Subiaco, Lazio

Subiaco is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, in Lazio, central Italy, 40 kilometres from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. It is a tourist and religious resort thanks to its sacred grotto, in the medieval St Benedict's Abbey, for the Abbey of Santa Scolastica. At a time when several German monks had been assigned to the monastery, German printers established a printing press in the town, they printed the first books in Italy in the late 15th century. Among the first ancient settlers in the area were the Aequi, an Italic people. In 304 BC they were conquered by the Romans, who introduced their civilization and took advantage of the waters of the Aniene river; the present name of the city comes from the artificial lakes of the luxurious villa that emperor Nero had built: in Latin Sublaqueum means "under the lake." The name was applied to the town. The biggest of the three Subiaco Dams was the highest dam in the world until its destruction in 1305. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the villa and the town were abandoned, becoming forgotten ruins.

When St. Benedict, at the age of fourteen, retired from the world and lived for three years in a cave above the river Anio, he was supplied with the necessaries of life by a monk, St. Roman. From this grotto, St. Benedict developed the concepts and organization of the Benedictine Order, he built twelve monasteries, including one at the grotto, placed twelve monks in each. In 854 a record noted its renovation. In this year, Pope Leo IV is said to have consecrated an altar to Sts. Benedict and Scholastica and another to St. Sylvester. Another renovation took place in 1053 under Abbot Humbert of St. Scholastica. Abbot John V, created cardinal by Pope Gregory VII, made the grotto the terminus of a yearly procession, built a new road, had the altars reconsecrated. In 1200 there was a community of twelve. A new road was built by the city in 1688; the sacred grotto is still a favourite pilgrimage. On October 27, 1909, Pius X granted a daily plenary indulgence to those who receive Holy Communion there and pray according to the intention of the Pope.

The Abbey of St. Scolastica, located about a mile and a half below the grotto, was built by St Benedict about 520, endowed by the Roman patricians, Tertullus and Æquitius; the second abbot, St. Honoratus, changed the old monastery into a chapter room and built a new one, dedicating it to Sts. Cosmas and Damian, it was abandoned for a century. By order of John VII, it was rebuilt by Abbot Stephen and consecrated to Saints Benedict and his sister, Scholastica. Demolished again in 840 by the Saracens and in 981 by the Hungarians, it was rebuilt each time. Benedict VII consecrated the new church, henceforth the abbey was dedicated to Santa Scholastica. In 1052, Leo IX came to Subiaco to correct abuses. Special favour was shown by Paschal II, who took the abbey from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Tivoli and made it an abbacy nullius, its temporal welfare was a care of the popes. Among others, Innocent III at his visit in 1203 increased the revenues of the abbey. With the decline of religious fervor and dissension arose to such an extent that Abbot Bartholomew in 1364, by command of the pope, had to dismiss some of the incorrigible monks and fill their places with religious from other monasteries.

Numerous monks were brought in from Germany, for many decades Subiaco was a center of German thrift and art. Urban VI abolished the abbots for life, took away from the monks the right of election, gave the administration and revenues to a member of the Curia; the assignment of German monks to Subiaco attracted other Germans. The printers Sweinheim and Pannartz established a printing press in Subiaco and printed Donatus pro parvulis, Lactantius and De Civitate Dei; those were the first books to be printed in Italy. Pope Callixtus III, in 1455, gave the abbey in commendam to a cardinal; the first of these was the Spanish Cardinal Juan de Torquemada and the second Roderigo Borgia, who remodeled the Castrum Sublacence, once the summer resort of the popes, made it the residence of the commendatory abbot. Many of these abbots looked only for revenue; as an example, Pompeo Colonna, Bishop of Rieti, commendatory abbot since 1506, squandered the goods of the abbey and gave the income to unworthy subjects.

On complaint of the community, in 1510 Julius II readjusted matters and restored the monastic possessions. For spiritual benefit, a union had been made between Subiaco and the Abbey of Farfa, but it lasted a short time. In 1514, Subiaco joined the Congregation of Santa Justina, whose abbot-general was titular of St. Scholastica, while a cardinal remained commendatory abbot. After this union, there were quarrels between Subiaco and Farfa and Monte Cassino among the Germans and the Italians. After this little is known from historical records about the abbey and the city until the 19th century. In 1798-1799 and 1810-1814 French troops under Napoleon entered the city, plundering the monasteries and the churches. In 1849 and 1867 Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered the city in his plan to destroy the temporal rule of the Pope and unify Italy: in 1870 the city become definitively part of the Regno d'Italia. In 1891, a Benedictine abbey founded earlier in western Arkansas, United States, changed its name to Subiaco as part of an effort to more align its teachings and practices to those of the famous abbeys of the Italian namesake.


The Body Lovers

The Body Lovers is Mickey Spillane's tenth book featuring private investigator Mike Hammer. This story opens with Mike Hammer moving through the dark streets of the city when he hears a child emit a terrible scream of fear; when he finds the child he discovers the nude body of a murdered beautiful woman, beaten to death with a whip. This begins a complicated and baffling case involving the deaths of a few more women, a murdered newspaper reporter, tracking some aspects of the case and the sordid life of the prostitutes in the city; the newspaper reporter community and the police department ally themselves with Hammer, but despite all the effort, there are few clues, so in typical Hammer style, Mike creates them. He plays the white knight to some women who have reached the depths, pounding a pimp who beat his women into a bloody pulp in order to make the point. Mike uncovers a sadistic ring made up of international figures where women at a low point risk their lives for a fortune in a desperate attempt to pull themselves up.

In the end, Velda comes through for Mike and he defeats the ring by blowing it away

Peter Pagan

Peter MacGregor Pagan was an Australian-American actor from Sydney best known for his role in The Overlanders. Following the success of that film, he left Australia for England moved to the U. S. where he worked extensively in theatre and TV. He became a U. S. citizen in 1954. He died in New York City, age 77. Pagan was born in one of three sons, his family moved to Hay. He boarded at Bellevue Hill, his brother was Brigadier Sir John Ernest Pagan, CMG MBE, federal president of the Liberal Party of Australia and NSW agent-general for New South Wales in London. When 16 he joined an amateur group at Bryant's Playhouse, Forbes Street and studied drama there for four years. Pagan joined the AIF at 21, served over three years with an armoured division in Western Australia and was discharged on medical grounds in 1945, he was cast in The Overlanders. He went to London and New York; when he was 27, Pagan joined the Barter Theatre Company in Virginia. He was awarded the Drama Critics' Award for best supporting actor in 1971 for his role in There's A Girl In My Soup opposite Van Johnson.

In the mid 70s Pagan said, "I'm not interested in Broadway anymore - the critics are killing it." In the late'70s and'80s, Pagan divided his time between New Sydney. The Overlanders – film Academy Theatre – episode "Drums of Oude" The Philco-Goodyear Television Playhouse – episode "The Lonely" The Web – episode "Wanted, Someone Innocent" Studio One in Hollywood – episode "Mr Mummery's Suspicion" Robert Montgomery Presents – episode "The Sheffield Story" Guiding Light The Legend of Josiah Blow Home Is the Sailor Robert Montgomery Presents – episode "Our Hearts Were Young and Gay" I Spy – episode "The Green Coat" Kraft Theatre – episode "A Night to Remember" Playwrights'56 – episode "Keyhole" 9½ Weeks Another Language, Criterion Theatre, North Sydney, NSW, 18 March 1939 The Truth about Blayds, St James' Hall, Sydney, NSW, 3 May 1939 The Family Dictator, Criterion Theatre, North Sydney, NSW, June–July 1939 Spring Tide, Minerva Theatre, Kings Cross, NSW, 19 June 1941 It's a Wise Child, Theatre Royal, Sydney, NSW, 1944 Charley's Aunt, Victoria Theatre, Newcastle, NSW, 1946 Dangerous Corner by J Priestley - Virginia Escapade by Roger MacDougall - 48th Street Theatre New York - with Carroll Baker, Brian Aherne and Roddy McDowall - Portrait of a Lady by William Archibald directed by Jose Quintero - ANTA Playhouse New York - with Jennifer Jones- Dec 21, 1954 - Dec 25, 1954 Child of Fortune by Guy Bolton based on Wings of a Dove - directed by Jed Harris with Edmond Purdom - Royale Theatre, New York - 13 Daughters - musical with Don Ameche - 54th Street Theatre, New York The Vinegar Tree - Cape Playhouse in Dennis, Massachusetts with Faye Emerson The Girl Who Came to Supper by Noël Coward - Broadway Theatre, New York - with Florence Henderson and Jose Ferrer - (Dec 08, 1963 - Mar 14, 1964_ Hostile Witness by Jack Roffey - Music Box Theatre, New York - with Ray Milland - (Feb 17, 1966 - Jul 02, 1966 Boeing Boeing at the Cape Playhouse in Dennis, Massachusetts with Van Johnson You Never Can Tell by George Bernard Shaw - Philadelphia Aren't We All? by Fredrick Lonsdale - Brooks Atkinson Theatre, New York - with Claudette Colbert, Rex Harrison and Lyn Redgrave - Peter Pagan on IMDb Peter Pagan at Ausstage Peter Pagan at IBDB