A sepoy was the designation given to an Indian infantryman armed with a musket in the armies of the Mughal empire. In the 18th century the French East India Company and its other European counterparts employed locally recruited soldiers within India consisting of infantry designated as "sepoys"; the largest of these Indian forces, trained along European lines, was that belonging to the British East India Company. The term "sepoy" is still used in the modern Nepalese Army, Indian Army and Pakistan Army, where it is used for the rank of private soldier; the term sepoy is derived from the Persian word sepāhī meaning "infantry soldier" in the Mughal Empire. In the Ottoman Empire the term sipahi was used to refer to cavalry troopers. In its most common application, sepoy was the term used in the British Indian Army, earlier in that of the British East India Company, for an infantry private; the term sepoy came into use in the forces of the British East India Company in the eighteenth century, where it was one of many, such as peons, gentoos and topasses used for various categories of native soldier.
It referred to Hindu or Muslim soldiers without regular uniform or discipline. It generically referred to all native soldiers in the service of the European powers in India. Close to ninety-six percent of the British East India Company's army of 300,000 men were native to India and these sepoys played a crucial role in securing the subcontinent for the company. A Sipahi or a sepoy was an infantryman in both the Kingdom of Mysore; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb raised battalions of sepoys variously armed with matchlocks and grenades. These troops were employed in siege warfare during the Siege of Bidar, the Siege of Bijapur and the Siege of Golconda; the East India Company recruited sepoys from the local communities in the Madras and Bombay Presidencies. The emphasis here favored tall and soldierly recruits, broadly defined as being "of a proper caste and of sufficient size". In the Bengal Army however, recruitment was only amongst high caste Brahmin and Rajput communities from the present day Uttar Pradesh and Bihar regions.
Recruitment was undertaken locally by battalions or regiments from the same community and family. The commanding officer of a battalion became a form of substitute for the village chief or gaon bura, he was the "father and mother" of the sepoys making up the paltan. There were many family and community ties amongst the troops and numerous instances where family members enlisted in the same battalion or regiment; the izzat of the unit was represented by the regimental colours. These colours were stored in honour in the quarter guard and paraded before the men, they formed a rallying point in battle. The oath of fealty by the sepoy was given to the East India Company and included a pledge of faithfulness to the salt that one has eaten; the salary of the sepoys employed by the East India Company, while not greater than that paid by the rulers of Indian states, was paid regularly. Advances could be given and family allotments from pay due were permitted when the troops served abroad. There was a commisariat and regular rations were provided.
Weapons and ammunition were provided centrally, in contrast to the soldiers of local kings whose pay was in arrears. In addition local rulers expected their sepoys to arm themselves and to sustain themselves through plunder; this combination of factors led to the development of a sense of shared honour and ethos amongst the well drilled and disciplined Indian soldiery who formed the key to the success of European feats of arms in India and abroad. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the surviving East India Company regiments were merged into a new Indian Army under the direct control of the British Crown; the designation of "sepoy" was retained for Indian soldiers below the rank of lance naik, except in cavalry where the equivalent ranks were sowar or "trooper". Following the formation of the French East India Company in 1719, companies of Indian sepoys were raised to augment the French regulars and Swiss mercenary troops available. By 1720 the sepoys in French service numbered about 10,000.
Although much reduced in numbers after their decisive defeat in India at the Battle of Wandewash in 1760, France continued to maintain a Military Corps of Indian Sepoys in Pondicherry until it was disbanded and replaced by a locally recruited gendarmerie in 1898. The 19th century diplomat Sir Justin Sheil commented about the British East India Company copying the French Indian army in raising an army of Indians: It is to the military genius of the French that we are indebted for the formation of the Indian army. Our warlike neighbours were the first to introduce into India the system of drilling native troops and converting them into a disciplined force, their example was copied by us, the result is what we now behold. Sepoys were recruited in Portuguese India; the term cipaio was applied by the Portuguese to African soldiers in Angola and Portuguese Guinea, plus African rural police officers. Cipaios from Angola provided part of the garrison of Goa during the final years of Portuguese rule of that Indian territory.
The same Persian word reached English via another route in the forms of spahi. Zipaio, the Basque version of the word, is used by leftist Basque nationalists as an insult for members of the Basque Police, implying that they are not a national p
A kurta is a long loose-fitting collarless shirt of a style originating in Indian subcontinent and worn in many regions of South Asia, but now modernized, worn around the world. It is a tunic, or upper body garment, plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan, which can be loose or tight in the torso falling either just above or somewhere below the knees of the wearer. Kurtas are worn both as casual everyday wear in cotton) and as formal attire; the word kurta is a borrowing into English from Hindustani language, there in turn from Persian. It was first used in English in the early 20th century. According to S. M. Katre, Kurta word has been attested in Buddhist Kucha scholar Li Yen's Sanskrit chinese lexicon as a word of Sanskrit origin from the 8th century AD but she is of the opinion that the word is infact of central asian origin adopted into Sanskrit language. Sculptures and paintings from Deogarh, Bagh and Sarnath depict full sleeved jama-kurta like garment. Indians wearing long fitted shirt like Kurta and baggy pants like shalwar have been depicted in 8-10th century AD ivory sculpture of an elephant chess piece from Bibliothèque nationale de France.
A traditional kurta is composed of rectangular fabric pieces with a few gusset inserts, is cut so as to leave no waste fabric. The cut is simple, although decorative treatments can be elaborate; the sleeves of a traditional kurta fall straight to the wrist. Sleeves are not cuffed, just hemmed and decorated; the front and back pieces of a simple kurta are rectangular. The chak, or side seams, are left open for 6-12 inches above the hem, which gives the wearer some ease of movement; the kurta opens in the front. The front opening is a hemmed slit in the fabric, tied or buttoned at the top; the opening may be positioned off center. A traditional kurta does not have a collar. Modern variants may feature stand-up collars of the type known to tailors and seamstresses as "mandarin" collars; these are the same sort of collars seen on achkans and Nehru jackets. Kurtas worn in the summer months are made of thin silk or cotton fabrics. A common fabric for the kurta pajama is linen, or a linen-cotton mix ideal for both summers and winters.
Kurtas are fastened with tasselled ties, cloth balls, loops, or buttons. Buttons are wood or plastic. Kurtas worn on formal occasions might feature decorative metal buttons, which are not sewn to the fabric, like cufflinks, are fastened into the cloth when needed; such buttons can be decorated with jewels and other traditional jewelers' techniques. Tailors from the Indian subcontinent command a vast repertoire of methods and modern, for decorating fabric, it is that all of them have been used, at one time or another, to decorate kurtas. However, the most common decoration is embroidery. Many light summer kurtas feature Chikan embroidery, a specialty of Lucknow, around the hems and front opening; this embroidery is executed on light, semi-transparent fabric in a matching thread. The effect is subtle. Regional styles include the Bhopali, Hyderabadi and straight-cut kurtas; the Bhopali kurta is a loose kurta with pleats at the waist, flowing like a skirt reaching midway between the knees and the ankles.
It is worn with a straight pajama. The Hyderabadi kurta is named after the former royal state of Hyderabad and is a short top which sits around the waist, with a keyhole neck opening, it was popular with the local royal households. Traditionally, the Hyderabadi kurta was of white material. Over the kurta, some versions have net material, the combination of, called jaali karga, worn by men and women; the traditional Lucknowi kurta can either be long, using as much as 12 yards of cloth. The traditional Lucknowi kurta styles have an overlapping panel. However, the term "Lucknowi kurta" now applies to the straight-cut kurta embroidered using local Chikan embroidery. Another style is the kali or kalidar kurta, similar to a frock and has many panels; the kalidar kurta is made up of several geometrical pieces. It has two rectangular central panels in the front; the kali kurta is worn by women. The straight-cut traditional kurta is known as "Panjabi" in West Bengal and Assam. Local embroidery designs give a regional outlook to the traditional kurta.
In Assam, the Panjabi is worn with a scarf using local prints. Other designs include Bengali Kantha embroidery. Sindhi kurtas the local art of bandhani; the traditional Punjabi kurta of th
Sowar was a rank during the Mughal, Maratha period. During the British Raj it was the name in Anglo-Indian usage for a horse-soldier belonging to the cavalry troops of the native armies of British India and the feudal states, it is used more of a mounted orderly, escort or guard. It was the rank held by ordinary cavalry troopers, equivalent to sepoy in the infantry — this rank has been inherited by the modern armies of India and Pakistan; the Sowar name has been used as the moniker for a line of wrist-watches by the Swiss West End Watch Co. Suvari Sepoy This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sowar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
The presidency armies were the armies of the three presidencies of the East India Company's rule in India the forces of the British Crown in India, composed of Indian sepoys. The presidency armies were named after the presidencies: the Bengal Army, the Madras Army and the Bombay Army. Only Europeans served as commissioned or non-commissioned officers. In time, Indian Army units were garrisoned from Peshawar in the north, to Sind in the west, to Rangoon in the east; the army was engaged in the wars to extend British control in India and beyond. The presidency armies, like the presidencies themselves, belonged to the Company until the Indian Rebellion of 1857, when the Crown took over the Company and its three armies. In 1895 the three presidency armies were merged into a united Indian Army; the origin of the British Indian Army and subsequently the army of independent India lies in the origins of the Presidency Armies which preceded them. The first purely Indian troops employed by the British were watchmen employed in each of the Presidencies of the British East India Company to protect their trading stations.
These were all placed in 1748 under one Commander-in-Chief, Major-General Stringer Lawrence, regarded as the "Father of the Indian Army". From the mid-eighteenth century, the East India Company began to maintain armies at each of its three main stations, or Presidencies of British India, at Calcutta and Bombay; the Bengal Army, Madras Army, Bombay Army were quite distinct, each with its own Regiments and cadre of European officers. All three armies contained European regiments in which both the officers and men were Europeans, as well as a larger number of ‘Native’ regiments, in which the officers were Europeans and the other ranks were Indians, they included Artillery and Infantry regiments, so historical sources refer to the Bengal/Madras/Bombay Artillery/Cavalry/Infantry. From the mid-eighteenth century onwards, the Crown began to dispatch regiments of the regular British Army to India, to reinforce the Company’s armies; these troops are referred to as ‘H. M.’s Regiments’ or ‘Royal regiments’.
By 1824, the size of the combined armies of Bengal and Bombay was about 200,000 and had at least 170 sepoy and 16 European regiments. In 1844 the combined average strength of the three armies was 235,446 native and 14,584 European. In 1757, Robert Clive came up with the idea of sepoy battalions for the Bengal Presidency; these would be Indian soldiers, armed and trained the same as the "red coats", commanded by a nucleus of British officers. The Madras Presidency followed suit with six battalions in 1759, followed by the Bombay Presidency in 1767. Recruitment in all cases was done locally, with battallions each drawn from single castes, from specific communities and families. Regular cavalry regiments were raised in 1784, of which only three survived the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Irregular cavalry were raised by the "silladar system" employed by rulers of Indian states. Irregular cavalry regiments had few British officers. In addition, native artillery and pioneers were raised. Between 1796 and 1804, a regimental system on two battalion basis was introduced.
The battalions were only shared no esprit de corps. The number of British officers went up to 22 per battalion, which diminished the importance of native officers. Control by Regimental commanders was excessive and exasperating to the battalions, the system was reverted in 1824. Thereafter, units were formed into single battalion regiments, which were numbered per their seniority of raising. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the consequent abolition of the East India Company, its European regiments were amalgamated in 1860 with the British Army, but its ‘Native’ regiments were not; the three separate Presidency Armies therefore continued to exist, their European officers continued to be listed as members of the Bengal, Madras or Bombay Army rather than the British Army. However, the Presidency Armies began to be described collectively as the Indian Army. Another change resulting from the Indian Rebellion of 1857 was that henceforward artillery was confined to the British Army. In 1895, the separate Presidency Armies were at last abolished and a unified Indian Army came into being.
As before, its British officers were not members of the British Army, though as young subalterns they did serve for a year with a British Army regiment as part of their training before taking up permanent commissions with their Indian Army regiment. First Anglo-Mysore War Second Anglo-Mysore War Third Anglo-Mysore War Fourth Anglo-Mysore War First Anglo-Maratha War Second Anglo-Maratha War Third Anglo-Maratha War First Anglo-Burmese War Second Anglo-Burmese War Third Anglo-Burmese War First Anglo-Afghan War Second Anglo-Afghan War See also: The Great Game and European influence in Afghanistan for a more detailed description. First Opium War Second Opium War First Anglo-Sikh War Second Anglo-Sikh War Expedition to Abyssinia Bengal Presidency, the Bengal Army Bombay Presidency, the Bombay Army Madras Presidency, the Madras Army Barua, Pradeep. "Military developments in India, 1750-1850," Journal of Military History, 58#4 pp 599–616 in JSTOR Bryant, G. J. "Asymmetric Warfare: The British Experience in Eighteenth-Century India," Journal of Military History 68#2 pp. 431–469 in JSTO
Thomas "Diamond" Pitt was an English merchant involved in trade with India, the President of Madras and a Member of Parliament. Pitt was born at Blandford Forum, Dorset, to the Reverend John Pitt, a Church of England cleric and rector of Blandford St Mary, Sarah Jay. In 1674, Pitt went to India with the East India Company, soon began trading for himself as an'interloper' in defiance of the East India Company's legal monopoly on Indian trade. Upon his return to England, he was fined £400 for his actions, although by that time he was very wealthy and could afford the fine, he proceeded to buy the manor of Stratford and its surrounding borough of Old Sarum. With that acquisition, he gained a seat in the House of Commons, as it was a rotten borough, although his first seat was as the member for Salisbury in the Convention Parliament of 1689; the purchase of Old Sarum would have a significant effect on English history, as the seat would pass to Pitt's rather influential descendants. Pitt returned to India and was hired by the East India Company.
In August 1698, Pitt arrived at Madras as the President of the East India Company and was entrusted to negotiate an end to the Child's War with the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. In August 1699, he had been appointed as the Governor of Fort St. George. In 1702, when the fort was besieged by Daud Khan of the Carnatic, the Mughal Empire's local subedar, Pitt was instructed to seek peace, he bought out some of the Carnatic region. He began garrisoning East India Company forts by raising regiments of local sepoys by hiring from Hindu warrior castes, arming them with the latest weapons and deploying them under the command of English officers to save Madras, his base of operations, from further Mughal harassment. Pitt became the President of Madras on 7 July 1698 and remained in his post till 1709. In 1698, a new company called English Company Trading to the East Indies was floated by English merchants with Tory affiliations with a capital of £2 million. In August 1699, one John Pitt arrived at Madras and claimed that he had been appointed as the Governor of Fort St George by the new Company on behalf of the Stuarts.
However, the Government in England passed an order that the authorities were to receive orders from no-one save those appointed by King William III. On 4 December 1700, the Government of Fort St George banned cock-fighting and other traditional games, regarding it as the foremost reason for the poverty of the inhabitants of Madras. Pitt's term of office is known as the'Golden Age of Madras', he organised an accurate survey of the city. Pitt is best known for the acquisition of the Five New Towns: Tiruvatiyoor, Nungambakkam and Sathangadu. In need of money after making gifts to his family, he gave up his seat in parliament in 1716 in favour of the position of Governor of Jamaica. However, his finances were restored by the sale of a large diamond and he resigned the position the following year without going there, he was soon re-elected to parliament to represent Thirsk, thereafter Old Sarum for the last time quitting parliament in 1726. Pitt married, on 1 January 1679/80, Jane Innes, daughter of James and Sarah Innes and niece of Matthias Vincent, his one-time business associate.
He had two daughters. His eldest son, was father of William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham called "Pitt the Elder", twice Prime Minister, his second sons were twins, based on an entry to the baptismal records of St. Lawrence, Stratford sub Castle, Wiltshire: Thomas 1st Earl of Londonderry, William, his third son John was a distinguished soldier. His second daughter, married James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope, his daughter, married Charles Cholmondeley. Thomas Pitt had a grandson, by his older son Robert, named Thomas Pitt, his great-grandson William Pitt the Younger went on to become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the late 18th century. Pitt is best known for his purchase of a 410 carat uncut diamond acquired from an Indian merchant named Jamchand in Madras in 1701; the merchant had purchased the diamond from an English sea captain, who had, in fact, stolen the diamond from a servant of Abul Hasan Qutb Shah. According to another version, the servant found the diamond in one of the Golkonda mines on the Krishna River and had concealed it inside a large wound in his leg, which he had suffered as he fled the Siege of Golconda.
Pitt bought the diamond for 48,000 pagodas or £20,400, sent it back to England in 1702 concealed inside his eldest son Robert's shoe. For two years from 1704–1706, the jeweller Harris laboured in London to hew a 141 carat cushion brilliant from the rough stone. Several secondary stones were produced from the cut. After many attempts to sell it to various European royals, including Louis XIV of France and his sons went with the diamond to Calais in 1717. With John Law acting as agent, it was sold that year to the French regent, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, for £135,000, becoming one of the crown jewels of France. Today, "Le Régent", as it came to be known, remains in the French Royal Treasury at the Louvre, where it has been on display since 1887. Pitt owned a piece of land called a copyhold, the lord of this land was entitled to Pitt's most valuable possession after his death. If he had not sold the diamond, it would have been confiscated as a form of death duty, his association with the jewel earned him the nickname "Diamond" Pitt.
With the money
A warrant officer is an officer in a military organisation, designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer, designated an officer by a commission, a non-commissioned officer, designated an officer by virtue of seniority. The rank was first used in the 13th century in the Royal Navy and is today used in most services in many countries, including the Commonwealth nations and the United States. Outside the United States, warrant officers are included in the "other ranks" category, equivalent to the US "E" category and rank between non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers; the warrant officers in Commonwealth navies rank between chief petty officer and sub-lieutenant, in Commonwealth air forces between flight sergeant and pilot officer, in Commonwealth armies between staff sergeant and second lieutenant. Warrant officers in the United States are in the "W" category. Chief warrant officers are commissioned by the President of the United States and take the same oath as regular commissioned officers.
They may be technical experts with a long service as enlisted personnel, or direct entrants, notably for U. S. Army helicopter pilots; the warrant officer corps began in the nascent Royal Navy. At that time, noblemen with military experience took command of the new navy, adopting the military ranks of lieutenant and captain; these officers had no knowledge of life on board a ship—let alone how to navigate such a vessel—and relied on the expertise of the ship's master and other seamen who tended to the technical aspects of running the ship. As cannon came into use, the officers required gunnery experts. Literacy was one thing that most warrant officers had in common, this distinguished them from the common seamen: according to the Admiralty regulations, "no person shall be appointed to any station in which he is to have charge of stores, unless he can read and write, is sufficiently skilled in arithmetic to keep an account of them correctly". Since all warrant officers had responsibility for stores, this was enough to debar the illiterate.
In origin, warrant officers were specialist professionals whose expertise and authority demanded formal recognition. In the 18th century they fell into two clear categories: on the one hand, those privileged to share with the commissioned officers in the wardroom and on the quarterdeck. Somewhere between the two, were the standing officers; these classes of warrant officer messed in the wardroom with the commissioned officers: the master: the senior warrant officer, a qualified navigator and experienced seaman who set the sails, maintained the ship's log and advised the captain on the seaworthiness of the ship and crew. In the early 19th century, they were joined in the wardroom by naval chaplains, who had warrant officer status; the standing officers were: the boatswain: responsible for maintenance of the ship's boats, rigging and cables. Other warrant officers included surgeon's mates, boatswain's mates and carpenter's mates, armourers and clerks. Masters-at-arms, who had overseen small-arms provision on board, had by this time taken on responsibility for discipline.
By the end of the century, the rank structure could be illustrated as follows: In 1843, the wardroom warrant officers were given commissioned status, while in 1853 the lower-grade warrant officers were absorbed into the new rate of chief petty officer, both classes thereby ceasing to be warrant officers. On 25 July 1864 the standing warrant officers were divided into two grades: warrant officers and chief warrant officers. By the time of the First World War, their ranks had been expanded with the adoption of modern technology in the Royal Navy to include telegraphists, shipwrights, artificer engineers, etc. Both warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers messed in the warrant officers' mess rather than the wardroom. Warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers carried swords, were saluted by ratings, ranked between sub-lieutenants and midshipmen. In 1949, the ranks of warrant officer and commissioned warrant officer were changed to "commissioned officer" and "senior commissioned officer", the latter ranking with but after the rank of lieutenant, they were admitted to the wardroom, the warrant officers' messes closing down.
Collectively, these officers were known as "branch officers", being retitled "special duties" officers in 1956. In 1998, the special dutie
The Pakistan Army is the principal land warfare uniformed service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. It came into its modern existence from the British Indian Army that ceased to exist following the partition of British India that resulted in the parliamentary act that established the independence of Pakistan from the United Kingdom on 14 August 1947. According to the estimation provided by the International Institute for Strategic Studies in 2017, the Pakistan Army has 550,000 active duty personnel, supported by the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard. In Pakistan, the age of military enlistment is 17–23 years of age for voluntary military service; the primary objective and its constitutional mission is to ensure the national security and national unity of Pakistan by defending it against external aggression or threat of war, internal threat by maintaining peace and security within its land borders by requisitioning it by the federal government to cope with internal threats. During the events of national calamities and emergency, it conducts humanitarian rescue operations at home as well as participating in the peacekeeping missions mandated by the United Nations, most notably playing a major role in rescuing the trapped U.
S. soldiers in Somalia in 1993 and Bosnian War in 1992–95. The Pakistan Army, a major component of the national power alongside with the Pakistan's Navy, Air Force, Marines, is a volunteer force, involved with four wars on its borders with neighboring India and several border skirmishes on its porous border with Afghanistan. Since 1960s, the elements of the army has been deployed to act as military advisory in the Arab states during the events of Arab–Israeli wars, aided the UN-based coalition in the first Gulf War. Other notable military operations in the theater of War on Terror in the 21st century included: Zarb-e-Azb, Black Thunderstorm, Rah-e-Nijat. In violation of its constitutional mandate, it has overthrown elected governments overreaching its constitutional mandate protected by the Constitution to "act in aid of civilian federal government when called upon to do so", the army has been involved in enforcing martial law against the elected governments in claiming to restore law and order in the country by dismissing the legislative branch, the Parliament, four times in past decades, has wider commercial and political interests in the country, facing allegations of acting as state within a state.
The Pakistan Army has a regimental system but is operationally and geographically divided into command zones, with basic field of being the corps. The Constitution establishes the role of President of Pakistan to be the civilian Commander-in-Chief; the Pakistan Army is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff, by statute a four-star rank general, senior member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is appointed by the Prime Minister and confirmed by the President of Pakistan. The Pakistan Army is under the command of General Qamar Javed Bajwa appointed on 29 November 2016. Existence and its constitutional role is protected by the Constitution of Pakistan, where its role to serves as land-based uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. In the Chapter 2: Armed Forces in the PartXII: Miscellaneous codified the mission and purpose of the army as alongside with the other parts of the Armed Forces as such: The Constitution of Pakistan establishes the principal land warfare uniform branch in the Pakistan Armed Forces as its states: The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so The Pakistan Army came into its modern birth from the division of the British Indian Army that ceased to exist as a result of the partition of India that resulted in the creation of Pakistan on 14 August 1947.
Before the partition took place, there were plans ahead of dividing the British Indian Army in different parts based on the religious and ethnic influence on the areas of India. On 30 June 1947, the War Department of the British administration in India began planning the dividing of the ~400,000 men strong British Indian Army, but that only begin few weeks before the partition of India that resulted in violent religious violence in India; the Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee under the chairmanship of British Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck had devised the formula to divide the military assets between India and Pakistan with ratio of 2:1, respectively. Major division of the army was overseen by Sir Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi, an Indian civil servant, influential in making sure that ~260,000 men would be transferred into forming the Indian Army whilst the remainder balance going to Pakistan after the independence act was enacted by the United Kingdom on the night of 14/15 August 1947.
Command and control at all levels of the new army was difficult, as Pakistan had received six armoured, eight artillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the twelve armoured, forty artillery and twenty-one infantry regiments that went to India. In total, the size of the new army was about ~150,000 men strong. To fill the vacancy in the command positions of the new army, around 13,500 military officers from the British Army had to be employed in the Pakistan Army, quiet in larger number, under the command of Lieutenant-General Frank Messervy, the first commander-in-chief of the Pakistan Army. Eminent fears of India's seizing the control over the state of Kashmir, the armed tribes and the irregular militia scouts entered in the Muslim-majority valley of Kashmir to oppose