Sufi philosophy

Sufi philosophy includes the schools of thought unique to Sufism, a mystical branch within Islam termed as Tasawwuf or Faqr according to its adherents. Sufism and its philosophical traditions may be associated with both Sunni Shia Islam, it has been suggested that Sufi thought emerged from the Middle East in the eighth century, but adherents are now found around the world. According to Sufism, it is a part of the Islamic teaching that deals with the purification of inner self and is the way which removes all the veils between divine and man, it was around 1000 CE that early Sufi literature, in the form of manuals, treatises and poetry, became the source of Sufi thinking and meditations. Sufi philosophy, like all other major philosophical traditions, has several sub-branches including metaphysics and cosmology as well as several unique concepts; the emergence of Sufi thought is linked to the historical developments of the Middle East in the seventh and eighth centuries following the life of Prophet Muhammad, its development took place throughout the centuries after that.

Between the tenth and twelfth centuries, Sufism became a spread discipline. One influential early writer on Sufi philosophy was Al-Ghazali, he discussed the causes of its misery and happiness. By the end of the thirteenth century, Sufism had become a well-defined science of spiritual awakening throughout the Islamic World, an "Islamic Golden Age". No important domain in the civilization of Islam remained unaffected by Sufism in this period. Several tariqahs were found. A class of notable Sufi philosophers and jurists such as Hankari, Ibn Arabi, Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi, led this age who trained and generated historical specimens of philosophers and geniuses now read worldwide such as Al-Ghazali, etc. An important mark made in the history of Sufi philosophy has been made by Abdul Qadir Jilani with his jurisprudence and philosophy of Sufism that made him define the Sufi orders. Jilani's adopted order was Qadiriyya and the offshoot he started became known as Sarwari Qadiri. Several other orders were founded in this era.

Sufis were influential in spreading Islam to the furthest outposts of the Muslim world in Africa and the far East. Major ideas in Sufi metaphysics have surrounded the concept of Wahdat or "Unity with God". Two main Sufi philosophies prevail on this controversial topic. Wahdat-ul-Wujood states that the only truth within the universe is God, that all things exist within God only. Wahdat-ul-Shuhud, on the other hand, holds that any experience of unity between God and the created world is only in the mind of the believer and that God and his creation are separate, it is the state where there is no difference between God and human being, trying to achieve a particular state i.e.'No One Except God'. The concept of Sufi Metaphysics was first discussed in written form by Ibn Arabi in one of his most prolific works entitiledFusus al hikam where he applies deep analysis on the issue of Oneness through the metaphor of mirror. In this metaphor, al-Arabi compares an object being reflected in countless mirrors to the relationship between God and his creatures.

God’s essence is seen in the existent human being, as God is the object and humans being the mirrors. Meaning two things, that since humans are mere reflections of God there can be no distinction or separation between the two and without God the creatures would be non- existent; when an individual understands that there is no separation between human and God they begin on the path of ultimate oneness. This metaphysics of Sufi philosophy is narrated in the hadith: "Whoever recognized his self, undoubtedly recognized his Rab". Sufi cosmology is a general term for cosmological doctrines associated with Sufism; these may differ from place to place, order to order and time to time, but overall show the influence of several different cosmographies such as the Quran's testament concerning God and immaterial beings, the soul and the afterlife, the beginning and end of things, the seven heavens etc.. The cosmological plan, explains creation by successive emanation of worlds, as taught by Plotinus In Islamic Sufi terminology, these are known as "Tanzalat-e-Satta".

After Husayn ibn Ali, Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi was the one who discussed these levels in his Arabic book called Tohfa Mursala. Drawing from Qur'anic verses all Sufis distinguish Lataif-as-Sitta as: Nafs, Sirr, Ruh and Akhfa; these lataif designate various psycho spiritual "organs" or, faculties of sensory and suprasensory perception. They are thought to be parts of the self in a similar manner to the way glands and organs are part of the body; some mystics named ruh as “batin” or “the esoteric self” or “qalb”. The Sufi believes in a strong soul as it brings him close to Divine. Soul is strengthened by the spiritual training given by the perfect spiritual guide; this leads to the nearness to Allah. It is stated in hadith Qudsi that "Whoever recognizes his self, recognized his Allah". Hence, death is not the end but in fact it is the beginning to the eternal life, only endowed to the soul and not to the body. Nasma is the Sufi term for the Astral Body, it is not to be confused with the Ruh which transcends physical form.

Sufism demarcates the physical body from the Nasma. According to Su

Lost to follow-up

In the clinical research trial industry, lost to follow-up refers to patients who at one point in time were participating in a clinical research trial, but have become lost at the point of follow-up in the trial. These patients can become lost for many reasons. Without properly informing the investigator associated with the clinical trial, they may have opted to withdraw from the clinical trial, moved away from the particular study site during the clinical trial, became ill and unable to communicate, are missing or are deceased. Patients who become lost to follow-up during a clinical research trial result in many negative effects on the outcome of the trial and on the pharmaceutical company sponsoring the clinical research trial. Patients who are lost-to-follow-up lead to incomplete study results, which in turn can put a bias on the result of the study as well as a bias on the investigational study medication. A lack of complete results leads to intensified FDA scrutiny of the particular study drug, as well as the pharmaceutical company sponsoring the clinical research study.

Biased study outcomes lead to issues of HIPAA standards and compliance. Aside from partial study data and regulatory issues, patients that are not retained due to being lost-to-follow-up can lead to problems with the progression of any clinical research study. Low rates of retention and high rates of patient’s lost-to-follow-up have many side-effects, including longer clinical research trial periods and more monetary expenditures because extra resources may need to be dedicated to the recruitment efforts. There are no standards or guidelines that express the process or methods that can be used to attempt to reach patients who have become lost to follow-up. Only have government institutions like the FDA taken action over the recovery of or communication with patients lost-to-follow-up. Section 4.3.4 of the ICH E-6 Good Clinical Practice: Consolidated Guidance reads, "Although a subject is not obliged to give his/her reason for withdrawing prematurely from a trial, the investigator should make a reasonable effort to ascertain the reason, while respecting the subject's rights."

This excerpt expresses the need for physicians associated with clinical research trials to make a first-hand effort to contact patients who are lost-to-follow-up. In doing so pharmaceutical companies not only look out for the best interest of the patients who enroll in their clinical research trials, but protect the data outcome of their clinical trials, it is important for patients, physicians associated with the study and regulatory departments, like the FDA, that more information is provided to the appropriate people whenever possible. The information should be provided by the patient but when, not feasible it should be provided by the investigator. Proper ways of obtaining information from and about the patients must be developed and proper processes as to the handling of this information must be implemented in order to protect the patients and the integrity of the study outcome. "Find Patients Lost To Follow-Up for Improved Clinical Trial Results." Thurs 13 October 2011.. "LOST to Follow-up Information in Trials: a Protocol on the Potential Impact."

Web. 4 May 2011.. "Locate Patients Lost-To-Follow-Up!" OmniTrace - Find Birth Parents | Adoptee Search | Free People Search Help. Web. 4 May 2011.. "Our Methods." L2FU - Lost to Follow Up. Web. 4 May 2011..*FCR - Homepage. Web. 4 May 2011.. "A Method to Reduce Loss to Follow-up in Clinical Trials: Informed, Withdrawal of Consent." Oxford Journals | Medicine | European Journal of Heart Failure. Web. 4 May 2011.. "MediciGlobal Articles | CenterWatch News Online." The Global Source for Clinical Trials Information | CenterWatch. Web. 4 May 2011

Edward S. Mason

Edward Sagendorph Mason was an American economist and professor at Harvard University. He was the Dean of the Graduate School of Public Administration, now known as the John F. Kennedy School of Government, from 1947 to 1958, he was the president of the American Economic Association in 1962. Edward Sagendorph Mason was born on February 1899 in Clinton, Iowa, his younger brother was Warren P. Mason, who became an electrical physicist, he graduated from the University of Kansas in 1919. He entered Harvard University, where he was a Rhodes scholar at the University of Oxford during his master's degree, he earned a PhD in Economics from Harvard University in 1925. His thesis supervisor was Frank William Taussig. Mason taught a course on the history of socialism in the Department of Economics at his alma mater, Harvard University, in the 1920s and 1930s, he became a tenured professor in 1936. He was the dean of the Graduate School of Public Administration, now known as the John F. Kennedy School of Government, from 1947 to 1958.

He was the founder of the Development Advisory Service, now known as the Harvard Institute for International Development, in 1963. Mason worked for the Office of Strategic Services during World War II, he was an early economist at the Marshall Plan. He was a consultant to the World Bank. Mason was the president of the American Economic Association in 1962, he became known for his work in industrial organization, an area in which provided direct inspiration to Joe Bain for his SCP model, in development economics. Mason married Marguerite Sisson La Monte on April 4, 1930, they had a daughter. Mason died on February 1992 in Santa Barbara, California. Mason, E; the doctrine of comparative cost. Quarterly Journal of Economics 41, November 63–93. JSTOR 1885553 Edward S. Mason; the World Bank since Bretton Woods. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8157-2030-0