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Sudetenland

The Sudetenland is the historical German name for the northern and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had predominated in the border districts of Bohemia and Czech Silesia from the time of the Austrian Empire; the word "Sudetenland" did not come into being until the early part of the 20th century and did not come to prominence until two decades into the century, after the First World War, when the German-dominated Austria-Hungary was dismembered and the Sudeten Germans found themselves living in the new country of Czechoslovakia. The Sudeten crisis of 1938 was provoked by the Pan-Germanist demands of Germany that the Sudetenland be annexed to Germany, which happened after the Munich Agreement. Part of the borderland was annexed by Poland. Afterwards, the unrecognized Sudetenland became an administrative division of Germany; when Czechoslovakia was reconstituted after the Second World War, the Sudeten Germans were expelled and the region today is inhabited exclusively by Czech speakers.

The word Sudetenland is a German compound of Land, meaning "country", Sudeten, the name of the Sudeten Mountains, which run along the northern Czech border and Lower Silesia. The Sudetenland encompassed areas well beyond those mountains, however. Parts of the now Czech regions of Karlovy Vary, Olomouc, Moravia-Silesia, Ústí nad Labem are within the area called Sudetenland; the areas known as the Sudetenland never formed a single historical region, which makes it difficult to distinguish the history of the Sudetenland apart from that of Bohemia, until the advent of nationalism in the 19th century. The Celtic and Boii tribes settled there and the region was first mentioned on the map of Ptolemaios in the 2nd century AD; the Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni dominated the entire core of the region in centuries. Those tribes built cities like Brno, but moved west during the Migration Period. In the 7th century AD Slavic people were united under Samo's realm. In the High Middle Ages Germans settled into the less populated border region.

In the Middle Ages the regions situated on the mountainous border of the Duchy and the Czech Kingdom of Bohemia had since the Migration Period been settled by western Slavic Czechs. Along the Bohemian Forest in the west, the Czech lands bordered on the German Slavic tribes stem duchies of Bavaria and Franconia. In the course of the Ostsiedlung German settlement from the 13th century onwards continued to move into the Upper Lusatia region and the duchies of Silesia north of the Sudetes mountain range. From as early as the second half of the 13th century onwards these Bohemian border regions were settled by ethnic Germans, who were invited by the Přemyslid Bohemian kings — by Ottokar II and Wenceslaus II. After the extinction of the Přemyslid dynasty in 1306, the Bohemian nobility backed John of Luxembourg as king against his rival Duke Henry of Carinthia. In 1322 King John of Bohemia acquired the Imperial Egerland region in the west and was able to vassalize most of the Piast Silesian duchies, acknowledged by King Casimir III of Poland by the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin.

His son, Bohemian King Charles IV, was elected King of the Romans in 1346 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1355. He added the Lusatias to the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which comprised large territories with a significant German population. In the hilly border regions German settlers established major manufactures of forest glass; the situation of the German population was aggravated by the Hussite Wars, though there were some Germans among the Hussite insurgents. By Germans settled the hilly Bohemian border regions as well as the cities of the lowlands; the city of Prague had a German-speaking majority from the last third of the 17th century until 1860, but after 1910 the proportion of German speakers had decreased to 6.7% of the population. From the Luxembourgs, the rule over Bohemia passed through George of Podiebrad to the Jagiellon dynasty and to the House of Habsburg in 1526. Both Czech and German Bohemians suffered in the Thirty Years War. Bohemia lost 70% of its population. From the defeat of the Bohemian Revolt that collapsed at the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, the Habsburgs integrated the Kingdom of Bohemia into their monarchy.

During the subsequent Counter-Reformation, less populated areas were resettled with Catholic Germans from the Austrian lands. From 1627 the Habsburgs enforced the so-called Verneuerte Landesordnung and one of its consequences was that German according to mother tongue became the primary and official language while Czech declined to a secondary role in the Empire. In 1749 Austrian Empire enforced German as the official language again. Emperor Joseph II in 1780 renounced the coronation ceremony as Bohemian king and unsuccessfully

Agnes Le Louchier

Agnes-Françoise Le Louchier, was the royal mistress of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, from 1694 until 1717. She served as the spy of Bavaria at the French court. Agnès-Françoise Lelouchier was the issue of Jean François Le Louchier, Seigneur de Popuelles and Charlotte d' Aubermont and a member of the Flemish nobility, she became the lover of Maximilian II Emanuel. She accompanied him to Bavaria in 1694, when he married his second spouse, while she herself married the Bavarian officer count Ferdinand Graf von Arco. After the wedding, they returned to Brussels, she had a son with Maximilian, named Emanuel-François-Joseph, legitimized by his father. In 1700, the electress wished to separate from the elector because of this affair, but managed to reconcile; the same year, the elector and electress returned to Bavaria. Le Louchier was given an assignment as a spy by the elector and sent to Paris to make use of political connections in favor of Bavarian interests, she was rewarded with a life pension.

She lived with Maximilian during his exile from 1704 to 1715. Ludwig Hüttl: Max Emanuel – der Blaue Kurfürst, 1679–1726. Eine politische Biographie. Süddeutscher Verlag, München 1976, ISBN 3-7991-5863-4. Karl Eduard Vehse: Bayerische Hofgeschichten. Bearbeitet, eingeleitet und mit Anmerkungen herausgegeben von Joachim Delbrück. München 1922. Werner Sombart: Liebe, Luxus und Kapitalismus. Über die Entstehung der modernen Welt aus dem Geist der Verschwendung, Heidelberg 1913 Peter Claus Hartmann: Der Chevalier De Baviére. ZBLB, Band 31, 1968 S. 286 - 297. Richard Paulus: Max Emanuel und die französische Kunst, Altbayerische Monatsschrift, Jg. 11, München 1913

Andrew Cheung

The Honourable Mr Justice Andrew Cheung Kui-nung PJ is a Hong Kong judge, who serves as a Permanent Judge of the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong. He was the 4th Chief Judge of the High Court, the President of the Court of Appeal. A graduate of Harvard Law School and the University of Hong Kong, he was a barrister-at-law in private practice prior to his judicial career, was qualified to practise in Hong Kong as well as Singapore. Born on 24 September 1961, Andrew Cheung Kui-nung attended Ying Wa College, before reading law at the University of Hong Kong, taking a Master of Laws degree at Harvard Law School in the United States. Cheung served as a Lecturer and Demonstrator of the Faculty of Law of the University of Hong Kong on a part-time basis after graduation. Cheung began private practice the following year. Cheung was appointed to the bench in 2001 as a judge of the District Court of Hong Kong. Sitting first as a Deputy High Court Judge in December 2001, he was soon elevated to the Court of First Instance of the High Court in 2003.

He was appointed as the Probate Judge in 2004, before becoming the Judge in charge of the Constitutional and Administrative Law List of the High Court in 2008. His tenure was marked by a number of high-profile rulings relating to constitutional and human rights matters. In June 2011, Cheung succeeded Geoffrey Ma as the Chief Judge of the High Court and President of the Court of Appeal, making him the fourth local judge to hold this position, he was elected an Honorary Bencher of Lincoln's Inn in 2017. On 21 March 2018, the judiciary announced his appointment as a permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal with effect from 25 October 2018, succeeding Robert Tang. Cheung's appointment was accompanied by the appointments of Baroness Hale and Beverley McLachlin as non-permanent judges of the city's top court, he held the office of Chief Judge of the High Court for 7 years, 127 days – the longest serving of the four judges who had served in the role. Cheung is a member of the Judicial Officers Recommendation Commission, which makes recommendations to the Chief Executive on judicial appointments.

He is a member of the Law Reform Commission. He chairs or is a member of various committees and working parties within the Judiciary, he is the Chairman of the High Court Rules Committee, District Court Rules Committee, Criminal Procedure Rules Committee, Civil Justice Reform Monitoring Committee, Working Group on Civil Matters and Working Group on Integrated Court Case Management System under the Committee on Information Technology. He is a member of the Chief Justice's Committee on Judicial Renumeration, Committee on Information Technology, Working Group on the use of Chinese, Governing Body of the Hong Kong Judicial Institute and the Chief Justice's Working Group on Retirement Ages of Judges and Judicial Officers. On Cheung's appointment as Chief Judge, Donald Tsang praised Cheung as an outstanding lawyer, a man of integrity who commands strong respect within and outside the judiciary. Margaret Ng, who represented the legal sector as a Civic Party legislator, remarked that the appointment came as little surprise.

At the age of 49, Tong added that Cheung's appointment would be part of the judiciary's promotion of young judges to senior positions. The appointment was welcomed by Chief Justice Geoffrey Ma as well as the Secretary for Justice Wong Yan-lung; the Legislative Council Motion endorsing Cheung's appointment commended him as'an outstanding lawyer has the proven ability to handle difficult and complex cases... the potential of being a good administrator... of the High Court'. The Bar Association commended his'well-earned reputation for his legal scholarship as well as his unfailing courtesy and fairness towards litigants and practitioners who appeared before him'. Following his announcement as permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal, academic Eric Cheung commended Cheung as an intelligent and industrious judge. Chief Executive Carrie Lam praised Cheung as "an outstanding lawyer" who has dealt with high-profile cases relating to administrative and constitutional law in recent years. Cheung is married and has three children