A suffragette was a member of militant women's organisations in the early 20th century who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for the right to vote in public elections, known as women's suffrage. The term refers in particular to members of the British Women's Social and Political Union, a women-only movement founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst, which engaged in direct action and civil disobedience. In 1906, a reporter writing in the Daily Mail coined the term suffragette for the WSPU, from suffragist, to belittle the women advocating women's suffrage; the militants embraced the new name adopting it for use as the title of the newspaper published by the WSPU. Women had won the right to vote in several countries by the end of the 19th century; when by 1903 women in Britain had not been enfranchised, Pankhurst decided that women had to "do the work ourselves". The suffragettes heckled politicians, tried to storm parliament, were attacked and sexually assaulted during battles with the police, chained themselves to railings, smashed windows, set fire to postboxes and empty buildings, set bombs in order to damage churches and property, faced anger and ridicule in the media.
When imprisoned they went on hunger strike. The first suffragette to be force fed was Evaline Hilda Burkitt; the death of one suffragette, Emily Davison, when she ran in front of the king's horse at the 1913 Epsom Derby, made headlines around the world. The WSPU campaign had varying levels of support from within the suffragette movement; the suffragette campaign was suspended when World War I broke out in 1914. After the war, the Representation of the People Act 1918 gave the vote to women over the age of 30 who met certain property qualifications. Ten years women gained electoral equality with men when the Representation of the People Act 1928 gave all women the vote at age 21. Although the Isle of Man had enfranchised women who owned property to vote in parliamentary elections in 1881, New Zealand was the first self-governing country to grant all women the right to vote in 1893, when women over the age of 21 were permitted to vote in all parliamentary elections. Women in South Australia achieved the same right and became the first to obtain the right to stand for parliament in 1895.
In the United States, white women over the age of 21 were allowed to vote in the western territories of Wyoming from 1869 and in Utah from 1870. In 1865 John Stuart Mill was elected to Parliament on a platform that included votes for women, in 1869 he published his essay in favour of equality of the sexes The Subjection of Women. In 1865, a women's discussion group, The Kensington Society, was formed. Following discussions on the subject of women's suffrage, the society formed a committee to draft a petition and gather signatures, which Mill agreed to present to Parliament once they had gathered 100 signatures. In October 1866, amateur scientist Lydia Becker attended a meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science held in Manchester and heard one of the organisors of the petition, Barbara Bodichon, read a paper entitled Reasons for the Enfranchisement of Women. Becker was inspired to help gather signatures around Manchester and to join the newly formed Manchester committee.
Mill presented the petition to Parliament in 1866, by which time the supporters had gathered 1499 signatures, including those of Florence Nightingale, Harriet Martineau, Josephine Butler and Mary Somerville. In March 1867, Becker wrote an article for the Contemporary Review, in which she said: It will not be denied that women have, ought to have, opinions of their own on subjects of public interest, on the events which arise as the world wends on its way, but if it be granted that women may, without offence, hold political opinions, on what ground can the right be withheld of giving the same expression or effect to their opinions as that enjoyed by their male neighbours? Two further petitions were presented to parliament in May 1867 and Mill proposed an amendment to the 1867 Reform Act to give women the same political rights as men, but the amendment was treated with derision and defeated by 196 votes to 73; the Manchester Society for Women's suffrage was formed in January 1867, when Jacob Bright, Rev. S. A. Steinthal, Mrs. Gloyne, Max Kyllman and Elizabeth Wolstenholme met at the house of Dr. Louis Borchardt.
Lydia Becker was made Secretary of the Society in February 1867 and Dr. Richard Pankhurst was one of the earliest members of the Executive Committee. An 1874 speaking event in Manchester organised by Becker, was attended by 14-year-old Emmeline Goulden, to become an ardent campaigner for women's rights, married Dr Pankhurst becoming known as Emmeline Pankhurst. During the summer of 1880, Becker visited the Isle of Man to address five public meetings on the subject of women's suffrage to audiences composed of women; these speeches instilled in the Manx women a determination to secure the franchise, on 31 January 1881, women on the island who owned property in their own right were given the vote. In Manchester, the Women's Suffrage Committee had been formed in 1867 to work with the Independent Labour Party to secure votes for women, although the local ILP were supportive, nationally the party were more interested in securing the franchise for working class men and refused to make women's suffrage a priority.
In 1897, the Manchester Women's Suffrage committee had merged with the Natio
16bit were an electronic music duo, consisting of Eddie Jefferys and Jason Morrison. They were signed to Chase & Status' MTA Records, best known for their work with Björk. 16bit were composed of Eddie Jefferys from South London and Jason Morrison from Somerset. Both became interested in electronic music at an early age, citing jungle, garage as their main influences, they were best known for producing dubstep and made their debut release in January 2008 with In The Death Car EP featuring the track "Chainsaw Calligraphy", recognised for its innovative qualities at the time. Fourteen of 16bit's songs were used as the soundtrack for the iOS and WiiWare video game Lilt Line; the duo co-produced "Crystalline" and "Mutual Core" off Björk's 2011 album Biophilia. They subsequently remixed both "Mutual Core" and "Hollow"; the album was nominated for two Grammy awards. Jefferys and Morrison went to Brooklyn. Björk explained that "I was torn about whether to use their version of'Hollow' on the album, their beats for'Crystalline' and'Mutual Core' made it on there, but in the end'Hollow' wound up on the remix album".
While Jefferys said of the collaboration that "working with such abstract time signatures was a strange mix of confusing and enjoyable. She has been so successful without compromising her music or herself", they produced the single "At Your Inconvenience" from the eponymous album of Professor Green. In 2012, the duo had produced the track "I Am the Narrator" from Plan B's third studio album iLL Manors, their 2010 remix of Noisia's "Machine Gun" was used in a trailer and various TV spots for Transformers: Dark of the Moon. The remix was used in the trailer for Far Cry 3. In 2010, their track'Jump' was featured in the Nike commercial'Hit The Target'.16bit won'Best Mix' at the 2010 Dubstep Forum Awards for their'Milky Pie Mix' and came second top in the Best Producer category. Although they stated that the intention was to release a full-length album, it never materialised. In mid-2012, the duo split to pursue solo production careers for unknown reasons. Jefferys relocated to Chicago. Eddie Jefferys has since released music under the alias "Moody Good".
He released his debut album with MTA Records and OWSLA on 2 June 2014. Jefferys produced a single for the rap group Foreign Beggars entitled "Anywhere", provided additional production for the Chase & Status track "Gangsta Boogie" and remixed Yogi's single featuring Pusha T'Burial'. Jason Morrison was working on his own solo project known as The 13, but he decided to retire the project, he is working under the alternative alias "jaswan", which he has released solo music on Bandcamp as, has all of his tracks listed on SoundCloud and Spotify. Put Ya Dirt Inside/Ford Fiesta PCP/President of Europe In The Death Car EP Texaco Cobra/Jump/Can You Show Me What Head Is Swine Flu/What Time Is It? The Tale of the Exploding Fist EP Serum FRZR9000/Skullcrack Panic Chainsaw Calligraphy EP 16 Bit Edition 1 16 Bit Edition 2 Dinosaurs/Boston Cream Plan B – "She Said" Torqux – "Relentless" SKisM – "The Blank" Propatingz feat. Dakini – "Babylons Scared" Noisia – "Machine Gun" Professor Green – "Jungle" Borgore – "Foes" Kissy Sellout – "Garden Friends" Amon Tobin – "Surge" Chase & Status – "Hitz" Björk – "Hollow" Björk – "Mutual Core" 16bit on Facebook 16bit discography at Discogs
Adam Adli Abd Halim, more known as Adam Adli, a student activist from Malaysia. On 13 May 2013, Adam Adli was arrested over the statements he made during a forum held at the Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall in Kuala Lumpur, he was arrested at 3:15 PM on 18 May 2013 under Section 4 of the Sedition Act. Adli was handcuffed at his office in Bangsar will be charged with sedition and is being investigated under Section 125b of the Penal Code, for acting in a manner detrimental to Malaysia's parliamentary democracy. On 19 May 2013, Adli was remanded by the Malaysian authorities for five days until 23 May following his arrest for sedition. City police chief Deputy Comm Datuk Mohmad Salleh said the remand order was to help police investigate Adam Adli on statements he made during a 13 May forum. Adam Adli was charged under Section 4 of the Sedition Act on 23 May 2013 in Kuala Lumpur. Adli studies at the Sultan Idris University of Education. On 9 January 2013, Adli was suspended for three semesters, which will end in September for tarnishing the university's name and disturbing public peace and safety.
On 25 November 2016 he married his high school sweetheart. They both now have one little boy