peritoneal cavity, can be measured using body fat calipers to give a rough estimate of total body adiposity. Injection into the subcutaneous tissue is a route of administration used for drugs such as insulin: because it is vascular, the tissue absorbs drugs quickly. Subcutaneous injection is believed to be the most effective manner to administer some drugs, such as human growth hormones.
Just as the subcutaneous tissue can store fat, it can provide good storage space for drugs that need to be released because there is limited blood flow. "Skin popping" is a slang term that includes this method of administration, is used in association with recreational drugs. Subcutaneous abscess Subcutaneous tumor Dermis Epidermis
There have been six baronetcies created for persons with the surname Brooke, one in the Baronetage of England, one in the Baronetage of Ireland and four in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. As of 2015 four of the creations are extant; the Brooke Baronetcy, of Norton Priory in the County of Chester, was created in the Baronetage of England on 12 December 1662 for Henry Brooke, a Colonel in the Parliamentary Army and Member of Parliament for Cheshire during the Commonwealth. He was succeeded by his son, the second Baronet, he was Sheriff of Cheshire in 1667. His son, the third Baronet, was Sheriff of Cheshire from 1719 to 1720, he was succeeded by his grandson, the fourth Baronet. He served as Sheriff of Cheshire from 1752 to 1753, his son, the fifth Baronet, was Sheriff of Cheshire from 1787 to 1788. On his death the title passed to his son, the sixth Baronet, he was Sheriff of Cheshire from 1817 to 1818. His eldest son, the seventh Baronet, was High Sheriff of Cheshire between 1869 and 1870, his grandson, the ninth Baronet, was High Sheriff of Worcestershire in 1931, a Deputy Lieutenant of the county and a member of the Worcestershire County Council.
As of 2014 the title is held by his great grandson, the twelfth Baronet, who succeeded his father in 2012. Five other members of the family may be mentioned. Richard Brooke, great-grandfather of the first Baronet, purchased the Norton Priory estate and was Sheriff of Cheshire in 1563. Thomas Brooke, grandfather of the first Baronet, was Sheriff of Cheshire in 1592. Thomas Brooke, second son of the sixth Baronet, was a General in the British Army, his son, Alured de Vere Brooke, was a Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Sarah, Lady Brooke - the spouse of Sir Christopher, the current holder - is better known as Sarah Montague, the well-known BBC radio, television, journalist; the Brooke Baronetcy, of Colebrooke in the County of Fermanagh, was created in the Baronetage of Ireland on 3 January 1764 for Arthur Brooke, who represented Fermanagh and Maryborough in the Irish House of Commons. He had no surviving male issue and the title became extinct in 1785; the baronetcy was revived in 1822 in favour of Henry Brooke.
See the Brooke Baronetcy of Summerton below. The Brooke Baronetcy, of Colebrooke in the County of Fermanagh, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 7 January 1822 for Henry Brooke, he was the nephew of the first Baronet of the 1764 creation. For more information on the 1822 creation of the baronetcy, see the Viscount Brookeborough. See the Brooke Baronetcy of Summerton below; the Brooke Baronetcy, of Armitage Bridge in Huddersfield the County of York, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 4 August 1899 for Thomas Brooke, a Deputy Lieutenant and Justice of the Peace. He was the elder brother of the first Baronet of the 1919 creation. Brooke had no surviving male issue and the title became extinct on his death in 1908; the Brooke Baronetcy, of Summerton in Castleknock in the County of Dublin, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 12 October 1903 for George Brooke, head of George F. Brooke and Son, wine merchants, a Director and Governor of the Bank of Ireland.
He was the grandson of George Frederick Brooke, younger brother of the first Baronet of the 1822 creation and nephew of the first Baronet of the 1764 creation. As of 2014 the baronetcy is held by his great-grandson, the fourth Baronet, who succeeded in 1982. John Brooke, sixth son of the first Baronet, was a Captain in the Royal Navy; the Brooke Baronetcy, of Almondbury in the West Riding of the County of York, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 13 September 1919 for John Brooke, a Director of John Brooke & Sons, of Huddersfield, a Justice of the Peace for the West Riding of Yorkshire and Ross-shire. He was the younger brother of the first Baronet of the 1899 creation, he was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, the second Baronet. He was a Deputy Lieutenant of Cromarty, his eldest son, the third Baronet, was a justice of the peace and Deputy Lieutenant for Ross-shire. As of 2014 the title is held by his son, the fourth Baronet, who succeeded in 1983. Sir Henry Brooke, 1st Baronet Sir Richard Brooke, 2nd Baronet Sir Thomas Brooke, 3rd Baronet Sir Richard Brooke, 4th Baronet Sir Richard Brooke, 5th Baronet Sir Richard Brooke, 6th Baronet Sir Richard Brooke, 7th Baronet High Sheriff of Cheshire Sir Richard Marcus Brooke, 8th Baronet Sir Richard Christopher Brooke, 9th Baronet Sir Richard Neville Brooke, 10th Baronet Sir David Christopher Brooke, 11th Baronet Sir Christopher Brooke, 12th Baronet The heir presumptive is the present holder's brother Edward Marcus Brooke.
Sir Arthur Brooke, 1st Baronet see the Viscount Brookeborough Sir Thomas Brooke, 1st Baronet Sir George Frederick Brooke, 1st Baronet Sir Francis Hugh Brooke, 2nd Baronet Sir George Cecil Francis Brooke, 3rd Baronet Sir Francis George Windham Brooke, 4th Baronet. The heir apparent is the present holder's only son George Francis Geoffrey Brooke. Sir John Arthur Brooke, 1st Baronet married 1873, daughter of Major Charles Samuel Weston, of Morvich and was father of: Sir Robert Weston Brooke, 2nd Baronet m
The South African War Memorial is a memorial located at University Avenue and Queen Street West in Toronto, Canada. Commissioned in 1910 as the result of the efforts of James Mason, designed by Walter Seymour Allward to commemorate Canada's participation in the Boer War, it consists of three bronze figures at the base of a granite column. Another bronze figure is found at the top of the memorial, it was restored in 2001. The Ontario Heritage Foundation plaque for this memorial erroneously states that Walter Allward studied under Emanuel Hahn. For two decades after the war, Canadians would gather on February 27 around memorials to the South African War to say prayers and honour veterans; this continued until the end of the First World War, when Armistice Day began to be observed on November 11. The monument was unveiled in 1910 by Sir John French. Bell Telephone Memorial Canadian National Vimy Memorial South African War Memorial Boer War Memorial South African War Memorial Photographs