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Submachine gun

A submachine gun, abbreviated SMG, is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to shoot handgun cartridges. The term "submachine gun" was coined by John T. Thompson, the inventor of the Thompson submachine gun; the submachine gun was developed during World War I. At its peak during World War II, millions of SMGs were made as close quarter offensive weapons. After the war, new SMG designs appeared frequently. However, by the 1980s, SMG usage decreased. Today, submachine guns have been replaced by assault rifles, which have a greater effective range and are capable of penetrating the helmets and body armor used by modern infantry. However, submachine guns are still used by military special forces and police SWAT teams for close quarters battle because they are "a pistol-caliber weapon that's easy to control, less to over-penetrate the target". During World War I, the Austrians introduced the world's first machine pistol the Steyr Repetierpistole M1912/P16; the Germans experimented with machine pistols by converting pistols such as the Mauser C96 and Luger P-08 from semi-automatic to automatic operation and adding detachable stocks.

Carbine-type automatic weapons firing pistol rounds were developed during the latter stages of World War I by Italy and the United States. Their improved firepower and portability offered an advantage in trench warfare. In 1915, the Italians introduced the Villar-Perosa aircraft machine gun, it fired pistol-caliber 9mm Glisenti ammunition, but was not a true submachine gun, as it was designed as a mounted weapon. This odd design was modified into the OVP 1918 carbine-type submachine gun, which evolved into the 9×19mm Parabellum Beretta Model 1918 after the end of World War I. Both the OVP 1918 and the Beretta 1918 had a traditional wooden stock, a 25-round top-fed box magazine, had a cyclic rate of fire of 900 rounds per minute; the Germans used heavier versions of the P08 pistol equipped with a detachable stock, larger-capacity snail-drum magazine and a longer barrel. By 1918, Bergmann Waffenfabrik had developed the 9 mm Parabellum MP 18, the first practical submachine gun; this weapon used the same 32-round snail-drum magazine as the Luger P-08.

The MP 18 was used in significant numbers by German stormtroopers employing infiltration tactics, achieving some notable successes in the final year of the war. However, these were not enough to prevent Germany's collapse in November 1918. After World War I, the MP 18 would evolve into the MP28/II SMG, which incorporated a simple 32-round box magazine, a semi & full auto selector, other minor improvements. The.45 ACP Thompson submachine gun had been in development at the same time as the Bergmann and the Beretta. However, the war ended. Although it had missed its chance to be the first purpose-designed submachine gun to enter service, it became the basis for weapons and had the longest active service life of the three. In the interwar period the "Tommy Gun" or "Chicago Typewriter" became notorious in the U. S. as a gangster's weapon. However, the FBI and other U. S. police forces themselves showed no reluctance to prominently display these weapons. The submachine gun was accepted by many military organizations as World War II loomed, with many countries developing their own designs.

The Italians were among the first to develop submachine guns during World War I. However, they were slow to produce them during World War II; the 9 mm Parabellum Beretta Model 1938 was not available in large numbers until 1943. The 38 was made in a successive series of improved and simplified models all sharing the same basic layout; the Beretta has the front for semi-auto and rear for full-auto. Most models use standard wooden stocks, although some models were fitted with an MP 40-style under-folding stock and are mistaken for the German SMG; the 38 series was robust and proved popular with both Axis forces and Allied troops. It is considered the most successful and effective Italian small arm of World War II; the 38 series is the longest serving of the world's SMGs, as models can still be seen in the hands of Italian military and police forces. In 1939, the Germans introduced the 9 mm Parabellum MP38 during the invasion of Poland. However, the MP38 production was still just starting and only a few thousand were in service at the time.

It proved to be far more practical and effective in close quarters combat than the standard-issue German Kar 98K bolt-action rifle. From it, the simplified and modernized MP40 was made in large numbers; the MP40 was lighter than the MP38. It used more stamped parts, making it faster and cheaper to produce; the MP38 and MP40 were the first SMGs to use a practical folding stock. They would set the fashion for all future SMG designs. During the Winter War, the badly outnumbered Finnish used the Suomi KP/-31 in large numbers against the Russians with devastating effect. Finnish ski troops became known for appearing out of the woods on one side of a road, raking Soviet columns with SMG fire and disappearing back into the woods on the other side. During the Continuation War, the Finnish Sissi patrols would equip every soldier with KP/-31s; the Suomi fired 9 mm Parabellum ammo from a 71-round drum magazine. "This SMG showed to the world the importance of the submachine gun to the modern warfare", prompting the dev

Lumiar (Lisbon Metro)

Lumiar station is part of the Yellow Line of the Lisbon Metro, serving the Lumiar neighbourhood, close to Lisbon airport. It opened in March 27, 2004, in conjunction with the Odivelas, Senhor Roubado and Quinta das Conchas stations, it is located on Estrada da Torre; the architectural design of the station is by Dinis Gomes. 206 Cais do Sodré ⇄ Senhor Roubado 207 Cais do Sodré ⇄ Fetais 703 CharnecaBairro de Santa Cruz 717 Praça do Chile ⇄ Fetais 736 Cais do Sodré ⇄ Odivelas 796 Campo Grande ⇄ Galinheiras 201 Lisboa ⇄ Caneças 300 Lisboa ⇄ Sacavém 311 Lisboa ⇄ Bairro das Coroas 312 Lisboa circulação via Charneca 313 Lisboa circulação via Sacavém 331 Lisboa ⇄ Bucelas 335 Lisboa ⇄ Bucelas via Fanhões 336 Lisboa ⇄ Bucelas via Ribas 901 Lisboa ⇄ Caneças 931 Lisboa ⇄ Pontinha via Centro Comercial List of Lisbon metro stations Media related to Metro station Lumiar at Wikimedia Commons

Zofia Praussowa

Zofia Praussowa was a Polish politician, activist of the Polish Socialist Party, member of Polish Sejm, labor inspector and feminist. She was born in a family of landowners, she was taking lessons in junior high schools in Częstochowa and Kazan. In 1904 she finished. From 1899 she has been involved in the activity of PPS. After finishing studies, she came back to Poland and became a PPS activist in the area of Częstochowa and Zakopane. In 1907 she started her mathematical studies on the parisian Sorbonne which she finished in 1911. After that, she started a coeducational high school, she got arrested for the first time in 1905 for the distribution of appeals against the conscription to the tsarist army. For this act she was sent to Russia however, she escaped from there. In 1906 she was imprisoned in the Pawiak prison. In 1922 she was elected to Sejm, from the list of PPS. In 1928 she was chosen again to be a part of Sejm, but in 1930 she didn't receive a parliamentary mandateDuring World War II, Zofia Praussowa was a part of Związek Walki Zbrojnej - AK.

On 10 November 1942 she got imprisoned in the Pawiak prison. She stayed in the Majdanek concentration camp and Auschwitz, she died before the release of the camp. She was a wife of Ksawery Prauss. Daughters: Jadwiga i Ewa Prauss-Płoska, wife of Stanisław Płoski and mother of Zofia Romaszewska. Józef Piłsudski Polish Socialist Party Union of Armed Struggle E. Zając. Zofia Praussowa inspektor. "Atest". 648, page 54, maj 2001. Warsaw: SIGMA. ISSN 1230–4700. J. M. Majchrowski, K. Stepan, G. Mazur: Kto kim był w drugiej Rzeczypospolitej. Warsaw: Polska Oficyna Wydawnicza "BGW", 1994. ISBN 83-7066-569-1

Dinesh Gupta

Dinesh Chandra Gupta or Dinesh Gupta was a Bengali revolutionary against British rule in India, noted for launching an attack on the Secretariat Building - the Writers' Building in the Dalhousie square in Kolkata, along with Badal Gupta and Benoy Basu. Dinesh Gupta was born on 6 December 1911 in Josholong in Munshiganj District, now in Bangladesh. While he was studying in Dhaka College, Dinesh joined Bengal Volunteers - a group organised by Subhas Chandra Bose in 1928, at the occasion of Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. Soon the Bengal Volunteers transformed itself to a more active revolutionary association and planned to kill infamous British police officers. For a short while, Dinesh Gupta was in Midnapore training local revolutionaries in the use of firearms. Revolutionaries trained by him were responsible for the assassination of three District Magistrates in succession, Douglas and Peddy; the association targeted Col NS Simpson, the Inspector General of Prisons, infamous for the brutal oppression of the prisoners in the jails.

The revolutionaries decided not only to murder him, but to strike a terror in the British official circles by launching an attack on the Secretariat Building - the Writers' Building in the Dalhousie Square in Kolkata. On 8 December 1930, along with Benoy Basu and Badal Gupta, dressed in European costume, entered the Writers' Building and shot dead Simpson. Nearby police started firing at them in response. What ensued was a brief gunfight between the 3 young revolutionaries and the police; some other officers like Twynam and Nelson suffered injuries during the shooting. Soon police overpowered them. However, the three did not wish to be arrested. Badal Gupta took Potassium cyanide, while Dinesh shot themselves with their own revolvers. Benoy was taken to the hospital where he died on 13 December 1930. However, Dinesh survived the near-fatal injury, he was sentenced to death. While in Alipore Jail, he wrote letters to his sister which were compiled into the book'Ami Shubhash Bolchhi', he was hanged on 7 July 1931 at Alipore Jail.

Soon after that, Kanailal Bhattacharjee took revenge for the hanging by killing Mr. Gerlick on 27 July 1931. Dinesh Gupta translated a short story of Anton Chekhov, published in Prabasi Magazine, he wrote 92 letters from the condemned cell of the Alipur Central Jail. Benoy and Dinesh were treated as martyrs by supporters in Bengal and other parts of India. After independence, Dalhousie Square was named B. B. D. Bagh - after the Benoy-Badal-Dinesh trio. In memory of their writers' attack, a plate was engraved in the wall of Writers' Building, first floor. Hemendranath Dasgupta, Bharater Biplab Kahini, II & III, Calcutta, 1948.

Larry Hollyfield

Larry Hollyfield is a former college basketball player for the UCLA Bruins. He won three consecutive national championships with the Bruins from 1971 to 1973, helped the school to a record 88-game consecutive win streak. Hollyfield earned player of year honors playing high school basketball in California before playing one year in junior college, where he earned all-state honors, he transferred to UCLA, where he was a starter in his final season. From his junior year in high school through his final season at UCLA, Hollyfield's teams lost just one game while winning championships in each of his six seasons. In 1973 he was drafted by the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association but never played for them. Instead he went overseas, playing during the 1975-76 season for ADB Koblenz in the German Basketball Bundesliga. Hollyfield attended Compton High School, he won championships in each of his final two years with a combined record of 66–0. In his senior year as a forward, he averaged 18.8 points in 30 games with a field goal percentage of 56 percent, the Helms Athletic Foundation unanimously named him the 1969 California Interscholastic Federation Player of the Year.

Hollyfield played one season at Compton Junior College, where he averaged 22 points and was named to the all-state team. The team went undefeated at 33–0, won the state title, he transferred to UCLA for their 1970–71 season, when they won a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I championship. Although he received minimal playing time during the regular season, he was ineligible for the postseason due to NCAA restrictions on junior college transfers. In his junior year, the 6-foot-5-inch, 215-pound Hollyfield was described by UCLA coach John Wooden as "probably the greatest physical talent on the team". However, the coach said Hollyfield's mistakes and inconsistent play made him more suited for UCLA's bench where "he gives us a big lift." A natural forward, he moved out of position to guard as a senior, replacing the departed Henry Bibby in the starting lineup. Sports Illustrated wrote, "The feeling was that Hollyfield had to be forced onto the starting five this season or be a detriment to the team."

That season ended with a championship over Memphis State in the 1973 NCAA Tournament, extending the school's NCAA record winning steak to 75. Hollyfield finished his UCLA career with a championship in each of his three seasons. Since his junior year in high school, his teams had a combined record of 184–1 with championships in each of the six seasons. Hollyfield was selected by the Portland Trail Blazers in the seventh round of the 1973 NBA Draft with the 105th overall pick, but he never played professionally. Bibby called Hollyfield "one of best players to go through UCLA and not make pros." According to his former teammate, Hollyfield played behind many great players at UCLA, but "he could have been an All-American on many other teams."When he was 32, he received a prosthetic left leg after a circulation problem in his left foot required amputation. In 2009, he suffered a stroke which left him paralyzed. Media related to Larry Hollyfield at Wikimedia Commons

Sergey Sharikov

Sergey Aleksandrovich Sharikov known as Serguei/Sergei Charikov, was a left-handed Russian Olympic champion sabre fencer. In the Olympics he won two gold medals, a silver medal, a bronze medal. Sharikov was born in Moscow and was Jewish. One of the best sabre fencers in the world, Sharikov began fencing at the age of 12, he was a protege of sabre fencer David Tyshler. Sharikov was on the Russian national fencing team from 1994-2005. At the 1997 Summer Universiade and 1999 Summer Universiade, he won bronze medals at the World University Games in sabre. In 2001, while ranked second in the world in sabre, he won the 21st World University Games sabre championship and was part of the Russian team that won the team gold, he won the 2000 European Fencing Championships, came in second at the 2002 European Fencing Championships, third at the 2004 European Fencing Championships. His team won the gold medal in 2000–02 and 2004. In 1994, he won an individual gold medal at the Junior World Fencing Championships.

In 1995, he won a team silver medal at the 1995 World Fencing Championships, an individual silver medal at the Fencing World Cup. He placed third in the individual sabre events at the 1998 World Fencing Championships and 2000 World Fencing Championships, third in the team sabre event at the 1999 World Fencing Championships, his team won the gold medal in 2001–03. He competed in three Olympiads for Russia. At the 1996 Atlanta Games, ranked as world # 4, he competed in both the individual and team events. In the team sabre competition and the Russians defeated Hungary in the final to win the gold medal. In the individual competition, Sharikov advanced to the final before losing 15–12 to teammate Stanislav Pozdnyakov. Sharikov returned to the Olympics at the 2000 Sydney Games and helped lead the Russian team to its second consecutive gold medal in the team sabre event. In the individual sabre, Sharikov entered the Olympics as the # 3 seed, but was eliminated in the third round of the competition, 15–14.

Sharikov was seeded fourth in the individual sabre event in the 2004 Athens Games. The Russian lost a close match, 13–15 in the quarterfinal, to Italian Aldo Montano, who went on to win the gold. In the team event, Russia lost its semifinal encounter with Italy 42–45, but Russia won the bronze medal match. Sharikov was a participant for the Russian team at the 2001 Maccabiah Games in Israel, he won the gold medal in the individual sabre over fellow Olympian, Vadim Gutzeit of the Ukraine. He competed in the 2005 Maccabiah Games in Israel, this time winning the silver medal as Vadim Gutzeit beat him 15–13 for the gold medal. Sharikov coached the Russia fencing team at the 2001 Maccabiah Games. After finishing his competitive career, Sharikov was a member of the executive committee of the Russian Fencing Federation, in 2009 he became head coach of the Russian national sabre reserve team. Sharikov was inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 2003 and 2005. Sharikov died in the evening of 6 June 2015 in an automobile accident at the age of 40.

While on vacation, he was driving an all-terrain vehicle on the Kaluga-Tarusa-Serpukhov highway south-west of Moscow as a part of a group of ATV drivers when he lost control of his vehicle and it changed into the opposite traffic lane and collided head-on with a car driving in the opposite direction. The other car's driver was hospitalized. Sharikov died there from his injuries. List of select Jewish fencers