click links in text for more info

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone. As early as the 1950s, meteorologists were uncertain whether they should be characterized as tropical or extratropical cyclones, they were recognized by the National Hurricane Center in 1972. Beginning in 2002, subtropical cyclones received names from the official tropical cyclone lists in the North Atlantic, South-west Indian Ocean, South Atlantic basins. There are two definitions used for subtropical cyclones. Across the north Atlantic and southwest Indian Ocean, they require central convection near the center and a warming core in the mid-levels of the troposphere. Across the eastern half of the northern Pacific, they require a mid-tropospheric cyclone to be cut off from the main belt of the westerlies and only a weak surface circulation. Subtropical cyclones have broad wind patterns with maximum sustained winds located farther from the center than typical tropical cyclones, have no weather fronts linked into their center.

Since they form from extratropical cyclones which have colder temperatures aloft than found in the tropics, the sea surface temperatures required for their formation are lower than the tropical cyclone threshold by 3°C, lying around 23 °C. This means that subtropical cyclones are more to form outside the traditional bounds of the North Atlantic hurricane season. Subtropical cyclones are observed to form in the South Atlantic. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the term semi-tropical and quasi-tropical were used for what would become known as subtropical cyclones; the term subtropical cyclone referred to any cyclone located in the subtropical belt near and just north of the horse latitudes. Intense debate ensued in the late 1960s, after a number of hybrid cyclones formed in the Atlantic Basin. In 1972, the National Hurricane Center designated these storms as subtropical cyclones in real-time, updated the hurricane database to include subtropical cyclones from 1968 through 1971; the term "neutercane" began to be used for small subtropical cyclones which formed from mesoscale features, the NHC began issuing public statements during the 1972 Atlantic hurricane season employing that classification.

This name was not noted as controversial in contemporary news reports, but it was dropped less than a year later. Recent articles, published after the year 2000, have suggested that the name "neutercane" was considered sexist in the 1970s, but there do not appear to be any published reports from that period making this claim. In the North Atlantic basin, subtropical cyclones were named from the NATO phonetic alphabet list in the early to mid-1970s. In the intervening years of 1975–2001, subtropical storms were either named from the traditional list and considered tropical in real-time, or used a separate numbering system. Between 1992 and 2001, two different numbers were given to subtropical depressions or subtropical storms, one for public use, the other one for NRL and NHC reference. For example, Hurricane Karen in 2001 was known as Subtropical Storm One as well as AL1301. In 2002, the NHC began giving numbers to subtropical depressions and names to subtropical storms from the same sequence as tropical cyclones.

From 2002 onward, Subtropical Depression 13L would be known as Subtropical Depression Thirteen instead. Hurricane Gustav of 2002 was the first Subtropical Storm to receive a name but became tropical shortly after naming. Subtropical Storm Nicole, from the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season was the first subtropical storm that did not become tropical since the policy change. A subtropical storm from the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season did not become tropical, but was not named since it was not recognized until post-season analysis. In the southern Indian Ocean, subtropical cyclones are named once winds reach tropical storm, or gale, force. Since 2011, subtropical storms in the western South Atlantic Ocean are named by the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center. Subtropical cyclones form in a wide band of latitude south of the 50th parallel in the northern hemisphere. Due to the increased frequency of cyclones which cut off from the main belt of the westerlies during the summer and fall, subtropical cyclones are more frequent across the North Atlantic than the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

In the eastern half of the north Pacific Ocean and north Indian Ocean, the older subtropical cyclone definition term is still used, which requires a weak circulation forming underneath a mid to upper-tropospheric low which has cut off from the main belt of the westerlies during the cold season. In the case of the north Indian Ocean, the formation of this type of vortex leads to the onset of monsoon rains during the wet season. In the southern hemisphere, subtropical cyclones are observed across southern portions of the Mozambique Channel. Most subtropical cyclones form when a deep cold-core extratropical cyclone drops down into the subtropics; the system becomes blocked by a high latitude ridge, sheds its frontal boundaries as its source of cool and dry air from the high latitudes diverts away from the system. Temperature differences between the 500 hPa pressure level and the sea surface temperatures exceed the dry adiabatic lapse rate, which causes an initial round of thunderstorms to form at a distance east of the center.

Due to the initial cold temperatures aloft, sea surface temperatures need to reach at least 20 °C for this initial round of thunderstorms. The initial thunderstorm activity moistens up the environment around the low, which destabilizes the atmosphere by reducing


Onchocerciasis known as river blindness, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. Symptoms include severe itching, bumps under the skin, blindness, it is the second-most common cause of blindness due to infection, after trachoma. The parasite worm is spread by the bites of a black fly of the Simulium type. Many bites are required before infection occurs; these flies live near rivers, hence the common name of the disease. Once inside a person, the worms create larvae that make their way out to the skin, where they can infect the next black fly that bites the person. There are a number of ways to make the diagnosis, including: placing a biopsy of the skin in normal saline and watching for the larva to come out, looking in the eye for larvae, looking within the bumps under the skin for adult worms. A vaccine against the disease does not exist. Prevention is by avoiding being bitten by flies; this may include the use of insect proper clothing. Other efforts include those to decrease the fly population by spraying insecticides.

Efforts to eradicate the disease by treating entire groups of people twice a year are ongoing in a number of areas of the world. Treatment of those infected is with the medication ivermectin every six to twelve months; this treatment kills the larvae but not the adult worms. The antibiotic doxycycline weakens the worms by killing an associated bacterium called Wolbachia, is recommended by some as well; the lumps under the skin may be removed by surgery. About 15.5 million people are infected with river blindness. 0.8 million have some amount of loss of vision from the infection. Most infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa, although cases have been reported in Yemen and isolated areas of Central and South America. In 1915, the physician Rodolfo Robles first linked the worm to eye disease, it is listed by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease. Adult worms remain in subcutaneous nodules. Microfilariae, in contrast, are able to induce intense inflammatory responses upon their death.

Wolbachia species have been found to be endosymbionts of O. volvulus adults and microfilariae, are thought to be the driving force behind most of O. volvulus morbidity. Dying microfilariae have been discovered to release Wolbachia surface protein that activates TLR2 and TLR4, triggering innate immune responses and producing the inflammation and its associated morbidity; the severity of illness is directly proportional to the number of infected microfilariae and the power of the resultant inflammatory response. Skin involvement consists of intense itching and inflammation. A grading system has been developed to categorize the degree of skin involvement: Acute papular onchodermatitis – scattered pruritic papules Chronic papular onchodermatitis – larger papules, resulting in hyperpigmentation Lichenified onchodermatitis – hyperpigmented papules and plaques, with edema, lymphadenopathy and common secondary bacterial infections Skin atrophy – loss of elasticity, the skin resembles tissue paper,'lizard skin' appearance Depigmentation –'leopard skin' appearance on anterior lower leg Glaucoma effect – eyes malfunction, begin to see shadows or nothingOcular involvement provides the common name associated with onchocerciasis, river blindness, may involve any part of the eye from conjunctiva and cornea to uvea and posterior segment, including the retina and optic nerve.

The microfilariae migrate to the surface of the cornea. Punctate keratitis occurs in the infected area; this clears up as the inflammation subsides. However, if the infection is chronic, sclerosing keratitis can occur, making the affected area become opaque. Over time, the entire cornea may become opaque; some evidence suggests the effect on the cornea is caused by an immune response to bacteria present in the worms. The infected person's skin is itchy, with severe rashes permanently damaging patches of skin; the Mazzotti reaction, first described in 1948, is a symptom complex seen in patients after undergoing treatment of onchocerciasis with the medication diethylcarbamazine. Mazzotti reactions can be life-threatening, are characterized by fever, urticaria and tender lymph nodes, hypotension, arthralgias and abdominal pain that occur within seven days of treatment of microfilariasis; the phenomenon is so common when DEC is used that this drug is the basis of a skin patch test used to confirm that diagnosis.

The drug patch is placed on the skin, if the patient is infected with O. volvulus microfilaria, localized pruritus and urticaria are seen at the application site. This is an unusual form of epidemic epilepsy associated with onchocerciasis although definitive link has not been established; this syndrome was first described in Tanzania by Louise Jilek-Aall, a Norwegian psychiatric doctor in Tanzanian practice, during the 1960s. It occurs most in Uganda and South Sudan, it manifests itself in healthy 5–15-year-old children, is triggered by eating or low temperatures and is accompanied by cognitive impairment. Seizures occur and may be difficult to control; the electroencephalogram is abnormal but cerebrospinal fluid and magnetic resonance imaging are normal or show non-specific changes. If there are abnormalities on the MRI they are present in the hippocampus. Polymerase chain reaction testing of the CSF does not show the presence of the parasite; the cause is Onchocerca volvulus. The life of the parasite can be traced through the black fly and the human hosts in the following steps: A Simulium female black fly takes a blood meal on an infected human host, ingests micr


Thonnakkal is a village located on Thiruvananthapuram metropolitan area the southern side of Kerala, India. It is located on the National Highway 47 on the way to Kollam from the state's capital, it is located about 25 km from the state's capital Thiruvananthapuram. Mahakavi Kumaranasan, a major poet of Malayalam literature lived in Thonnakkal for long time and his major literary contributions came while he was staying in Thonnakkal. Birthplace of the late Mahakavi Kumaranasan, is near Kayikkara in Thiruvananthapuram District; the house of Kumaranasan is now converted into a tourist spot named Kumaranasan Smarakom. The place has given birth to Kathakali artistes like Thonnakkal Peethambaran and Margi Vijayakumar. Thonnakkal is well known for sports such as Volley Ball. Thonnakkal owns its own Volleyball Team based upon Thonnakkal Samskarika Samithi

Henry Damian Juncker

Henry Damian Juncker was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was the first Bishop of Alton, serving from 1857 until his death. Juncker was born Fénétrange and while a young student at the Pont-à-Mousson seminary he decided to devote his life to the American missions, attaching himself to the Diocese of Cincinnati, Ohio, he emigrated to the Cincinnati. He was ordained a priest by John Baptist Purcell the Bishop of Cincinnati, on March 16, 1834, he served as pastor of Holy Trinity Church in Cincinnati until 1836, when he became pastor of St. Mary's Church in Canton. In 1846 he was named pastor of the Church of Emanuel in Dayton. On January 9, 1857, Juncker was appointed the first bishop of the newly erected Diocese of Alton—now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield in Illinois—by Pope Pius IX, he received his consecration on the following April 26 from Purcell, with John Henni and Joshua Maria Young serving as co-consecrators. At the time of his arrival, the diocese contained 58 churches, 18 priests, 50,000 Catholics.

He completed the first cathedral in 1859, founded two men's colleges, six girls' academies, a seminary, two hospitals, one orphanage. Juncker died in Alton, aged 59, he was buried in a vault under his cathedral


Vaikhānasam is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism and worships Vishnu as the Supreme God. The followers are Brahmins of Krishna Yajurveda Taittiriya Shakha and Vaikhanasa Kalpasutra; the name Vaikhānasa stands for the followers and the fundamental philosophy itself with the name derived from founder, Sage Vaikhanasa. It is principally monotheistic in its philosophy, whilst incorporating elements which could be described as being panentheistic. Vaikhanansas principle focuses on rituals and worship of Lord Vishnu rather than the philosophy of Uttara Mimamsa, unlike Vaishnavism, the larger and more prevalent form on Vishnu worship. Vaikhanasa bhagavath Shastra is the guiding principle for rituals in Tirumala Venkateswara temple; the Vaikhanasa Brahmins/Vaikhanasas originated as a group of ascetics. In the Manava Dharmasastra, Manu discusses vanaprastha, forest-dweller, the third of the four asramas, stages of life, mentions a "Vaikhanasa rule." Other ancient authorities support this reference, so it seems there was a Vaikhanasa ascetic community before the common era.

They are mentioned in the Narayaniya, a late section of the Mahabharata of uncertain date but no earlier than the third century CE. Surviving Vaikhanasa sutras are no older than the fourth century CE. Inscriptions from the eighth century CE identify Vaikhanasas as temple priests, from the end of the tenth century they are prominently mentioned in South Indian inscriptions. Vaikhanasas were the priests of Vishnu temples, they were not ritual priests, but were trusted with administering the temples and their lands. Śrī Bhagavad Rāmānujacharya, leader of the Śrī Vaiṣṇavas and the organiser of temple administration at Srirangam Temple, replaced the Vaikhanasa system of worship which came into practice with the Pañcaratra system. During those time Vaikhanasa Priests saved the Srirangam Temple and worshipped the God with Sri Vaikanasa Agama Bagavath Shaastram; however Sri Ramanujacharya gave importance to both Vaikhanasas and Pancharathras as it is evident that he had not changed the Agama Rituals of Tirumala Tirupathi, Manakkal Nambi temple, Tiruvallikeni Temple, Mylapore Sri Peiazhwar Temple which are famous and popular SriVaishnava temples worshipped according to Sri Vaikanasa Agama rituals.

Today Vaikhanasas are the chief priests in more than half of the Vaishnava temples in the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka. Their present-day temple activities are worthy of attention, as are their efforts to work for community integrity, threatened by increasing social and technological changes. "The Vaikhanasa-sutra belonging to the Trivandrum Sanskrit Series has been edited by Dr. W. Caland and translated into English with a learned introduction; this sutra - text forms part of the Krishna Yajurveda tradition and derives its name from Vaikhanas, its author. The work contains three types of Sutras —the Shrauta, the Grhya and the Dharma which altogether may be designated as Smarta-sutra. There is no doubt that both the portions have one author, since the style of the Grhya and Dharma-sutras is the same. Moreover, the author himself promises to continue a topic discussed in the Grhya- portion again in the books on Dharma; the work is on the whole a small one but it contains in the main the same materials as are treated by its predecessors."

—Vaikhanasasmartasutram: The Domestic Rules and Sacred Laws of the Vaikhanasa School Belonging to the Krishna Yajurveda translated into English by W. Caland; the Vaikhanasa Brahmins/Vaikhanasas are a tiny vaishnavite Brahmin community of about 4000 families dispersed in South India at Vaishnava temples in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka and worldwide in the United States of America, Australia, UK, some parts of Europe. Some of the prominent Hindu temples following the Vaikanasa Agama are Sri Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala Sri Parthasarathy Temple, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India India Cultural Center and Temple, Tennessee, USA Sri Prasanna Venkateswaraa Swamy Temple, Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple, West Godavari Dist. Andhra Pradesh, India. Sri Veeranarayana swamy Temple,Belavadi,Chikmagalur Dist,Karnataka # Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple, East Godavari Dist, Andhra Pradesh, India. Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple, Tirumala Giri, Krishna Dist. Andhra Pradesh, India.

Sri Lakshmi Varaha Venkataramana Swamy Temple, Anjaneya Nagar, 3rd Stage Banashankari, Karnataka, India. Sri Ranganatha Swamy Temple Ballapur pet, Bangalore Karnataka, India Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple, Lagos, Nigeria. Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India Sri Rama and Sri Tuppadanjaneyaswamy Temple, Rangaswamy temple street, Avenue road cross, Bangalore. Sri Chennakeshava swamy temple, Bangalore, Karnataka,India. Sri Venkataramanswamy Temple Avenue road Bangalore Sri Venkataramanswamy Temple Dharmarayaswamy temple road, Ganigarapet Bangalore Sri Lakshminarasimha swamy temple, Near Upparpet Police station, Bangalore. Sri Lakshmi Narasimha swamiTemple, Andhra Pradesh Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple, Jaggayyapet, Krishna Dist. Andhra Pra

U.S. Women's Clay Court Championships

The U. S. Open Clay Courts, known formally as the U. S. Clay Court Championships, was a national tennis championship for women, sanctioned by the United States Tennis Association; the first edition was held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1912, two years after the first men's championships, was won by May Sutton. The final edition was won by Steffi Graf; the tournament was not held in 1913, 1924–1939 and 1942. The doubles event was first held in 1914. Nancy Richey and Chris Evert won more singles titles at this tournament than any other woman. Linda Tuero holds the record for runners-up in singles. 1912: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1913: Not held 1914: Cincinnati, Ohio 1915: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1916: Cleveland, Ohio 1917: Cincinnati, Ohio 1918–19: Chicago, Illinois 1920: Detroit, Michigan 1921–23: Buffalo, New York 1924–39: Not held 1940–41: River Forest, Illinois 1942: Not held 1943–44: Detroit, Michigan 1947: Salt Lake City, Utah 1948–54: River Forest, Illinois 1955: Atlanta, Georgia 1956–65: River Forest, Illinois 1966–68: Milwaukee, Wisconsin 1969–86: Indianapolis, Indiana U.

S. Men's Clay Court Championships U. S. Women's Indoor Championships WTA Tour history