Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The shawm is a conical bore, double-reed woodwind instrument made in Europe from the 12th century to the present day. It achieved its peak of popularity during the medieval and Renaissance periods, after which it was eclipsed by the oboe family of descendant instruments in classical music, it is to have come to Western Europe from the Eastern Mediterranean around the time of the Crusades. Double reed instruments similar to the shawm were long present in Southern Europe and the East, for instance the Ancient Greek, Byzantine, the Persian sorna, the Armenian duduk; the body of the shawm is turned from a single piece of wood, terminates in a flared bell somewhat like that of a trumpet. Beginning in the 16th century, shawms were made in several sizes, from sopranino to great bass, four and five-part music could be played by a consort consisting of shawms. All shawms have at least one key allowing a downward extension of the compass; the bassoon-like double reed, made from the same Arundo donax cane used for oboes and bassoons, is inserted directly into a socket at the top of the instrument, or in the larger types, on the end of a metal tube called the bocal.
The pirouette, a small wooden attachment with a cavity in the center resembling a thimble, surrounds the lower part of the reed—this provides support for the lips and embouchure. Since only a short portion of the reed protrudes past the pirouette, the player has only limited contact with the reed, therefore limited control of dynamics; the shawm’s conical bore and flaring bell, combined with the style of playing dictated by the use of a pirouette, gives the instrument a piercing, trumpet-like sound, well-suited for outdoor performances. In English the name only first appears in the 14th century. There were three main variant forms, schallemele and scalmuse, each derived from a corresponding variant in Old French: chalemel and chalemeaux, each in turn derived from the Latin calamus, or its Vulgar Latin diminutive form, calamellus; the early plural forms were mistaken for a singular, new plurals were formed from them. The reduction in the 15th and 16th centuries to a single syllable in forms such as schalme, shawme, "shawm", was due to this confusion of plural and singular forms.
In German the shawm is called Schalmei This is borne out by the similar names of many folk shawms used as traditional instruments in various European nations: in Spain, many traditional shawms with different names can be found, such as the Castilian and Leonese dulzaina. In Portugal there is an instrument called charamela. However, it is possible that the name comes from the Arabic salamiya, a traditional oboe from Egypt, as the European shawm seems to have been developed from similar instruments brought to Europe from the Near East during the time of the Crusades; this Arabic name is itself linguistically related to many other Eastern names for the instrument: the Arabic zamr, the Turkish zūrnā, the Persian surnāy, the Chinese suona, the Javanese saruni, the Hindu sahanai or sanayi. Instruments resembling the medieval shawm can still be heard in many countries today, played by street musicians or military bands; the latter use would have been familiar to crusaders, who had to face massed bands of Saracen shawms and nakers, used as a psychological weapon.
It must have had a profound effect, as the shawm was adopted by Europeans, for dancing as well as for military purposes. The standard outdoor dance band in the fifteenth century consisted of a slide trumpet playing popular melodies, while two shawms improvised countermelodies over it. In many Asian countries, shawm technique includes circular breathing allowing continuous playing without pauses for air. By the early 16th century, the shawm had undergone considerable development; the harsh tonality of the medieval shawm had been modulated somewhat by a narrowing of the bore and a reduction in the size of the fingerholes. This extended the range, enabling the performer to play the notes in the second octave. Larger sizes of shawm were built, down to the great bass in B♭, two octaves and a major third below the soprano in D. However, the larger sizes were unwieldy, which made them somewhat rare; the smaller sizes of shawm, chiefly the soprano and sometimes the tenor, were more coupled with the Renaissance trombone, or sackbut, the majestic sound of this ensemble was much in demand by civic authorities.
The shawm became standard equipment for town bands, or waits, who were required to herald the start of municipal functions and signal the major times of day. The shawm became so associated with the town waits that it was known as the wait-pipe; the shawm was reserved exclusively for outdoor performance—for softer, indoor music, other instruments such as the crumhorn and cornamuse were preferred. These were double reed instruments fitted with a capsule
Twisted Sister was an American heavy metal band from Ho-Ho-Kus, New Jersey, based in Long Island, New York. Twisted Sister's best-known hits include "We're Not Gonna Take It" and "I Wanna Rock", which had music videos noted for their sense of slapstick humor. Many of the band's songs explore themes of parent vs. child conflicts and criticisms of the educational system. Although the band is considered glam metal for its image, frontman Dee Snider considers the term to be inappropriate. Twisted Sister are ranked No. 73 in VH1's 100 greatest artists of hard rock. The band Silver Star, soon to be renamed to Twisted Sister, was formed after John Segall was added following auditions in the "band house" located in Ho-Ho-Kus, New Jersey in late December 1972. Manhattan resident John Segall was asked to join the "glitter band" Silver Star. Silver Star was the creation of the drummer Mel Anderson as the "New Jersey version of the New York Dolls", consisting of Billy Diamond, Wayne Brown, Tony Bunn, Steve Guarino.
At the same time as Silver Star/Twisted Sister was created, Mel Star's brother, Al Anderson, was the guitar player for Bob Marley and the Wailers. Segall pushed to have it changed. Michael O'Neill took over the lead singer role from Wayne Brown. O'Neill came up with the name Twisted Sister at a rehearsal on Valentine's Day in February 1973. Mel was so excited about the new name that as soon as rehearsal ended, he went directly from his house in Montclair, NJ to the band's manager's office in West Orange, NJ, barged in to make the announcement. Along with the name change came some stylistic changes that resulted in an amicable parting of ways for some members. Bassist Tony Bunn and keyboardist Steve Guarino left soon after first lead singer Brown. Guitarist Billy Diamond, drummer Mel Star, Johnny Heartbreaker, new bass player Kenneth Harrison Neill made up the next lineup of Twisted Sister; the band found work and started playing six nights a week. The group secured a residency at the Mad Hatter in East Quogue, New York for the summer of 1973 and played 105 nights from Memorial Day to Labor day.
The band played at other places as well. By December 1974, when this first version of the band broke up, Jay Jay had played nearly 600 nights and about 3,000 performances as the band played five 40-minute shows per night, each with costume changes, some ending as late as 8 a.m. the following morning. The second version of the band changed lead singers and guitar player and continued for a couple of months into 1975 before singer Rick Prince failed to show up for a rehearsal. In the third lineup change, Jay Jay took over the lead vocals and management duties; the band split up after Labor Day weekend 1975. In October 1975, the fourth version of the band started to play the club circuit. Jay Jay hired a former high school friend named Eddie Ojeda, who joined as co-lead singer and second guitarist, got drummer Kevin John Grace after reading an ad that Kevin had put in the Village Voice. Bass guitarist Kenny Neill completed the lineup; the band followed a glam rock direction, influenced by David Bowie, Mott the Hoople, the Rolling Stones, the New York Dolls.
They floundered in relative anonymity. Many former band members were fired or left the band and had some issues with the other members, such as Jay Jay French. In February 1976, at the suggestion of the band's agent, Kevin Brenner, Jay Jay was told that the band could only go so far without being able to play Led Zeppelin cover songs and urged Jay Jay to hire Danny Snider, in the bands Peacock and Heathen. Danny thus began TS line up number six; this version lasted just six weeks, with Kevin John Grace departing. When version seven began on April 1, 1976 with new drummer Tony Petri, the group took a heavier musical direction, influenced by Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin and Alice Cooper. At this point, the band's popularity began to soar as the band Dee and Jay Jay, started to talk to the audience about current topics of the day between songs; these raps started to take on a life of their own and pretty soon the band could get away with playing one song per set and talk the rest of the time. The band decided to play a heavy metal sound in 1978.
Two of their demos found their way to compilation albums by New York classic rock radio station WBAB, were re-recorded for the band's first two albums. Having audience participation in the "Sweet Jane Gong Show" and the "Death to Disco" stage routines became legendary; the band broke attendance records at large halls in the Tri-State Area and its growing fan base began to take the name "S. M. F. F. O. T. S.", for Sick Motherfucking Friends Of Twisted Sister shortened to "S. M. F." for "Sick Mother Fuckers". NME reported that Twisted Sister had sold out the 3,000 capacity New York Palladium for a March 16 show without a recording contract or radio airplay. Fan hysteria and the "lost art of entertainment" soon became the hallmark of a TS show. After selling out the Palladium theater, the group began aggressively pursuing a recording contract, with an aim to get out of the club circuit before its impending collapse due to the upcoming change of the drinking age from 18 to 21; the band had a record deal with Secret Records.
The band went through three more line up changes between 1979 and 1982. Drum
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The hurdy-gurdy is a stringed instrument that produces sound by a hand crank-turned, rosined wheel rubbing against the strings. The wheel functions much like a violin bow, single notes played on the instrument sound similar to those of a violin. Melodies are played on a keyboard that presses tangents—small wedges made of wood—against one or more of the strings to change their pitch. Like most other acoustic stringed instruments, it has a sound board and hollow cavity to make the vibration of the strings audible. Most hurdy-gurdies have multiple drone strings, which give a constant pitch accompaniment to the melody, resulting in a sound similar to that of bagpipes. For this reason, the hurdy-gurdy is used interchangeably or along with bagpipes in Occitan, Cajun French and contemporary Asturian, Cantabric and Hungarian folk music. Many folk music festivals in Europe feature music groups with hurdy-gurdy players; the most famous has been held since 1976 at Saint-Chartier in the Indre département in Central France.
In 2009, it relocated nearby to the Château d'Ars at La Châtre, where it continues to take place during the week nearest July 14. The hurdy-gurdy is thought to have originated from fiddles in either Europe or the Middle East some time before the eleventh century A. D; the first recorded reference to fiddles in Europe was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih describing the lira as a typical instrument within the Byzantine Empire. One of the earliest forms of the hurdy-gurdy was the organistrum, a large instrument with a guitar-shaped body and a long neck in which the keys were set; the organistrum had a single melody string and two drone strings, which ran over a common bridge, a small wheel. Due to its size, the organistrum was played by two people, one of whom turned the crank while the other pulled the keys upward. Pulling keys upward is cumbersome, so only slow tunes could be played on the organistrum; the pitches on the organistrum were set according to Pythagorean temperament and the instrument was used in monastic and church settings to accompany choral music.
Abbot Odo of Cluny is supposed to have written a short description of the construction of the organistrum entitled Quomodo organistrum construatur, known through a much copy, but its authenticity is doubtful. Another 10th-century treatise thought to have mentioned an instrument like a hurdy-gurdy is an Arabic musical compendium written by Al Zirikli. One of the earliest visual depictions of the organistrum is from the twelfth-century Pórtico da Gloria on the cathedral at Santiago de Compostela, Spain: it has a carving of two musicians playing an organistrum. On, the organistrum was made smaller to let a single player both turn the crank and work the keys; the solo organistrum was known from Spain and France, but was replaced by the symphonia, a small box-shaped version of the hurdy-gurdy with three strings and a diatonic keyboard. At about the same time, a new form of key pressed from beneath was developed; these keys were easier to handle. Medieval depictions of the symphonia show both types of keys.
During the Renaissance, the hurdy-gurdy was a popular instrument and the characteristic form had a short neck and a boxy body with a curved tail end. It was around this time; the buzzing bridge is an asymmetrical bridge. When the wheel is accelerated, one foot of the bridge lifts from the soundboard and vibrates, creating a buzzing sound; the buzzing bridge is thought to have been borrowed from the tromba marina, a bowed string instrument. During the late Renaissance, two characteristic shapes of hurdy-gurdies developed; the first was guitar-shaped and the second had a rounded lute-type body made of staves. The lute-like body is characteristic of French instruments. By the end of the 17th century changing musical tastes demanded greater polyphonic capabilities than the hurdy-gurdy could offer and pushed the instrument to the lowest social classes. During the 18th century, French Rococo tastes for rustic diversions brought the hurdy-gurdy back to the attention of the upper classes, where it acquired tremendous popularity among the nobility, with famous composers writing works for the hurdy-gurdy.
The most famous of these is Nicolas Chédeville's Il pastor Fido, attributed to Vivaldi. At this time the most common style of hurdy-gurdy developed, the six-string vielle à roue; this instrument has four drones. The drone strings are tuned so that by turning them on or off, the instrument can be played in multiple keys. During this time the hurdy-gurdy spread further to Central Europe, where further variations developed in western Slavic countries, German-speaking areas and Hungary. Most types of hurdy-gurdy were extinct by the early twentieth century, but a few have survived; the best-known are the French vielle à roue, the Hungarian tekerőlant, the Spanish zanfoña. In Ukraine, a variety called the lira was used by blind street musicians, most of whom were purged by Stalin in the 1930s; the hurdy-gurdy tradition is well developed in Hungary, Belarus and U
Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the 1990s. It is characterised by the widespread use of folk instruments and, to a lesser extent, traditional singing styles, it sometimes features soft instrumentation influenced by folk rock. The earliest folk metal bands were Skyclad from Cruachan from Ireland. Skyclad's debut album The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth was released in 1991 and would be considered a thrash metal album with some folk influences, unlike Cruachan’s early work which embraced the folk element as a defining part of their sound, it was not until 1994 and 1995 that other early contributors in the genre began to emerge from different regions of Europe and beyond. Among these early groups, the German band Subway to Sally spearheaded a different regional variation that over time became known as medieval metal. Despite their contributions, folk metal remained little known with few representatives during the 1990s, it was not until the early 2000s when the genre exploded into prominence in Finland with the efforts of such groups as Finntroll, Korpiklaani and Moonsorrow.
The music of folk metal is characterised by its diversity with bands known to perform different styles of both heavy metal music and folk music. A large variety of folk instruments are used in the genre with many bands featuring six or more members in their regular line-ups. A few bands are known to rely on keyboards to simulate the sound of folk instruments. Lyrics in the genre deal with fantasy, paganism and nature; the English band Skyclad was formed in 1990 after vocalist Martin Walkyier left his previous band, Sabbat. Skyclad began as a thrash metal band but added violins from session musician Mike Evans on several tracks from their debut album, The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth, an effort described by Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic as "ambitious" and "groundbreaking." The song "The Widdershins Jig" from the debut album has been acclaimed as "particularly significant" and "a certain first in the realms of Metal". With a full-time fiddler in their lineup, the band's second album feature a "now legendary folky jig style" and "more prominent inclusion of the fiddle playing lead lines and melodies associated with the lead guitar parts of most other rock bands."Even with the departure of Martin Walkyier in 2001, Skyclad remains an active folk metal group today after nearly two decades since their formation.
In contrast, the Portuguese band Moonspell had a brief tenure in the genre. Their first release was the 1994 Under the Moonspell EP with music that featured Lusitanian folk and Medieval influences. With the release of their debut album Wolfheart in the following year, the band made a transition into gothic metal and within a matter of years "quickly evolved into one of the major players of the European goth-metal scene."Cruachan were formed in 1992 in Dublin, Ireland. From the outset their intention was to mix the native Irish folk music of their home country with the more extreme side of metal music, their debut album Tuatha Na Gael was released in 1995 and was a full folk metal album from start to finish. In the Italian book “FOLK METAL, Dalle Origini Al Ragnarok”, a comprehensive history of the genre, Author Fabrizio Giosue credits Cruachan as being the first real Folk Metal band, he acknowledges that Skyclad did have some folk parts in some songs before Cruachan however he goes on to say Cruachan used folk music as much as they used heavy metal music.
Cruachan used arrangements of known folk songs and melodies, Skyclad wrote folk "sounding" parts. Spanish band Mägo de Oz was among early Folk Metal artists that were influenced by the Celtic folk music; the band introduced folk elements and instruments in their power metal-based music from their 1994 debut album. Another early contributor to folk metal is the Finnish group Amorphis, they formed in 1990 with The Karelian Isthmus, following two years later. Their sophomore effort Tales from the Thousand Lakes was released in 1994 with "plenty of fascinating melodies and song structures that drew from the traditional folk music of their native country." The album received a favorable reception from fans with "its content being exalted across the Metal underground as the pinnacle of atmospheric Death Metal achievement." In the years 1994 and 1995, several distinct variations on folk metal emerged from different regions. The German band Subway to Sally was formed in 1992 as a folk rock band, singing in English and incorporating Irish and Scottish influences in their music.
With their second album MCMXCV released in 1995, the band adopted a "more traditional approach" and started singing in German. Taking Skyclad as an influence, Subway to Sally performs a blend of hard rock and heavy metal "enriched with medieval melodies enmeshed in the songs via bagpipes, hurdy-gurdy, mandoline, shalm and flute" and combined with "romantic-symbolic German-speaking poetry" in their lyrics. With chart success in their native Germany, they have since been credited as the band "that set off the wave of what is known as medieval rock."This distinctly German phenomenon has been continued and expanded further by subsequent bands. Formed in 1996, the Berlin based In Extremo has found chart success with their "medieval style stage garb and unashamed usage of such bizarre, sometimes hand made, instruments as the Scottish bagpipes." Another band that has experienced commercial success in Germany is the Bavarian outfit Schandmaul. Describing themselves as the "minstrels of today," the band employs a musical arsenal that includes the bagpipes, barrel organ, shawm