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A subwoofer is a loudspeaker designed to reproduce low-pitched audio frequencies known as bass and sub-bass, lower in frequency than those which can be generated by a woofer. The typical frequency range for a subwoofer is about 20–200 Hz for consumer products, below 100 Hz for professional live sound, below 80 Hz in THX-approved systems. Subwoofers are never used alone, as they are intended to augment the low frequency range of loudspeakers that cover the higher frequency bands. While the term "subwoofer" technically only refers to the speaker driver, in common parlance, the term refers to a subwoofer driver mounted in a speaker enclosure with a built-in amplifier. Subwoofers are made up of one or more woofers mounted in a loudspeaker enclosure—often made of wood—capable of withstanding air pressure while resisting deformation. Subwoofer enclosures come in a variety of designs, including bass reflex, using a subwoofer and one or more passive radiator speakers in the enclosure, acoustic suspension, infinite baffle, horn-loaded, tapped horn, transmission line, bandpass or isobaric designs, representing unique trade-offs with respect to efficiency, low frequency range, cabinet size and cost.

Passive subwoofers have a subwoofer driver and enclosure and they are powered by an external amplifier. Active subwoofers include a built-in amplifier; the first subwoofers were developed in the 1960s to add bass response to home stereo systems. Subwoofers came into greater popular consciousness in the 1970s with the introduction of Sensurround in movies such as Earthquake, which produced loud low-frequency sounds through large subwoofers. With the advent of the compact cassette and the compact disc in the 1980s, the easy reproduction of deep and loud bass was no longer limited by the ability of a phonograph record stylus to track a groove, producers could add more low frequency content to recordings; as well, during the 1990s, DVDs were recorded with "surround sound" processes that included a low-frequency effects channel, which could be heard using the subwoofer in home theater systems. During the 1990s, subwoofers became popular in home stereo systems, custom car audio installations, in PA systems.

By the 2000s, subwoofers became universal in sound reinforcement systems in nightclubs and concert venues. From about 1900 to the 1950s, the "lowest frequency in practical use" in recordings and music playback was 100 Hz; when sound was developed for motion pictures, the basic RCA sound system was a single 8" speaker mounted in straight horn, an approach, deemed unsatisfactory by Hollywood decisionmakers, who hired Western Electric engineers to develop a better speaker system. The early Western Electric experiments added a set of 18" drivers for the low end in a large, open-backed baffle and a high-frequency unit, but MGM was not pleased with the sound of the three-way system, as they had concerns about the delay between the different drivers. In 1933, the head of MGM's sound department, Douglas Shearer, worked with John Hilliard and James B. Lansing to develop a new speaker system that used a two-way enclosure with a W-shaped bass horn that could go as low as 40 Hz; the Shearing-Lansing 500-A ended up being used in "screening rooms, dubbing theaters, early sound reinforcement".

In the late 1930s, Lansing created a smaller two-way speaker with a 15" woofer in a vented enclosure, which he called the Iconic system. During the 1940s swing era, to get deeper bass, "pipelike opening" were cut into speaker enclosures, creating bass reflex enclosures, as it was found that a inexpensive speaker enclosure, once modified in this way, could "transmit the driving power of a heavy...drumbeat—and sometimes not much else—to a crowded dancefloor." Prior to the development of the first subwoofers, woofers were used to reproduce bass frequencies with a crossover point set at 500 Hz and a 15" loudspeaker in an infinite baffle or in professional sound applications, a "hybrid horn-loaded" bass reflex enclosure. In the mid-1950s, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences selected the "big, boxy" Altec A-7 as the industry standard for movie sound reproduction in theaters. In September 1964, Raymon Dones, of El Cerrito, received the first patent for a subwoofer designed to augment omni-directionally the low frequency range of modern stereo systems.

Able to reproduce distortion-free low frequencies down to 15 cycles per second, a specific objective of Dones's invention was to provide portable sound enclosures capable of high fidelity reproduction of low frequency sound waves without giving an audible indication of the direction from which they emanated. Dones's loudspeaker was marketed in the US under the trade name "The Octavium" from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; the Octavium was utilized by several recording artists of that era, most notably the Grateful Dead, bassist Monk Montgomery, bassist Nathan East, the Pointer Sisters. The Octavium speaker and Dones's subwoofer technology were utilized, in a few select theaters, to reproduce low pitch frequencies for the 1974 blockbuster movie Earthquake. During the late 1960s, Dones's Octavium was favorably reviewed by audiophile publications including Hi-Fi News and Audio Magazine. Another early subwoofer enclosure made for home and studio use was the separate bass speaker for the Servo Statik 1 by New Technology Enterprises.

Designed as a prototype in 1

Disappearance of Amy Fitzpatrick

The disappearance of Amy Fitzpatrick occurred on New Year's Day 2008. At 10pm on that day, 15-year-old Irish girl Amy Fitzpatrick said goodbye to her friend Ashley Rose, with whom she had been babysitting Ashley's brother at a house in Mijas Costa in Málaga, Spain. Fitzpatrick should have arrived at her home a few minutes as it was only a short walk away, she never has not been heard from or seen since that night. Following her disappearance, a search involving hundreds of people was launched amidst speculation this was not an abduction. In August 2008, the home of Mahon and Fitzpatrick's lawyer in Riviera del Sol was broken into and a laptop, used in the search for Fitzpatrick was stolen. In addition, Fitzpatrick's Nokia mobile phone was stolen; the 32-year-old lawyer, Juan José de la Fuente Teixidó, said the burglars got into his property by forcing a locked garden gate. He said: "The stolen documents included confidential police reports about Fitzpatrick's disappearance. I believe, it makes no sense that they took documents which financially are worthless, left behind all my expensive valuables like TVs, computers and music equipment."

In June 2009, Audrey Fitzpatrick received a telephone call from a man claiming he knew the location of Amy Fitzpatrick. Fitzpatrick described the caller as having an African accent asking her if she was Fitzpatrick's mother. In an article published by expatriate newspaper Euro Weekly News Audrey said: He went on to say he knew where she was, she had been kidnapped and was in Madrid and the police were not to be involved. So I agreed, of course, he said he'd ring me back with a name and address in two hours. Five hours after sitting with my phone in my hand and my heart in my mouth, I got a text to say, I quote:'Can you pay us 500,000 euro. Yes or no send your answer now and will send you all the info you need.' The phone number on this text is 672 564 687. I'll give you the number he rang me on, too: 672 564 681. Audrey Fitzpatrick commented that the Guardia Civil and her private investigators followed up on these numbers, but they were both pre-pay, had never been registered. Audrey Fitzpatrick has taken on private investigators who have been working on Fitzpatrick's case since 2008.

They are the same detectives. In May 2012, it was reported that Eric "Lucky" Wilson, murdered her, her parents believe. Amy was seen out with an older man on the night she disappeared who her family now believe was Wilson. A police report from May 2011 claims three witnesses have come forward alleging they saw Amy with a mystery blonde woman in the Trafalgar Bar in Calahonda's El Zoco centre hours after her previous last reported sighting. Amy's 23-year-old brother Dean Fitzpatrick was stabbed to death in Coolock, Dublin, in 2013 in an incident involving Dave Mahon, his mother's partner. On 6 May 2016, Dave Mahon was found not guilty of murder but guilty of the manslaughter of his stepson, Dean Fitzpatrick, he was sentenced to 7 years in prison. List of people who disappeared Website Dedicated to Finding Fitzpatrick Website Dedicated to Finding Fitzpatrick at the Wayback Machine Was Amy Fitzpatrick with'Lucky' on the night she went missing? Say a prayer for Amy Fitzpatrick

Cal Langley

Cal Langley is a fictional character in the television series Roswell, portrayed by Joe Pantoliano. Cal is a servant of that planet's ruler Zan; when Zan, his wife Ava, his sister Vilandra, Vilandra's betrothed spouse Rath were killed by a revolution brought on by their enemy Kivar, Langley was part of a plan to return the "Royal Four" to the power. The followers of the Royal Four copied their DNA and mixed it with that of inhabitants of the planet Earth, they created two sets of these clones, as a security measure. The embryos of the clones were sent to Earth with Langley and another follower, known on Earth as Nasedo. Langley and Nasedo would each take their respective set of clone embryos, which would take over fifty years to gestate, to a separate location on Earth, raise them there; when they reached adulthood, one set of them was to be taken back to Antar to depose Kivar and rule once again. After the ship crashed, Langley took his embryos to New York City, placed them in a storage locker.

But, after years of living on Earth, disguised as a human, he decided to neglect his duty as protector, did not oversee the hatching of the pods. His clones of the Royal Four therefore grew up on the streets of New York. Langley kept tabs on them, however, as well as the group, he went on to become a wealthy Hollywood four-time Academy Award winner. In 2001, the Roswell clone of Zan, now known as Max Evans, showed up at his doorstep, claiming that he had conceived a son with the Roswell clone of Ava, but that she had departed for Antar with him, begged Langley to help him find a way to Antar in order to save his son; when Langley refused, Max discovered he had the ability to order Langley to do anything, forced him to find the spaceship that brought them to Earth and pilot it back to Antar. The ship would not work, due to the damage from the crash, his attempt at making it work had cost Langley his human senses, he cursed Max for doing this to him, returned to his estate. Months however, Max showed up at his house again, this time with his Earth wife Liz Parker, as well as the Roswell clones of Vilandra Isabel Evans, Rath, Michael Guerin, their Earth friends Maria DeLuca and Jim Valenti, Isabel's husband Jesse Ramirez, FBI agent Suzanne Duff, asking for his help in evading the Special Unit of the FBI, after them.

Langley reluctantly followed them into the Special Unit's base, where they found the New York clone of Ava, the last of her Royal Four. Using her powers along with those of Kyle Valenti and Isabel, Langley managed to cause a mass mindwarp, erasing the knowledge of alien existence from the minds of the entire Special Unit. After the adventure, Langley attended the official wedding of Max and Liz, where he offered Michael the chance to become a Hollywood superstar, for his girlfriend Maria to become a famous singer. Michael and Maria subsequently moved to L. A. with Langley to begin their respective careers

HK 36 Skalica

Hockey Club Skalica is a professional ice hockey team based in Skalica, Slovakia. It has been a member of the Slovak Extraliga since 1997–98 season, when the squad was promoted from the Slovak 1. Liga. Team is playing in the second highest league Slovak 1. Liga in Slovakia; the club was founded in 1936, but it had been playing in organized competition since 1947 under the name Sokol Tekla. The squad was renamed several times. In 1953, it was called Tatran, between the years 1963-1993, the club played as ZVL, its first major success was promotion to the first 1. SNHL, second level of Czechoslovak hockey, in the 1973–74 season; the team placed 6th in its first season in the 1. SNHL. However, its best placement was 4th in the 1977-78 season, it played in the 1. SNHL consecutively until 1989. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the club was included in the Slovak 1. Liga, it was at this point renamed to HK 36. In the 1996–97 season, the squad was promoted to the Slovak Extraliga. In its first season, Skalica placed 6th in the regular season and was beaten by ŠKP Poprad in the quarterfinals.

In the 1998–99 season, the club placed 3rd in the regular season, defeating ŠKP Poprad in the quarterfinals but losing to HC Košice in the semifinals. Skalica won bronze medals because second defeated semifinalist HKm Zvolen had worse placement after the regular season; the following seasons were less successful for the club, as it did not reach the semifinals for nine years. In the 2007–08 season, the squad defeated HKm Zvolen in the quarterfinals but it was in turn beaten by HC Košice in the semifinals. Skalica won bronze medals for a second time because it had managed a better placement after the regular season than Dukla Trenčín; the club's greatest success came during the 2008–09 season, when Skalica placed 3rd in the regular season. In the quarterfinals, it won the series 4–0 against Dukla Trenčín; the club defeated HC Slovan Bratislava 4–3 in the semifinals, but lost 4–2 to HC Košice in the finals. Žigmund Pálffy was the scoring leader in the playoffs. Juraj Mikúš had a great season and was the second-highest scorer in the Extraliga after Pálffy.

HK 36 was forced to leave the Extraliga in 2016 due to lack of funds. The team left prior to their 47th round contest vs. MHC Mountfield due to lack of funds and the exodus of players before the end of the transfer window. Slovak Extraliga Runners-up: 2008–09 3rd place: 1998–99, 2007–08Slovak 1. Liga Runners-up: 1996–97, 2016–17, 2017–18 3rd place: 1993–94, 1994–95, 1995–96 Official club website

Ashley McGrath

Ashley Vernon McGrath is a retired indigenous Australian rules footballer in the Australian Football League. Selected in the 2000 AFL Draft with the thirteenth pick overall, the Brisbane Lions recruited the talented forward, where he made his AFL debut late in 2001, he continued to establish himself in the side and by 2003, was a regular member, being part of the Lions' third straight AFL premiership. In 2005 he found more opportunities up forward with the retirement of other forwards Craig McRae and Alastair Lynch. McGrath has two brothers who were listed at AFL clubs and Cory. During periods of the 2008 season, McGrath was trialed as a rebounding half back flanker with varying degrees of success. McGrath's 2009 season was of two halves, his first half of the season was smeared with ineffective disposals. But after the mid-season break, McGrath had a career-best game where he had 30 disposals against Geelong in Round 15, he went on to play the remainder of the season averaging more than 20 disposals a game.

McGrath is a cousin with former AFL player Dion Woods. In round 13, 2013, McGrath, playing his 200th AFL game, kicked a goal after the siren to win the Lions the game against Geelong, becoming only the 36th AFL player to do so. McGrath was selected as the Australia international rules football team's goalkeeper for the 2013 International Rules Series in Ireland. Australia lost the series 2-0, with a 173-72 aggregate score. McGrath was the only Brisbane Lions player selected for the team. McGrath announced his retirement on 21 August 2014. Ashley McGrath's profile on the official website of the Brisbane Lions Ashley McGrath's playing statistics from AFL Tables

Petr Korda

Petr Korda is a Czech former professional tennis player. He reached a career-high Association of Tennis Professionals world No. 2 singles ranking on February 2, 1998 and won the 1998 Australian Open. He tested positive for doping in June 1998 at Wimbledon, was subsequently banned from September 1999 for 12 months, although he retired shortly before the ban, he first came to the tennis world's attention as a promising junior player. In 1985, he partnered with fellow Czech Cyril Suk to win the boys' doubles title at the French Open. Korda and Suk ranked the joint-World No. 1 junior doubles players that year. Junior Slam results: Australian Open: - French Open: 3R Wimbledon: QF US Open: QF Korda turned professional in 1987, he won his first career doubles title in 1988, his first top-level singles title in 1991. Korda was involved in two in doubles. Korda was known for the "Scissors Kick" which he would do at midcourt after winning matches. In 1990, Korda and Goran Ivanišević finished runners-up in the men's doubles at the French Open, as a result, Korda reached his career-high doubles ranking of world No. 10.

In 1992, he rose to the men's singles final at the French Open beating Christian Bergström, Shuzo Matsuoka, Michiel Schapers, Jaime Oncins, Andrei Cherkasov and Henri Leconte, before he was defeated in straight sets by defending champion Jim Courier 7–5, 6–2, 6–1. A highlight of Korda's career include winning the Grand Slam Cup in 1993, with five-set wins in the semifinal and final over Pete Sampras and Michael Stich, the number 1 and 2 tennis players in the world at that time. Korda was a part of the Czech Republic's team which won the Hopman Cup in 1994. In 1996 he teamed-up with Stefan Edberg to win the men's doubles title at the Australian Open, he upset the defending champion, Pete Sampras, in five sets in the fourth round of the 1997 US Open. The crowning moment of Korda's career came in 1998, when he defeated Albert Portas, Scott Draper, Vincent Spadea, Cédric Pioline, Jonas Björkman and Karol Kučera to face Marcelo Ríos in the men's singles final at the Australian Open. Korda dominated the match from start to finish by winning in straight sets 6–2, 6–2, 6–2 and claimed his first Grand Slam singles title in just 1 hour and 25 minutes.

The win propelled him to his career-high singles ranking of World No. 2. At four tournaments in 1998, Korda had the world No. 1 ranking in his sights, but he lost to Karol Kučera in Antwerp, Marcelo Ríos at Indian Wells, Tim Henman in Miami and Richard Krajicek in Monte Carlo. Following his quarterfinal match against Tim Henman at the 1998 Wimbledon Championships, Korda tested positive for the banned steroid nandrolone; this was publicly revealed in December 1998. At the time, Korda was stripped of the ranking points and prize money that he had won at 1998 Wimbledon, but was not banned from the sport; the ITF soon announced that it felt that it had made a mistake in not banning Korda, would be seeking to appeal against its own decision not to ban Korda from tennis competition. London's High Court ruled in late January 1999 that the ITF could not appeal against its own initial decision, but Korda was banned from tennis for 12 months from September 1999 and stripped of the prize money and ranking points that he had won since July 1998.

He did, compete in the Prague Challenger in December 2000 and the Prostějov Challenger in both 2001 and 2005. Korda married a former professional tennis player from Czechoslovakia, they have three children, the oldest of whom, was born on 27 February 1993. S. Women's Open with Korda as her caddy. At the 2013 U. S. Women's Open, he caddied for another of their daughters, 14 years old at the time and the youngest player in the tournament, his 19 year old son, Sebastian, is a tennis player and is the top-ranked junior in the world while representing the United States. Sebastian won the junior boys’ Australian Open title in 2018. Petr Korda at the Association of Tennis Professionals Petr Korda at the International Tennis Federation Petr Korda at the Davis Cup Sunday Times article 30 August, 2009 Petr Korda Profile QA