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Submarine-launched ballistic missile

A submarine-launched ballistic missile is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines. Modern variants deliver multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles each of which carries a nuclear warhead and allows a single launched missile to strike several targets. Submarine-launched ballistic missiles operate in a different way from submarine-launched cruise missiles. Modern submarine-launched ballistic missiles are related to intercontinental ballistic missiles, with ranges of over 5,500 kilometres, in many cases SLBMs and ICBMs may be part of the same family of weapons; the first practical design of a submarine-based launch platform was developed by the Germans near the end of World War II involving a launch tube which contained a V-2 ballistic missile variant and was towed behind a submarine, known by the code-name Prüfstand XII. The war ended before it could be tested, but the engineers who had worked on it went on to work for the United States and for the Soviet Union on their SLBM programs.

These and other early SLBM systems required vessels to be surfaced when they fired missiles, but launch systems were adapted to allow underwater launching in the 1950-1960s. A converted Project 611 submarine launched the world's first SLBM, an R-11FM on 16 September 1955. Five additional Project V611 and AV611 Submarines became the world's first operational ballistic missile submarines with two R-11FM missiles each, entering service in 1956–57; the United States Navy worked on a sea-based variant of the US Army Jupiter intermediate-range ballistic missile, projecting four of the large, liquid-fueled missiles per submarine. Rear Admiral W. F. "Red" Raborn headed a Special Project Office to develop Jupiter for the Navy, beginning in late 1955. However, at the Project Nobska submarine warfare conference in 1956, physicist Edward Teller stated that a physically small one-megaton warhead could be produced for the small, solid-fueled Polaris missile, this prompted the Navy to leave the Jupiter program in December of that year.

Soon Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Arleigh Burke concentrated all Navy strategic research on Polaris, still under Admiral Raborn's Special Project Office. All US SLBMs have been solid-fueled while all Soviet and Russian SLBMs have been liquid-fueled except for the Russian RSM-56 Bulava, which entered service in 2014; the world's first operational nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine was USS George Washington with 16 Polaris A-1 missiles, which entered service in December 1959 and conducted the first SSBN deterrent patrol November 1960 – January 1961. George Washington conducted the first successful submerged SLBM launch with a Polaris A-1 on 20 July 1960. Forty days the Soviet Union made its first successful underwater launch of a submarine ballistic missile in the White Sea, on 10 September 1960 from the same converted Project 611 submarine that first launched the R-11FM; the Soviets were only a year behind the US with their first SSBN, the ill-fated K-19 of Project 658, commissioned in November 1960.

However, the Hotel class carried only three R-13 missiles each and had to surface and raise the missile to launch. Submerged launch was not an operational capability for the Soviets until 1963, when the R-21 missile was first backfitted to Project 658 and Project 629 submarines; the Soviet Union was able to beat the U. S. in launching and testing the first SLBM with a live nuclear warhead, an R-13 that detonated in the Novaya Zemlya Test Range in the Arctic Ocean, doing so on 20 October 1961, just ten days before the gigantic 50 Mt Tsar Bomba's detonation in the same general area. The United States conducted a similar test in the Pacific Ocean on 6 May 1962, with a Polaris A-2 launched from USS Ethan Allen as part of the nuclear test series Operation Dominic; the first Soviet SSBN with 16 missiles was the Project 667A, which first entered service in 1967 with 32 boats completed by 1974. By the time the first Yankee was commissioned the US had built 41 SSBNs, nicknamed the "41 for Freedom"; the short range of the early SLBMs dictated deployment locations.

By the late 1960s the Polaris A-3 was deployed on all US SSBNs with a range of 4,600 kilometres, a great improvement on the 1,900 kilometres range of Polaris A-1. The A-3 had three warheads that landed in a pattern around a single target; the Yankee class was equipped with the R-27 Zyb missile with a range of 2,400 kilometres. The US was much more fortunate in its basing arrangements than the Soviets. Thanks to NATO and the US possession of Guam, US SSBNs were permanently forward deployed at Advanced Refit Sites in Holy Loch, Rota and Guam by the middle 1960s, resulting in short transit times to patrol areas near the Soviet Union; the SSBN facilities at the Advanced Refit Sites were austere, with only a submarine tender and floating dry dock. Converted merchant ships designated T-AKs were provided to ferry supplies to the sites. With two rotating crews per boat, about one-third of the total US force could be in a patrol area at any time; the Soviet bases, in the Murmansk area for the Atlantic and the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky area for the Pacific, required their SSBNs to make a long transit to their mid-ocean patrol areas to hold the continental United States at risk.

This resulted in only a small percentage of the Soviet force occupying patrol areas at any time, an


Záhorce is a village and municipality in the Veľký Krtíš District of the Banská Bystrica Region of southern Slovakia. Záhorce lies on the right bank of the river Ipeľ in the Krtíš valley. At present, the municipality of Záhorce includes in its territorial division two former independent villages of Selešťany and Podlužany; the Evangelical church, a simple one-aisle tolerance building with a semi-circularly finished presbytery and a tower of 1781. After a fire in 1831, the church was restored in 1846; the interior is flat-ceilinged with a fabion. The altar is a simple Baroque column architecture from the 18th century; the church facades are smooth, the windows have a semi-circular finish. The tower, divided by pilasters, is finished with a bell helmet. Official website

Castel C.25S

The Castel C.25S, sometimes known as the Aire, is a French training glider with side by side seating first flown during World War II. Post war, more than 100 were built for clubs. Several remained registered in 2010. Robert Castello began the design of the C.25S soon after the Franco-German Armistice of June 1940, at about the same time as the start of the Caudron C.800 design. Both aircraft were intended to increase the number of machines available for recreational gliding in the southern, unoccupied region of France; the first two prototypes of the C.25S both flew in 1942. The C.25S is an all wood aircraft with a monocoque fuselage skinned with plywood and fabric covered, wooden framed wings. The cantilever, high mounted, constant dihedral wings have a constant chord inner section, occupying about 40% of the span, outer, straight tapered panels with rounded wing tips and ailerons filling their trailing edges. Airbrakes are mounted at mid-chord on the inner-outer panel junction; the fuselage is polygonal in cross-section, tapering to the tail.

The crew are seated beneath the leading edge of the wing in side-by-side seating equipped with dual control, enclosed by a canopy, hinged at the leading edge of the wing. The C.23S has a narrow fin with a shallow forward extension that mounts the tapered tailplane clear of the fuselage. Its rudder is horn balanced, has a curved trailing edge and extends down to the keel, requiring a cut-out between the separate elevators for its movement; the C.25S has a fixed monowheel undercarriage, assisted by a forward mounted main skid and small tailskid. 100 C.25S were ordered by the French Air Ministry to assist the post-war revival of aviation in France. These were built in Fouga's factory at Aire-sur-Adour between 1945 and 1948 and delivered to French gliding clubs. More may have been built. Hardy asserts a total of 200. Despite the uncertainty, it seems there were fewer C.25Ss with French clubs than Caudron C.800s but that the two types together provided the backbone of the French glider basic training fleet until the arrival of the Wassmer WA 30 Bijave in the early 1960s, a period of fifteen years or more.

The C. 25S proved setting several records in the early 1950s. A pair of C.25S had a role in one of the most commercially successful French films, the 1966 comedy La Grande Vadrouille. Five remained on the French civil aircraft register in 2010. Data from The World's SailplanesGeneral characteristics Crew: Two Length: 7.23 m Wingspan: 16.0 m Height: 2.22 m Wing area: 20.0 m2 Aspect ratio: 12.8 Empty weight: 261 kg Gross weight: 441 kg Performance Never exceed speed: 140 km/h Rough air speed max: 90 km/h Aerotow speed: 100 km/h Maximum glide ratio: about 25 at 67–69 km/h Rate of sink: 0.73 m/s minimum, at 62 km/h Wing loading: 22.0 kg/m2

Jacob Stockdale

Jacob Stockdale is a Northern Irish professional rugby union player who plays for Ulster and for Ireland. He plays on the wing, his development was helped by the coaching staff at Lurgan Rugby Club. It was here he got scouted by the Ulster setup, he has represented Ireland Under 20s and made his debut for the senior Ulster side as a 19-year-old in 2015. He played for Ireland U20 at the 2015 and 2016 editions of the World Rugby Under 20 Championship On 16 May 2017, Stockdale was named in the Ireland squad for the 2017 Summer Tour. On 10 June 2017, Stockdale made his senior debut for Ireland when he played against the United States in a one-off test in the Red Bull Arena, New Jersey, scoring a try in the 55–19 Irish victory. Stockdale played his first home game for Ireland on 11 November 2017, against the South Africa where he scored a try. Two weeks in the same November series he won'man of the match' award scoring two tries in Ireland's 28–19 victory over Argentina. In the 2018 Six Nations Championship, Stockdale scored seven tries in the games against Italy, Wales and England, setting a new record for the most tries in the Six Nations Championship as Ireland won the Grand Slam.

Stockdale was named as the 2018 Six Nations Player of the Championship. In November 2018, Stockdale scored the try that secured Ireland their first victory against the All Blacks on Irish soil. Correct as of 1 September 2019 Six Nations Championship: Winner: 2018 Grand Slam: Winner: 2018 Triple Crown: Winner:2018 Six Nations Player of the Championship: Winner: 2018 BBC Northern Ireland Sports Personality of the Year:2018 Stockdale is a Christian, prays before each game. Ulster Rugby Profile Ireland Profile Ireland U20 Profile ESPN Profile


The Rhytismataceae are a family of fungi in the Rhytismatales order. It contains 55 728 species. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the following genera are in the Rhytismataceae; the placement of the genus Nymanomyces is uncertain. Bifusella — Bifusepta — Bivallium — Canavirgella — Ceratophacidium — Cerion — Coccomyces — Colpoma — Criella — Davisomycella — Discocainia — Duplicaria — Duplicariella — Elytroderma — Hypoderma — Hypodermella — Hypohelion — Isthmiella — Lirula — Lophodermella — Lophodermium — Lophomerum — Marthamyces — Meloderma — Moutoniella — Myriophacidium — Nematococcomyces — Neococcomyces — Nothorhytisma — Nymanomyces — Parvacoccum — Ploioderma — Propolis — Pureke — Rhytisma — Soleella — Sporomega — Terriera — Therrya — Triblidiopsis — Virgella — Vladracula — Xyloschizon — Zeus

Tribe of Asher

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Asher was one of the Tribes of Israel descended from Asher, the eighth son of Jacob. It is one of the ten lost tribes. According to the biblical Book of Joshua, following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. According to biblical scholar Kenneth Kitchen, this conquest should be dated after 1200 BC. However, the consensus of modern scholars is that the conquest of Joshua as described in the Book of Joshua never occurred. In the biblical account, Joshua assigned Asher western and coastal Galilee, a region with comparatively low temperature, much rainfall, making it some of the most fertile land in Canaan, with rich pasture, wooded hills, orchards; the Blessing of Moses appears to prophesy this allocation, although textual scholars view this as a postdiction. From after the conquest of the land by Joshua until the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel in c. 1050 BC, the Tribe of Asher was a part of a loose confederation of Israelite tribes.

No central government existed, in times of crisis the people were led by ad hoc leaders known as Judges. With the growth of the threat from Philistine incursions, the Israelite tribes decided to form a strong centralized monarchy to meet the challenge, the Tribe of Asher joined the new kingdom with Saul as the first king. After the death of Saul, all the tribes other than Judah remained loyal to the House of Saul, followed his son Ish-bosheth, but after Ish-bosheth's death, the Tribe of Asher joined the other northern Israelite tribes in making David, the king of Judah, king of a re-united Kingdom of Israel. On the accession of Rehoboam, David's grandson, in c. 930 BC the northern tribes split from the House of David to reform a Kingdom of Israel as the Northern Kingdom. Asher was a member of the kingdom until the kingdom was conquered by Assyria in c. 723 BC and the population deported. From that time, the Tribe of Asher has been counted as one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. In the New Testament, Anna the prophetess and her father, are described as belonging to the Tribe of Asher.

Despite the connection to this general geographic region, it is difficult to determine from the Torah the exact boundaries of the tribe, to the extent that it is uncertain whether Asher had continuous territory. Sites which according to the Bible were allocated to Asher, whose locations have since been identified, appear to be a scattered distribution of settlements rather than a compact and well-defined tribal region. Despite appearing to have had good contact with the markets of Phoenicia, Asher appears, throughout its history, to have been disconnected from the other tribes of Israel. Critical scholars conclude that Asher consisted of certain clans that were affiliated with portions of the Israelite tribal confederation, but were never incorporated into the body politic. According to the Torah, the tribe consisted of descendants of Asher the eighth son of Jacob, from whom it took its name. A group referred to as Aseru, living in a similar region to Asher, are mentioned in Egyptian documents made by/for Seti I and Ramses II.

Identification with the tribe of Asher is plausible according to Jewish scripts that date the Exodus in 1312 BCE. Multiple estimates of non-religious historians have been made ranging from 1200 to 1400 BCE. Jewish Virtual Library This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "Asher". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons