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A succubus is a demon in female form, or supernatural entity in folklore, that appears in dreams and takes the form of a woman in order to seduce men through sexual activity. The male counterpart to the succubus is the incubus. Religious traditions hold that repeated sexual activity with a succubus may result in the deterioration of health or mental state, or death. In modern representations, a succubus may or may not appear in dreams and is depicted as a attractive seductress or enchantress; the word is derived from Late Latin succuba "paramour". The word succubus originates from the late 14th century; as depicted in the Jewish mystical work Zohar and the medieval rabbinical text Alphabet of Ben Sira, Lilith was Adam's first wife, who became a succubus. She refused to return to the Garden of Eden after she mated with the archangel Samael. In Zoharistic Kabbalah, there were four succubi. There were four original queens of the demons: Lilith, Agrat bat Mahlat, Naamah. A succubus may take a form of a beautiful young girl but closer inspection may reveal deformities of her body, such as bird-like claws or serpentine tails.

Folklore describes the act of sexually penetrating a succubus as akin to entering a cavern of ice, there are reports of succubi forcing men to perform cunnilingus on their vulvas, which drip with urine and other fluids. In folklore, a succubus took the form of a siren. Throughout history and rabbis, including Hanina Ben Dosa and Abaye, tried to curb the power of succubi over humans. However, not all succubi were malevolent. According to Walter Map in the satire De Nugis Curialium, Pope Sylvester II was involved with a succubus named Meridiana, who helped him achieve his high rank in the Catholic Church. Before his death, he died repentant. According to the Kabbalah and the school of Rashba, the original three queens of the demons, Agrat Bat Mahlat, Eisheth Zenunim, all their cohorts give birth to children, except Lilith. According to other legends, the children of Lilith are called Lilin. According to the Malleus Maleficarum, or "Witches' Hammer", written by Heinrich Kramer in 1486, succubi collect semen from men they seduce.

Incubi, or male demons use the semen to impregnate human females, thus explaining how demons could sire children despite the traditional belief that they were incapable of reproduction. Children so begotten—cambions—were supposed to be those that were born deformed, or more susceptible to supernatural influences. While the book does not address why a human female impregnated with the semen of a human male would not produce regular human offspring, an explanation could be that the semen is altered before being transferred to the female host; however in some lore, the child is born deformed. King James in his dissertation titled Dæmonologie refutes the possibility for angelic entities to reproduce and instead offered a suggestion that a devil would carry out two methods of impregnating women: the first, to steal the sperm out of a dead man and deliver it into a woman. If a demon could extract the semen the substance could not be transported to a female host, causing it to go cold; this explains his view that succubi and incubi were the same demonic entity only to be described differently based on the tormented sexes being conversed with.

The second method was the idea that a dead body could be possessed by a devil, causing it to rise and have sexual relations with others. However, there is no mention of a female corpse being possessed to elicit sex from men. In Arabian mythology, the qarînah is a spirit similar to the succubus, with origins in ancient Egyptian religion or in the animistic beliefs of pre-Islamic Arabia. A qarînah "sleeps with the person and has relations during sleep as is known by the dreams", they are said to be invisible, but a person with "second sight" can see them in the form of a cat, dog, or other household pet. "In Omdurman it is a spirit which possesses.... Only certain people are possessed and such people cannot marry or the qarina will harm them." To date, many African myths claim that men who have similar experience with such principality in dreams find themselves exhausted as soon as they awaken. Local rituals/divination are invoked in order to appeal the god for divine protection and intervention.

In the field of medicine, there is some belief that the stories relating to encounters with succubi bear resemblance to the contemporary phenomenon of people reporting alien abductions, ascribed to the condition known as sleep paralysis. It is therefore suggested that historical accounts of people experiencing encounters with succubi may rather have been symptoms of sleep paralysis, with the hallucination of the said creatures coming from their contemporary culture. Furthermore, the experience of nocturnal emissions or "wet dreams" may explain the sexual aspect of the phenomenon. Throughout history, succubi have been popular characters in music, film and more. Similar creatures in folklore "The Wiki of the Succubi - SuccuWiki". Retrieved 6 November 2016

Blissfield Township, Michigan

Blissfield Township is a civil township of Lenawee County in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the township population was 3,915; the township was first organized in 1827. The village of Blissfield is located within the township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 21.1 square miles, of which 21.1 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,915 people, 1,573 households, 1,105 families residing in the township; the population density was 185.9 per square mile. There were 1,657 housing units at an average density of 78.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 96.65% White, 0.05% African American, 0.03% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 2.50% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.98% of the population. There were 1,573 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families.

26.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.97. In the township the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the township was $40,306, the median income for a family was $50,978. Males had a median income of $37,109 versus $24,474 for females; the per capita income for the township was $19,406. About 5.6% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Lenawee County government site Complete text of History of Lenawee County published in 1909 by the Western Historical Society

Smaro Stefanidou

Smaro Stefanidou was a Greek theatre, film and radio actress. Her family's origin is from Asia Minor, she graduated from Business School in Athens, she learned the piano. From a young age she presented plays for children. Without telling her parents, she worked to pay for her tuition at the National Theatre Drama School, as her parents didn't want her to become an actress. After her graduation from the Drama School, in 1937, she was hired by the top theatre star of these times, Marika Kotopouli. Since 1952 she was the main character actress in the company of Vassilis Logothetidis, with whom she stayed until his death, in 1960, she she acted alongside Katerina, Elli Lampeti, Dimitris Horn, Lambros Konstantaras, Giannis Fertis, Xenia Kalogeropoulou, Aliki Vougiouklaki, Stefanos Lineos, Giannis Gkionakis, Nikos Kourkoulos, Antonis Antypas and many more. A bright point in her career was her rendition of queen Hecuba in the play Trojan Women by Euripides translated and directed by Giannis Tsarouchis at a makeshift theatre on Kaplanon Street and in Delphi At the "Tsarouhis Academy", as she playfully called it, she learned a lot from the charismatic artist.

She made her first cinema appearance in 1951, with G. Zervos' film "Four steps". Since she appeared in many movies, among which adaptations of theatre plays in which she had played, she worked a lot for the radio, taking part in radio serials, radio theatre and readings of novels. She married singer - chansonnier Vassos Seitanidis Their daughter, Leda - Irene, now known as Leda Shantala, is a yoga teacher, Bharata natyam dancer/teacher/choreographer and dance therapist. In autumn 2003 Smaro Stefanidou and her daughter created the "Shantom House of Culture", in Chalandri, a centre hosting lessons and seminars as well as performances, she died in 2010, at the age of 97, is buried in the First Cemetery. Angelos Terzakis Gamilio emvatirio Alfred Gehri 6th floor Arnaud d'Usseau - Gau Deep are the roots George Bernard Shaw Mrs Warren's profession Dimitris Bogris Kainourgia zoi Dimitris Bogris Everything will change... Mrs Asprodonti Andre Aube Don Juan Pandelis Horn Meltemaki Sophokles Electra... chorus leader Yalamas - Oekonomidis - Thisvios War quadrilles Hayermann Good faith S. Bekefy Come on the first of the month Henrik Ibsen The Wild Duck August Strindberg Swanevit G. Sevastikoglou Konstantine and Helene Luigi Pirandello Right You Are Erkin Cauldwell For a piece of land Gregorios Xenopoulos Stella Violandi...

Stella's mother, Maria Violandi Victorien Sardou Madame Sans-Gêne Leo Lentz Lady I love you Theodora If you work, you'll eat Sakellarios - Yannakopoulos Despinis eton 39 Yorgos Roussos Ena votsalo sti limni, Sakellarios - Yannakopoulos Triti kai dekatris (Tuesday and the 13th, Dimitris Psathas Enas vlakas kai misos, Yorgos Tzavellas O erastis erchetai Ernest-Aimé Feydeau A beating on the bottom Nikos Tsiforos O teleftaios timios McDougall - Alan The coward and the bold Sakellarios - Yannakopoulos Woe to the young Jean Anouilh Le Voyageur sans bagage In the summer of 1962 she took part in the musical play by Bost - Mikis Theodorakis Omorfi poli In the winter of 1962–63 she appeared again with Dimitris Horn in the plays Georges Neveux What is Zamor Marc Camoletti Girls up in the airImmediately after, with the Lambros Konstandaras Company in the plays Yorgos Roussos Karre tis damas W. Somerset Maugham Rain 1964–65 Neil Simon Barefoot in the Park 1964–65 Tennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desire 1965 Pretenderis - Yalamas Mias pendaras niata...

Marika 1966 Yalamas - Pretenderis I komissa tis fabrikas 1967 Dimitris Psathas Achortagos at the Alhambra Theatre 1967 Yorgos Roussos Exi fores tin evdomada A small selection of her many theatrical appearances Pirandello Il piacere dell'onesta' Leonard Gershe Butterflies are Free Nikos Kazantzakis Zorbas Julia Alexandre Dumas La Dame aux Camélias Hit Euripides The Trojan Women Giannis Dalianidis Ikosi yinekes ki ego (Twenty Women and I Robert Thomas Huit Femmes Leonard Gershe The Ship of Fools Alexej Galin Retro Françoise Sagan Bonheur, impair et passe Dimitris Psathas: "The coward and the brave"..... Edim Bilingli Dimitris Psathas: "Dumb and dumber"..... Theodora "Never lose faith"etc. Dimitris Nikolaidis: The mister, the mistress and the mama Yannis Tziotis: Love stories "The last grandchildren" (based on a novel

Rosny-sous-Bois station

Rosny-sous-Bois is a French railway station located in Rosny-sous-Bois, in Seine-Saint-Denis département, in Île-de-France region. The station is situated at kilometric point 12.631 of Paris-Mulhouse railway. Its altitude is 69 m; the counter in the building is open every day. The station is equipped with automatic ticket machines, real time traffic information systems and facilities for disabled people. Rosny-Bois-Perrier is bound to Villiers-sur-Marne. Trains from or bound to Tournan call at the station only after 10 PM; the average waiting time in both directions is 15 minutes. The station is served by: RATP bus lines 116, 118 and 143 Noctilien night bus line N142 Titus bus lines 1, 2, 3 and 4 The station hosts Rosny-Rail, a local railway museum


Timur Timūr Gurkānī, sometimes spelled Taimur and best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane, was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Iran and Central Asia, becoming the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. As an undefeated commander, he is regarded as one of the greatest military leaders and tacticians in history. Timur is considered a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru, he is credited with the invention of the Tamerlane chess variant, played on a larger 10×11 board. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an Islamized and Iranized society", not steppe nomadic. Born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana on 9 April 1336, Timur gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate by 1370. From that base, he led military campaigns across Western and Central Asia, the Caucasus and southern Russia, emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire, the declining Delhi Sultanate of India.

From these conquests, he founded the Timurid Empire, but this empire fragmented shortly after his death. Timur was the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Islamic Gunpowder Empires in the 16th and 17th centuries. Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and according to Gérard Chaliand, saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir. Though not a Borjigid or a descendant of Genghis Khan, he sought to invoke the legacy of the latter's conquests during his lifetime. According to Beatrice Forbes Manz, "in his formal correspondence Temur continued throughout his life to portray himself as the restorer of Chinggisid rights, he justified his Iranian and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers." To legitimize his conquests, Timur relied on Islamic symbols and language, referred to himself as the "Sword of Islam", patronized educational and religious institutions.

He converted nearly all the Borjigin leaders to Islam during his lifetime. Timur decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller at the Siege of Smyrna, styling himself a ghazi. By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, the Golden Horde, attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty in China. Timur's armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and were feared throughout Asia and Europe, sizable parts of which his campaigns laid to waste. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time, he was the grandfather of the Timurid sultan and mathematician Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled all of the Indian subcontinent. Through his father, Timur claimed to be a descendant of Tumanay Khan, a male-line ancestor he shared with Genghis Khan.

Tumanay's great-great grandson Qarachar Noyan was a minister for the emperor who assisted the latter's son Chagatai in the governorship of Transoxiana. Though there are not many mentions of Qarachar in 13th and 14th century records Timurid sources emphasised his role in the early history of the Mongol Empire; these histories state that Genghis Khan established the "bond of fatherhood and sonship" by marrying Chagatai's daughter to Qarachar. Through his alleged descent from this marriage, Timur claimed kinship with the Chagatai Khans; the origins of Timur's mother, Tekina Khatun, are less clear. The Zafarnama states her name without giving any information regarding her background. Writing in 1403, Archbishop of Sultaniyya claimed that she was of lowly origins; the Mu'izz al-Ansab, written decades say that she was related to the Yasa'uri tribe, whose lands bordered that of the Barlas. Ibn Khaldun recounted that Timur himself described to him his mother's descent from the legendary Persian hero Manuchehr.

Ibn Arabshah suggested. The 18th century Books of Timur identify her as the daughter of'Sadr al-Sharia', believed to be referring to the Hanafi scholar Ubayd Allah al-Mahbubi of Bukhara. Timur was born in Transoxiana near the city of Kesh, some 80 kilometres south of Samarkand, part of what was the Chagatai Khanate, his name Temur means "Iron" in his mother-tongue. He was a member of the Barlas, a Mongolian tribe, turkified in many aspects, his father, Taraghai was described as a minor noble of this tribe. However, historian Beatrice Forbes Manz believes that Timur may have understated the social position of his father, so as to make his own successes appear more remarkable, she states that though he is not believed to have been powerful, Taraghai was reasonably wealthy and influential. This is shown by Timur returning to his birthplace following the death of his father in 1360, suggesting concern over his estate. Taraghai's social significance is further hinted at by Arabshah, who described him as a magnate in the court of Amir Husayn Qara'unas.

In addition to this, the father of the great Amir Hamid Kereyid of Moghulistan is stated as a friend of Taraghai's. Timurid dynastic histories claim that Timur was born on 8 April 1336, but most sour

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes. TENS, by definition, covers the complete range of transcutaneously applied currents used for nerve excitation although the term is used with a more restrictive intent, namely to describe the kind of pulses produced by portable stimulators used to reduce pain; the unit is connected to the skin using two or more electrodes which are conductive gel pads. A typical battery-operated TENS unit is able to modulate pulse width and intensity. TENS is applied at high frequency with an intensity below motor contraction or low frequency with an intensity that produces motor contraction. While the use of TENS has proved effective in clinical studies, there is controversy over which conditions the device should be used to treat. TENS devices available to the domestic market are used as a non-invasive nerve stimulation intended to reduce both acute and chronic pain.

One review from 2007 felt that the evidence supports a benefit in chronic musculoskeletal pain Results from a task force on neck pain in 2008 found no clinically significant benefit to TENS for the treatment of neck pain when compared to a placebo treatment. A 2010 review did not find evidence to support the use of TENS for chronic low back pain. There is tentative evidence; as of 2015, the efficacy of TENS therapy for phantom limb pain is not known as no randomized controlled trials have been performed. In principle, an adequate intensity of stimulation is necessary to achieve pain relief with TENS. An analysis of treatment fidelity showed that higher fidelity trials tended to have a positive outcome. A few studies have shown objective evidence that TENS may modulate or suppress pain signals in the brain. One used evoked cortical potentials to show that electric stimulation of peripheral A-beta sensory fibers reliably suppressed A-delta fiber nociceptive processing. Two other studies used functional magnetic resonance imaging: one showed that high-frequency TENS produced a decrease in pain-related cortical activations in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, while the other showed that low-frequency TENS decreased shoulder impingement pain and modulated pain-induced activation in the brain.

A head-mounted TENS device called Cefaly was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, in March 2014, for the prevention of migraines. The Cefaly device was found effective in preventing migraine attacks in a randomized sham-controlled trial; this was the first TENS device. A study performed on healthy human subjects demonstrates that repeated application of TENS can create analgesic tolerance within five days, reducing its efficacy; the study noted that TENS causes the release of endogenous opioids, that the analgesia is due to opioid tolerance mechanisms. Earlier studies have stated that TENS "has been shown not to be effective in postoperative and labour pain." These studies had questionable ability to blind the patients. However, more recent studies have shown that TENS was "effective for relieving labour pain, they are well considered by pregnant participants." One study showed that there was a significant change in how soon the laboring people took to request pharmacologic pain management, like the epidural.

The group with the TENS waited five additional hours. Both groups were satisfied with the pain relief. No maternal, infant, or labor problems were noted. TENS has been extensively used in non-odontogenic orofacial pain relief. In addition, TENS and ultra low frequency-TENS are employed in diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Further clinical studies are required to determine its efficacy. Electrical stimulation for pain control was used in ancient Rome, 63 A. D, it was reported by Scribonius Largus that pain was relieved by standing on an electrical fish at the seashore. In the 16th through the 18th century various electrostatic devices were used for headache and other pains. Benjamin Franklin was a proponent of this method for pain relief. In the 19th century a device called the electreat, along with numerous other devices were used for pain control and cancer cures. Only the electreat survived into the 20th century, but was not portable, had limited control of the stimulus.

Development of the modern TENS unit is credited to C. Norman Shealy; the first modern, patient-wearable TENS was patented in the United States in 1974. It was used for testing the tolerance of chronic pain patients to electrical stimulation before implantation of electrodes in the spinal cord dorsal column; the electrodes were attached to an implanted receiver, which received its power from an antenna worn on the surface of the skin. Although intended only for testing tolerance to electrical stimulation, many of the patients said they received so much relief from the TENS itself that they never returned for the implant. A number of companies began manufacturing TENS units after the commercial success of the Medtronic device became known; the neurological division of Medtronic, founded by Don Maurer, Ed Schuck and Charles Ray, developed a number of applications for implanted electrical stimulation devices for treatment of epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, other disorders of the nervous system. Today many people confuse TENS with electrical muscle stimulation