Sudan the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in northeastern Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, the Red Sea to the northeast. Sudan has a population of 43 million and occupies 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it Africa's third-largest country and the third-largest in the Arab world. Before South Sudan's secession from Sudan on 9 July 2011, the united Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world by area. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and English; the capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan has been the scene of an ongoing military conflict in its southern states. Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma, the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the rise of the kingdom of Kush, which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century.
After the fall of Kush, the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500. Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads. From the 16th–19th centuries and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north; this period saw Arabisation. From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885, the harsh Egyptian reign was met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman; this state was destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would govern Sudan together with Egypt. The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on 1 January 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes.
Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983. This exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north, the seat of the government and the Animists and Christians in the south. Differences in language and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces influenced by the National Islamic Front, the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. Between 1989 and 2019, Sudan experienced a 30-year-long military dictatorship led by Omar al-Bashir. Due to his actions, a War in Darfur Region broke out in 2003. Bashir was accused of ethnic genocide. Overall, the regime left 300,000–400,000 dead. Protests erupted in late 2018, demanding Bashir's resignation, which resulted in a successful coup d'état on April 11, 2019; the country's name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or "the lands of the Blacks".
The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. The term "Sudanese" had a negative connotation in Sudan due to its association with black African slaves; the idea of "Sudanese" nationalism goes back to the 1930s and 1940s, when it was popularised by young intellectuals. By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. Neolithic peoples created cemeteries such as R12. During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture; the population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed a social hierarchy over the next centuries which became the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, culturally nearly identical, thus evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.
The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, the Atbarah River and the Nile River. It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan to the Sinai. Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II; the Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city. The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria.
Sennacherib's successor Esarh
San Onofre State Beach is a 3,000-acre state park in San Diego County, California. The beach is 3 miles south of San Clemente on Interstate 5 at Basilone Road; the state park is leased to the state of California by the United States Marine Corps. Governor Ronald Reagan established San Onofre State Beach in 1971. With over 2.5 million visitors per year, it is one of the five most-visited state parks in California, hosting swimmers, kayakers, fishermen, sunbathers and the sacred Native American site of Panhe. It is named after the fourth-century saint Onuphrius; the San Onofre Bluffs portion of San Onofre State Beach features 3.5 miles of sandy beaches with six access trails cut into the bluff above. The campground is along the old U. S. Route 101 adjacent to the sandstone bluffs. San Onofre includes San Onofre Beach areas. Alcohol is banned from all beaches within the park; the park includes a marshy area where San Mateo Creek meets the shoreline and Trestles, a surfing site. Whales and sea lions can be seen offshore.
The park’s coastal terrace is chaparral-covered. A surfing and fishing camp had been there since the 1920s, before the U. S. government established Camp Pendleton, a U. S. Marine training camp during World War II. Surfers using redwood boards have visited San Onofre since at least the 1940s, including Lorrin "Whitey" Harrison, Don Okey, Al Dowden, Tom Wilson, Bob Simmons. San Onofre has several surf breaks on its 3.5 miles of coast: Trestles, a world-famous surfing area known for its consistent waves Church, near Camp Pendleton’s beach resort, provides sunbathing and duck watching Surf Beach, divided into three breaks spots known as The Point, Old Man’s, Dogpatch Trails, the southernmost surf spot in this region, includes both rock bottom and sandy breaks Panhe at San Onofre is an Acjachemen village, over 8,000 years old and a current sacred, ceremonial and burial site for the Acjachemen people. Many Acjachemen people trace their lineage back to Panhe, it is the site of the first baptism in California, in 1769 saw the first close contact between Spanish explorers, Catholic missionaries, the Acjachemen people.
The United Coalition to Protect Panhe and The City Project advocate for the preservation of the site. In keeping with the Padres’ tradition of naming areas after patron saints, this area was named after the obscure Egyptian, St. Onuphrius. On November 10, 2016, the Transportation Corridor Agency abandoned plans to build a six-lane toll highway through San Onofre State Beach, other nearby sensitive environmental areas, certain Native American cultural sites; the announcement brings to an end more than 10 years of effort to build through these areas. The abandonment of this route for the toll road was part of an agreement ending several lawsuits filed by the California attorney general and a coalition of environmental groups that sought to block the project. Nudity is prohibited at all parts of San Onofre State Beach, A traditional "clothing optional area" was at the extreme south end of San Onofre Bluffs beach, accessed via Trail number 6. Since March 2010, park rangers have been citing park visitors for nudity, following the 2009 defeat of a legal challenge by a nudist group.
Between San Onofre Bluffs and San Onofre Surf Beach is the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, shut down in June 2013. "San Onofre" and "Trestles" are both mentioned in the 1963 Beach Boys' song Surfin' U. S. A. List of beaches in California List of California state parks official San Onofre State Beach website San Onofre Beach News and Recreation Surf Shop located at San Onofre Aerial Video of San Onofre Beach and campground
Des Raj Dhugga is an Indian politician and belongs to the ruling Shiromani Akali Dal. He represent Sri Hargobindpur, his father's name is Bhulla Ram. Dhugga first became a member of Punjab Legislative Assembly on the Congress ticket from Garhdiwala in 2002, reserved for candidates belonging to scheduled castes, he retained his seat in the 2007 Vidhan Sabha elections. In 2012 Garhdiwala underwent Boundary delimitation and Sri Hargobindpur was converted from general category seat to a reserve category seat. Dhugga contested from Sri Hargobindpur in 2012, he was made chief parliamentary secretary in 2007 Badal government. He continued on this position after the 2012 Punjab elections and was given the department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries