Subic Bay is a bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines, about 100 kilometres northwest of Manila Bay. An extension of the South China Sea, its shores were the site of a major United States Navy facility named U. S. Naval Base Subic Bay, now the location of an industrial and commercial area known as the Subic Bay Freeport Zone under the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority. Today, water as well as the towns and establishments surrounding the bay are collectively referred to as Subic Bay; this includes the former US naval base at SBMA, Hanjin shipyard, Olongapo city, the town of Barrio Baretto, the Municipality of Subic, the erstwhile US defence housing areas of Binictican and Kalayan housing, up to Morong in Bataan Province. The bay was long recognized for its deep and protected waters, but development was slow due to lack of level terrain around the bay. In 1542, Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo sailed into Subic Bay but no port developed there because the main Spanish naval base would be established in the nearby Manila Bay.
When the British captured this base in 1762, the Spanish were forced to find an alternate location and Subic Bay was found to be a strategic and superb port location. In 1884, King Alfonso XII of Spain decreed that Subic was to become "a naval port and the property appertaining thereto set aside for naval purposes." The Americans captured the Spanish base in 1899 during the Philippine–American War, controlled the bay until 1991. During this period, the naval facilities were built up and expanded, including a new naval air station, built in the early 1950s by slicing the top half from a mountain and moving the soil to reclaim a part of Subic Bay. In 1979, the area under American control was reduced from 24,000 hectares to 6,300 hectares when the Philippines claimed sovereign rule over the base. Following the destruction of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption, the Americans closed the base, the area was transformed into the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. In 2012, controversy arose when a contracted shipping firm was accused of dumping toxic waste into Subic Bay.
MT Glenn Guardian, one of the vessels owned by a Malaysian firm, had collected some 189,500 litres of domestic waste and about 760 litres of bilge water from USS Emory S. Land, a US Navy ship. Since the Malaysian firm was contracted by the US Navy, albeit under Philippine approval, this incident ignited anti-American sentiments in the Philippines from a single militant group; the Pamulaklakin Nature Park is a reserve area of Binictican. Part of the 11 thousand hectares of forest is found at Subic Bay; the park was created by the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority to supplement the income of the indigenous people. The term Pamulaklakin was derived from the native Ambala language; the majority of the wrecks in Subic Bay are a result of either the Spanish–American War in 1898 or of World War II, where a number of Japanese vessels were sunk by American aircraft. El Capitan was a freighter of nearly 3,000 tons just under 130 meters long. In 1946, she sank in Subic Bay. Hell ship Oryoku Maru: On 15 December 1944, she had 1,619 American and Czech prisoners of war on board when she was sunk, under heavy bombardment by American fighters while on her way from Subic Bay to Japan.
She was less than half a kilometer off the Alava Pier. About 300 prisoners died during the short voyage during the attack. Seian Maru: During an air raid on Subic Bay, the 3,712-ton freighter Seian Maru was bombed and sunk; this was only four days after the sinking of Oryoku Maru on 19 December 1944. Landing Ship, Tank LST-559: She was scuttled in the middle of Subic Bay between the southern tip of the runway and Grande Island; the old USS New York, renamed USS Rochester in 1917. At the onset of the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, this ship was acting as a floating workshop and storehouse. Decommissioned, the armored hull of the old cruiser was considered too valuable to allow Japanese forces to capture it, so the ship was scuttled in December 1941 by American forces. San Quentin: During the Spanish–American War in 1898, the Spanish scuttled their San Quintín in the hope of blocking the passage between Grande Island and Chiquita Islands near the mouth of Subic Bay. USS Lanikai, a schooner-rigged diesel powered yacht that served in the U.
S. Navy during both World War I and World War II, before being transferred to the Royal Australian Navy. Japanese auxiliary minesweeper Banshu Maru No. 52 Japanese subchaser Kyo Maru No. 11 Japanese gunboat Aso Maru Port of Subic Subic Bay International Airport Subic, Zambales The Official Tourism Website for Subic Bay, contains visitor and accommodation information Official website of Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority News Source
Jennifer Hohl is a retired Swiss professional road cyclist. She represented Switzerland at the 2008 Summer Olympics, earned three Swiss national championship titles in the women's elite road race. Before retiring to focus on her family life and business career, Hohl rode for three seasons on the Bigla Cycling Team since 2006, followed by her short, annual stints on Germany's Noris Cycling and Italy's Mcipollini–Giordana and Faren–Honda Team. Hohl qualified for the Swiss squad in the women's road race at the 2008 Summer Olympics by receiving one of the nation's three available berths from the UCI World Cup. Passing through the 102.6-km mark, Hohl fell into the ground after crashing her bike in a heavy collision against a small group of riders, subsequently, abandoned her race before reaching the 3:03-barrier. Official website NBC Olympics Profile Jennifer Hohl at Cycling Archives
Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office, now part of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, was established in 1832 on the site of the Royal Observatory, where The Nautical Almanac had been published since 1767. HMNAO produces astronomical data for a wide range of users, such as astronomers, aviators, the military, lawyers, religious groups, schools and calendar manufacturers and film crews. In 1937, it became part of ROG and moved with it, when it moved away from Greenwich first to Herstmonceux Castle, near Hailsham in East Sussex in 1948 to Cambridge in 1990; when the RGO closed in 1998 HMNAO was transferred to the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, near Abingdon in Oxfordshire. In December 2006, HMNAO was transferred to the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, based in Taunton in Somerset. Thomas Young – physicist and polymath John Pond – Astronomer Royal W. S. Stratford – set up a central bureaucracy to replace the system of home-based human computers John Russell Hind – discovered a number of asteroids in the earlier part of his career A. M. W. Downing Philip Herbert Cowell – best remembered for his work with Andrew Crommelin on the calculation of the orbit of Halley's Comet by numerical integration, in preparation for its return in 1910 Leslie Comrie – a pioneer of numerical computation Donald Sadler George A. Wilkins Bernard D. Yallop Andrew T. Sinclair Patrick T. Wallace Stephen A.
Bell The Astronomical Almanac The Nautical Almanac Astronomical Phenomena The Star Almanac The UK Air Almanac Rapid Sight Reduction Tables for Navigation Planetary and Lunar Coordinates HMNAO website HMNAO on gov.uk List of Superintendents and Heads of HMNAO
Maksim Sergeyevich Kanunnikov is a Russian football winger or striker who plays for PFC Krylia Sovetov Samara. Kanunnikov joined Zenit U21s in 2009 and shortly after started to train with the first team, appearing on the bench on occasion, he made his Premier League debut on 23 August 2009, coming as a last-minute substitute against Lokomotiv Moscow. On 10 May 2010 his first goal in Russian Premier League was against Amkar Perm. On 17 January 2011, Kanunnikov was on loan to Tom Tomsk for the 2011–12 season. On 2 March 2018, he was released by mutual consent from his contract by Rubin Kazan. On 7 March 2018, he signed with SKA-Khabarovsk until the end of the 2017–18 season. On 27 July 2018, he signed a one-year contract with Krylia Sovetov Samara; as of 13 May 2018 He made his debut for the Russia national football team on 26 May 2014 in a friendly game against Slovakia, replacing Alan Dzagoev at half time in a 1–0 win at Petrovsky Stadium. On 2 June 2014, he was included in Russia's 2014 FIFA World Cup squad.
He made his competitive debut for Russia in the second group game against Belgium on 22 June, playing the entire 90 minutes of the 1–0 defeat at the Maracanã. Zenit St. Petersburg Russian Cup: 2010 Profile at the official FC Zenit St. Petersburg website Maksim Kanunnikov at Russian Premier League
Nightjohn is a 1996 American television film directed by Charles Burnett. The film is about a young slave girl named Sarny, played by Allison Jones, who lives a hopeless life on a Southern plantation, her job is to take care of the white family's son as well as spitting tobacco on the roses to keep bugs away. Her life is changed; the slave, says that learning to read is freedom because slavery is bounded by laws and deeds which the slaves cannot read. Her excitement towards reading gets her and her fellow slaves in trouble with their master, Mr. Wallace, who prohibits any slave from being able to read; when trouble ensues, Sarny uses her ability to read against Mr. Wallace and saves the lives of the rest of the slaves, she ends up being sold, but not before she shows her fellow slaves the letter ‘A’. Sarny, a girl, is born in a slave cabin, her master Clel Waller is angry, saying. However, he doesn't sell her, as a promise has been made, so her mother is sold after a few years instead. Sarny is taken care by another slave.
When Sarny grows to about pre-teenage years, she starts working at the Big House, taking care of Homer, the master's son, not potty-trained yet. Back at the cabins, Outlaw tries to get Delie to convince Mr. Waller to give him a pass so he can marry a girl named Egypt from another plantation. Delie is preparing a dress for Sarny. After a Sunday church service in which slaves and masters attend, the Wallers have guests over for lunch, among them a doctor who has a romance with Callie, Clel's wife who, during the luncheon, talks about Outlaw wanting to court Egypt, owned by Clel's brother. Clel shuts her down stating that if they were to have a baby, it would give money to the wife's plantation instead of his. Callie asks. Upset about Clel's decision, Sarny accidentally drops the plate of food, is punished when Clel forces Callie to slap the girl; that night Delie tells Sarny to behave, otherwise she will have to do the hard labor out in the fields. Sarny is upset; the next day, Callie tells Sarny to take a letter to the doctor's place.
On the way, she sees a slave trader, herding black slaves toward the Waller household. At the doctor's house, the doctor asks Sarny to take a love letter to Callie, keeping it a secret from Clel, he gives Sarny a penny for her troubles. Back at the plantation, Tom is willing to sell a slave to Clel for 500 dollars. Clel questions Tom about why he is willing to sell a slave worth $3000 for only $500. Clel asks the slave to take off his shirt, revealing many scars from being whipped. Clel says that instead, he will buy John, off of Tom for only 50 dollars without clothes; that night and Sarny strike a deal, willing to trade tobacco for lessons on reading. John tells Sarny about the risks. Sarny learns the letter ‘A’, she starts to read the letter ‘A’ in the letters between the doctor and Callie that she delivers. The next morning, Outlaw is being punished; as Mr. Waller is about to whip Outlaw, Clel's son, asks him to stop because they are friends. Clel say to Jeffrey that the slaves were made to pick his cotton instead of being his friend, Outlaw is whipped.
In Sarny's narration of the story, she states that Clel watched everyone instead of the one person he needed to watch, the mistress, his wife. That night when the Wallers are having a party, Delie walks in on John teaching Sarny the alphabet and is outraged, she questions John about the scars on his back, he says that they were because he had tried to run away twice. The third time, however, he got away to the North but ended up coming back in order to teach slaves how to read. Delie prohibits John from teaching Sarny to read for her safety. Sarny stalks away. John says that Delie is teaching Sarny something worse: to be afraid. Sarny comes up with a plan for Callie to visit the Doctor secretly, offering to potty-train Homer and swipes his alphabet blocks; this angers Old Man who had had a finger chopped off after he had learned to read. John shouts out that words are freedom, that the white folks keep words to themselves and that if the slaves had words, they would be free; that night, John writes Sarny's name in the dirt saying that the letters meant herself.
The next day, Clel recruits everyone in his family to help with picking cotton from the fields, promising a feast to everyone if they are successful with the crop. That day when John lovingly teaches Sarny numbers, Delie agrees to learn as well. Sarny is baptized, it is revealed Sarny had stolen a bible that Jeffrey, the master's other son was supposed to take care of which gets him in trouble from his father. She discovers that God was on the slave's side; as Sarny begins to read more and more, the rest of the slaves tell her to stop. She begins to read a story in the Gazette newspaper about a slave insurrection, capturing the other slaves’ attention. Sarny tricks Homer into playing hide and seek so she can go back and read Clel's record book; the Waller plantation had a good crop of cotton this year and as promised, Clel throws a feast. The slaves use this opportunity to let Egypt get married, it is discovered that Egypt is pregnant and is forced to run away. John forges Clel's signature for his wife so they can escape.
Jeffrey discovers the stolen bible, Delie takes the blame. Clel tries to figure out who had taken the bible
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Trafford and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, designated a functional city region on 1 April 2011. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK, it is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire and Merseyside. There is a mix of high-density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry, it has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.
Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; the county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content and dance music, association football. Although Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation at Mellor, Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey; the remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. In the late 18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market; the townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses and transport infrastructure. Places such as Bury and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world.
However, it was Manchester, the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, the natural centre of its region. By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world". In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover t