Aiadava was a Dacian town in the Remesiana region, present day Bela Palanka, Serbia. After the Romans conquered Moesia in the 75 BC, the new castrum and municipium was known as Ulpianorum and Remesiana and laid on the Via Militaris road, between Naissus and Serdica. Emperor Justinian had following strongholds in the district of Remesiana: The patron saint of Romania, Nicetas of Remesiana, was a 4th-century bishop at Remesiana, of possible Dacian descent. Excavations include well-preserved castrum dating to 4th century, a hoard of 260 coins minted during the rule of Constantine I, Theodosius I, Tiberius Claudius Nero. Dacia List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia Archaeological Sites of Great Importance Remesiana Sorin Olteanu's Project: Linguae Thraco-Daco-Moesorum - Toponyms Section
There were a Theodosius II of Abkhazia, a Patriarch Theodosius II of Alexandria and a Theodosius II of Constantinople. Additionally, Pope Theodoros I of Alexandria is known as Theodosius II in Coptic history. Theodosius II surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was the Eastern Roman Emperor for most of his life, taking the throne as an infant in 402 and ruling as the Eastern Empire's sole emperor after the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he is known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. He presided over the outbreak of two great Christological controversies and Eutychianism. Theodosius was born in 401 as the only son of Emperor Arcadius and his Frankish-born wife Aelia Eudoxia. In January 402 he was proclaimed co-Augustus by his father, thus becoming the youngest person to bear this title in Roman history. In 408, his father died and the seven-year-old boy became Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire.
According to Procopius, the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I was appointed by Arcadius as the guardian of Theodosius, whom Yazdegerd treated as his own child, sending a tutor to raise him and warning that enmity toward him would be taken as enmity toward Persia. Government was at first by the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius, under whose supervision the Theodosian land walls of Constantinople were constructed. In 414, Theodosius' older sister Pulcheria was assumed the regency. By 416 Theodosius was declared Augustus in his own right and the regency ended, but his sister remained a strong influence on him. In June 421, Theodosius married a woman of Greek origin; the two had a daughter named Licinia Eudoxia. A separation occurred between the imperial couple, with Eudocia's establishment in Jerusalem where she favoured monastic Monophysitism and Pulcheria reassuming an influential role with the support of the eunuch Chrysaphius. Theodosius' increasing interest in Christianity, fuelled by the influence of Pulcheria, led him to go to war against the Sassanids, who were persecuting Christians.
In 423, the Western Emperor Honorius, Theodosius' uncle and the primicerius notariorum Joannes was proclaimed Emperor. Honorius' sister Galla Placidia and her young son Valentinian fled to Constantinople to seek Eastern assistance and after some deliberation in 424 Theodosius opened the war against Joannes. On 23 October 425, Valentinian III was installed as Emperor of the West with the assistance of the magister officiorum Helion, with his mother acting as regent. To strengthen the ties between the two parts of the Empire, Theodosius' daughter Licinia Eudoxia was betrothed to Valentinian. In 425, Theodosius founded the University of Constantinople with 31 chairs. Among the subjects were law, medicine, geometry, astronomy and rhetoric. In 429, Theodosius appointed a commission to collect all of the laws since the reign of Constantine I, create a formalized system of law; this plan was left unfinished, but the work of a second commission that met in Constantinople, assigned to collect all of the general legislations and bring them up to date, was completed.
The law code of Theodosius II, summarizing edicts promulgated since Constantine, formed a basis for the law code of Emperor Justinian I, the Corpus Juris Civilis, in the following century. The war with Persia proved indecisive, a peace was arranged in 422 without changes to the status quo; the wars of Theodosius were less successful. The Eastern Empire was plagued by raids by the Huns. Early in Theodosius II's reign Romans used internal Hun discord to overcome Uldin's invasion of the Balkans; the Romans strengthened their fortifications and in 424 agreed to pay 350 pounds of gold to encourage the Huns to remain at peace with the Romans. In 433 with the rise of Attila and Bleda to unify the Huns, the payment was doubled to 700 pounds; when Roman Africa fell to the Vandals in 439, both Eastern and Western Emperors sent forces to Sicily, intending to launch an attack on the Vandals at Carthage, but this project failed. Seeing the Imperial borders without significant forces, the Huns and Sassanid Persia both attacked and the expeditionary force had to be recalled.
During 443 two Roman armies were destroyed by the Huns. Anatolius negotiated a peace agreement. In 447 the Huns went through the Balkans, destroying among others the city of Serdica and reaching Athyra on the outskirts of Constantinople. During a visit to Syria, Theodosius met the monk Nestorius, a renowned preacher, he appointed Nestorius Archbishop of Constantinople in 428. Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. Nestorius tried to find a middle ground between those who, emphasizing the fact that in Christ God had been born as a man, insisted on calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos, those who rejected that title because God, as an eternal being, could not have been born. Nestorius suggested the title Christotokos as a compromise, but it did not find acceptance with either faction, he was accused of separating Christ's divine and human natures, resulting in "two Christs", a heresy called Nestorianism. Though initial
Olt County is a county of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the historical regions of Oltenia and Muntenia. The capital city is Slatina. On 24 August 2017, the Olt County Council decided to hold a local referendum on 15 October 2017 on the proposal to change the county name to "Olt-Romanați"; the local referendum was held on 7 October 2018, at the same time with the constitutional referendum regarding the change of the definition of the family as provided by Article 48 of the Romanian Constitution in order to outlaw same-sex marriage. The local referendum failed, as the turnout was 27.19%, below the required threshold of 30%, therefore the Olt County retains its current name. In 2011, it had a population of 415,530 and the population density was 75.57/km². Romanians - 98.06% Romani - 1.86%, other. The county is a rural one, with over 60% of the population living in villages; this county has a total area of 5,498 km². The county lies in a flat area on the Western part of the Romanian Plain.
It is crossed by rivers from North to South, the main one - the Olt River giving the county its name. The Danube forms a wide valley in the South, with lots of ponds and small channels, which are flooded from time to time. Teleorman County to the East. Dolj County to the West. Argeș County and Vâlcea County to the North. Bulgaria to the South - Vratsa Province and Pleven Province; the predominant industries in the county are: Metallurgy - aluminium components. Railway equipment. Food and beverages industry. Textile industry. Mechanical components industry. Agriculture is the main occupation in the county - over 58% of the population having agriculture as their main occupation. Both extensive agriculture, small scale and fruits, are practiced; the area is well suited for irrigations. The main destinations for tourists are: The city of Slatina. Fishing on the Danube and on the Olt River. City of Corabia with an ancient Roman citadel, a large orthodox cathedral, Danube sunbathes and fishing; the town of Scornicești - the birthplace of Nicolae Ceaușescu.
The Olt County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 33 counselors, with the following party composition: Olt County has 2 municipalities, 6 towns and 104 communes: Municipalities Caracal Slatina - capital city. The county included the north-eastern part of the current Olt county, the south-western part of the present Argeș County and the north-western part of the present Teleorman County. During the interwar years, it was bordered to the north by Argeș County, to the east by the counties of Argeş and Teleorman, to the south by Teleorman County, in the west by the counties of Romanați and Vâlcea; the county was divided into three administrative districts: Plasa Drăgănești, headquartered at Drăgănești Plasa Dumitrești, headquartered at Dumitrești Plasa Spineni, headquartered at Spineni Subsequently, the county established an additional district:Plasa Mijlocul, head quartered at Mijlocul According to the 1930 census data, the county population was 183,595 inhabitants, ethnically divided as follows: 98.2% Romanians, 1.2% Romanies, as well as other minorities.
From the religious point of view, the population was 99.5% Eastern Orthodox, 0.2% Roman Catholic, 0.1% Jewish, as well as other minorities. In 1930, the county's urban population was 11,243 inhabitants, comprising 92.5% Romanians, 2.5% Hungarians, 1.5% Jews, 0.8% Germans, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population was composed of 94.1% Eastern Orthodox, 2.3% Roman Catholic, 1.6% Jewish, 0.9% Reformed, 0.6% Lutheran, as well as other minorities
Corabia is a small Danube port located in Olt County, which used to be part of the now-dissolved Romanaţi County before World War II. Across the Danube from Corabia lies the Bulgarian village of Gigen. Beneath Corabia, around the former village of Celei, lie the remains of Sucidava, an old Dacian and Roman town and fortress. Near the town, Emperor Constantine the Great built the longest European bridge over the Danube; the bridge was destroyed during the Avar invasions in the 7th century. The ruins contain an old Roman bath and an old basilica; the name Corabia reflects the fact that the new settlement was built from the remains of a wrecked Genoan ship. It became a thriving port in the 1880s. Under the communist regime, Corabia developed as a considerable manufacturing town, with a sugar mill, furniture factory, tannery, a fiber manufacturing plant, various other facilities. However, in more recent times the town's population has dwindled. Many inhabitants have migrated to larger towns in the wake of the closure of many of Corabia's factories.
Corabia is still one of the central spots of Olt County. The town houses a football club, several shops and bars, the remains of the Roman castrum Sucidava, dating back to the Roman period and featuring the "Secret Fountain". Corabia has an important archaeological museum with, inter alia, a remarkable collection of Roman pottery. From the town harbour one can make trips along the Danube, with stops at the nearby Băloi Island. Nicolae Dobrescu Valentin Al. Georgescu Șerban Ionescu Theodor D. Ionescu Virgil Mazilescu Ion Oblemenco Cristina Vărzaru
The Notitia Dignitatum is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires. It is unique as one of few surviving documents of Roman government and describes several thousand offices from the imperial court to provincial governments, diplomatic missions, army units, it is considered to be accurate for the Western Roman Empire in the AD 420s and for the Eastern or Byzantine Empire in the AD 390s. However, the text itself is not dated, omissions complicate ascertaining its date from its content. There are several extant 15th- and 16th-century copies of the document, plus a colour-illuminated iteration of 1542. All the known, extant copies are derived, either directly or indirectly, from Codex Spirensis, a codex known to have existed in the library of the Chapter of Speyer Cathedral in 1542, but, lost before 1672 and has not been rediscovered; the Codex Spirensis was a collection of documents, of which the Notitia was the final and largest document, occupying 164 pages, that brought together several previous documents of which one was of the 9th century.
The heraldry in illuminated manuscript copies of the Notitia is thought to copy or imitate only that illustrated in the lost Codex Spirensis. The iteration of 1542 made for Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, was revised with "illustrations more faithful to the originals added at a date", is preserved by the Bavarian State Library; the most important copy of the Codex is that made for Pietro Donato in 1436 and illuminated by Peronet Lamy, now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. For each half of the Empire, the Notitia enumerates all the major "dignities", i. e. offices, that it could bestow with the location and specific officium enumerated, except for the most junior members, for each. The dignities are ordered by: Court officials, including the most senior dignitaries such as praetorian prefects; the Notitia presents four primary problems as regards the study of the Empire's military: The Notitia depicts the Roman army at the end of the AD 4th century. Therefore, its development from the structure of the Principate is conjectural because of the lack of other evidence.
It was compiled at two different times. The section for the Eastern Empire dates from circa AD 395 and that for the Western Empire from circa AD 420. Further, each section is not a contemporaneous "snapshot", but relies on data pre-dating it by as many as 20 years; the Eastern section may contain data from as early as AD 379, the beginning of the reign of Emperor Theodosius I. The Western section contains data from as early as circa AD 400: for example, it shows units deployed in Britannia, which must date from before 410, when the Empire lost the island. In consequence, there is substantial duplication, with the same unit listed under different commands, it is impossible to ascertain whether these were detachments of the same unit in different places or the same whole unit at different times. It is that some units were nominal or minimally staffed. According to Roger Collins, the Notitia Dignitatum was an archaising text written circa AD 425, whose unreliability is demonstrated by "the supposed existence of traditional units in Britain and Spain at a time when other evidence shows they were not there."
The Notitia has many sections missing and lacunae within sections. This is doubtless due to accumulated textual losses and copying errors, because it was copied over the centuries: the earliest manuscript possessed today dates from the 15th century; the Notitia can not therefore provide a comprehensive list of all units. The Notitia does not record the number of personnel. Given that and the paucity of other evidence of unit sizes at that time, the size of individual units and the various commands cannot be ascertained. In turn, this makes it impossible to assess the total size of the army. Depending on the strength of units, the late AD 4th century army may, at one extreme, have equaled the size of the AD 2nd century force, i. e. over 400,000 men. For example, the forces deployed in Britain circa AD 400 may have been 18,000 against circa 55,000 in the AD 2nd century; the Notitia contains symbols similar to the diagram which came to be known as yin and yang symbol. The infantry units armigeri defensores seniores and Mauri Osismiaci had a shield design which corresponds to the dynamic, clockwise version of the symbol, albeit with red dots, instead of dots of the opposite colour.
The emblem of the Thebaei, another Western Roman infantry regiment, featured a pattern of concentric circles comparable to its static version. The Roman patterns predate the earliest Taoist versions by seven hundred years, there is no evidence for a connection between the two. Laeti Tabula Peutingeriana List of Late Roman provinces Notitia Dignitatum, edited by Robert Ireland, in British Archaeological Reports, International Series 63.2. Westermann Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte contains many precise maps Pauly-Wissowa. A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284-602. A Social and Administrative Survey, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986, ISBN 0-8018-3285-3 The Compilation'notitia dignitatum', extensive links and resources Placenames from Notitia Dignitatum GIS from Pelagios/Pleiades. 1505 toponyms. 1164 matches. Bodleian Library: full scan of 1436 edition Bavarian State Library: Notitia Dignitatum
Tabula Peutingeriana referred to as Peutinger's Tabula or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium showing the layout of the cursus publicus, the road network of the Roman Empire. The map is a 13th-century parchment copy of a possible Roman original, it covers Europe, North Africa, parts of Asia, including the Middle East and India. According to one hypothesis, the existing map is based on a document of the 4th or 5th century that contained a copy of the world map prepared by Agrippa during the reign of the emperor Augustus. However, Emily Albu has suggested that the existing map could instead be based on an original from the Carolingian period. Named after the 16th-century German antiquarian Konrad Peutinger, the map is now conserved at the Austrian National Library in Vienna; the Tabula is thought to be a distant descendant of the map prepared under the direction of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a Roman general and friend of emperor Augustus. After Agrippa's death in 12 BC, that map was engraved in marble and put on display in the Porticus Vipsania in the Campus Agrippae area in Rome, close to the Ara Pacis building.
The early imperial dating for the archetype of the map is supported by American historian Glen Bowersock, is based on numerous details of Roman Arabia that look anachronistic for a 4th-century map. Bowersock concluded that the original source is the map made by Vipsanius Agrippa; this dating is consistent with the map's inclusion of the Roman town of Pompeii near modern-day Naples, never rebuilt after it had been destroyed in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. The original Roman map, of which this may be the only surviving copy, was last revised in the 4th or early 5th century, it shows the city of Constantinople, founded in 328, the prominence of Ravenna, seat of the Western Roman Empire from 402 to 476, which suggests a fifth-century revision according to Levi and Levi. The presence of certain cities of Germania Inferior that were destroyed in the mid-fifth century provides a terminus ante quem, i.e. the map's latest creation date, though Emily Albu suggests that this information could have been preserved in textual, not cartographic, form.
The Tabula Peutingeriana is thought to be the only known surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus, the state-run road network. The surviving map itself was created by a monk in Colmar in modern-day eastern France in 1265, it is a parchment scroll, 0.34 metres high and 6.75 metres long, assembled from eleven sections, a medieval reproduction of the original scroll. It is a schematic map, designed to give a practical overview of the road network, as opposed to an accurate representation of geographic features: the land masses shown are distorted in the east-west direction; the map shows many Roman settlements and the roads connecting them, as well as other features such as rivers, mountains and seas. The distances between settlements are given. In total no fewer than 555 cities and 3,500 other place names are shown on the map; the three most important cities of the Roman Empire at the time – Rome and Antioch – are represented with special iconic decoration. Besides the totality of the empire, the map shows areas in the Near East and the Ganges, Sri Lanka, an indication of China.
It shows a "Temple to Augustus" at Muziris on the modern-day Malabar Coast, one of the main ports for trade with the Roman Empire on the southwest coast of India. On the western end of the scroll, the absence of Morocco, the Iberian Peninsula, the British Isles indicates that a twelfth original section has been lost in the surviving copy; the map appears to be based on "itineraries", lists of destinations along Roman roads, as the distances between points along the routes are indicated. Travelers would not have possessed anything so sophisticated as a modern map, but they needed to know what lay ahead of them on the road and how far; the Peutinger Table represents these roads as a series of stepped lines along which destinations have been marked in order of travel. The shape of the parchment pages accounts for the conventional rectangular layout. However, a rough similarity to the coordinates of Ptolemy's earth-mapping gives some writers hope that some terrestrial representation was intended by the unknown original compilers.
The stages and cities are represented by hundreds of functional place symbols, used with discrimination from the simplest icon of a building with two towers to the elaborate individualized "portraits" of the three great cities. The editors Annalina and Mario Levi concluded that the semi-schematic, semi-pictorial symbols reproduce Roman cartographic conventions of the itineraria picta described by 4th-century writer Vegetius, of which this is the sole known testimony; the map was discovered in a library in the city of Worms by German scholar Conrad Celtes in 1494, unable to publish his find before his death and bequeathed the map in 1508 to Konrad Peutinger, a German humanist and antiquarian in Augsburg, after whom the map is named. The Peutinger family kept possession of the map for more than two hundred years until it was sold in 1714, it bounced between several royal and elite families until it was purchased by Prince Eugene of Savoy for 100 ducats. It is today conserved at the Austrian National Library at the Hofburg palace in Vienna.
In 2007, the map was placed on the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, in reco
Oescus, or Palatiolon Palatiolum, was an ancient town along the Danube river, in Moesia, northwest of the modern Bulgarian city of Pleven, near the village of Gigen. It is a Daco-Moesian toponym. Ptolemy calls it a Triballian town, but it became Roman. For a short time, it was linked by a bridge with the ancient city of Sucidava; the city seems to have at one point reached a size of 280,000 m² and a population of 100,000. The Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemy described Ulpia Oescus as a city of the Triballi, an independent Ancient Thracian tribe which inhabited today’s Northwest Bulgaria; the name of the Roman town comes from the river Oescus. It meant "water" in the local Thracian dialect. Under Roman rule, Oescus was an important settlement and military post, protecting the Danubian Limes road to Trimontium, modern-day Plovdiv; the city was connected to the rest of the Roman empire by three roads: Via Egnatia-Danube: Heraclea Lyncestis – Ceramiae – Stobi – Astibos – Tranupara – Pautalia – Aelea – Serdica – Oescus.
Philippopolis – Oescus: Philippopolis ‐ Viamata – Sub Radice – Montemno – Ad Radices – Sostra – Melta – Doriones – Storgosia – Ad Putea – OescusThe Danube road: Singidunum – Viminacium – Ratiaria – Oescus – Novae – Durostorum – mouth of the Danube River. The Roman Fifth Macedonian Legion maintained its permanent military encampment at this site from 10 - 101 AD. Remains of the camp's defensive wall are still visible and areas to the east-northeast show signs of the presence of a necropolis from this period, containing epigraphic monuments of veterans; when the Danube defences were strengthened a second legion Legio IV Scythica was stationed here until 101 AD. In 102 Trajan granted the site the status of a colonia; the actual founding occurred in 106 by the settlement of veterans of the VI Macedonica and the Legio I Italica Legions, the earliest remains of Roman buildings have been dated to this period. The city was built on top of the legionary fortress; the site received Colonia Ulpia Oescensium.
In 167 Oescus received the unique additional privilege of being granted all Roman rights. In 190–191 the city dedicated a pagan temple to the goddess Fortuna, designated as protector of the city. There existed a temple of the Capitoline Triad; the city's economy included manufacturing of jewellery, bronze statuettes bronze brooches and other metal objects and vessels, ceramics and bone articles. It was home to one of the largest sculpture workshops in the region. After 271, the Legio V Macedonica returned, built a second fortress. An aqueduct was built to deliver fresh water from springs 20 kilometers away, a stone wall was constructed to protect the site from invaders and from the Danube floods. On 5 July 328 Emperor Constantine I opened and consecrated the Constantines's Bridge, the biggest and most famous stone bridge on the Danube; the crossing linked Oescus with Sucidava to the north and, measuring 2.5 km long by 5.7 meters wide, was the largest river bridge in ancient times. However, the span was only used for about 27 years.
In 411, the Huns destroyed Oescus, in 444 an attempt was made to resettle it as a Hun settlement, named Hunion. Emperor Justinian I rebuilt the city's fortress wall, in an attempt to re-establish Oescus as the stronghold of the Danube defense system, but all the efforts were stopped in late 585 and early 586 by the invasion of the Avars. A Bulgarian village existed on the site during the 10th–14th centuries. Oescus is one of the most continuously studied ancient cities of the Lower Danube. Archaeological excavations began at the site in 1904, carried out by Vaclav Dobruski; the fortified city has the shape of an irregular pentagon, with an initial area of 18 hectares. There exists a plan to excavate and reconstruct the site, with the goal of providing a complete impression of an ancient Roman commercial and military center. In 1948, the mosaic known popularly, it is on display, along with many other of the site's artifacts, at the Pleven Regional Historical Museum. Other artifacts from the site, such as a statue of the goddess Fortuna, are on view at the National Archaeological Museum in Sofia.
Archaeological surveys of the eastern extension of Oescus II indicate houses from the Principate period, some of which were quite massive and were decorated with mosaics that could be dated to the time of Septimius Severus. The ruins indicate the wealth of the Severan dynasties. There are a main gate, administrative buildings, a civil basilica, three public baths, wells, a preserved road, pagan temples, a necropolis, defensive walls, a forum. There exist ruins of Constantines's Bridge, but they can be seen only from the northern bank of the Danube. Oescus Island in Antarctica is named after Oescus. Dacian davae List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia Dacia Moesia Roman Dacia 3D Laser scanning and rendered movie