click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sugar Ray Leonard

Ray Charles Leonard, best known as "Sugar" Ray Leonard, is an American former professional boxer, motivational speaker, occasional actor. Regarded as one of the greatest boxers of all time, he competed from 1977 to 1997, winning world titles in five weight divisions. Leonard was part of "The Fabulous Four", a group of boxers who all fought each other throughout the 1980s, consisting of himself, Roberto Durán, Thomas Hearns and Marvin Hagler. "The Fabulous Four" created a wave of popularity in the lower weight classes that kept boxing relevant in the post-Muhammad Ali era, during which Leonard defeated future fellow International Boxing Hall of Fame inductees Hearns, Durán, Wilfred Benítez. Leonard was the first boxer to earn more than $100 million in purses, was named "Boxer of the Decade" in the 1980s; the Ring magazine named him Fighter of the Year in 1979 and 1981, while the Boxing Writers Association of America named him Fighter of the Year in 1976, 1979, 1981. In 2002, Leonard was voted by The Ring as the ninth greatest fighter of the last 80 years.

Leonard, the fifth of seven children of Cicero and Getha Leonard, was born in Wilmington, North Carolina. He was named after his mother's favorite singer; the family moved to Washington, D. C. when he was three, they settled permanently in Palmer Park, Maryland when he was ten. His father worked as his mother was a nurse, he attended Parkdale High School, Leonard was a shy child, aside from the time he nearly drowned in a creek during a flood in Seat Pleasant, his childhood was uneventful. He stayed home a lot, playing with his dog, his mother said: "He never did talk too much. We never could tell, but I never had any problems with him. I never had to go to school once because of him." Leonard started boxing at the Palmer Park Recreation Center in 1969. His older brother, started boxing first. Roger helped urging the center's director, Ollie Dunlap, to form a team. Dave Jacobs, a former boxer, Janks Morton volunteered as boxing coaches. Roger won some showed them off in front of Ray, goading him to start boxing.

In 1972, Leonard boxed in the featherweight quarterfinals of the National AAU Tournament, losing by decision to Jerome Artis. It was his first defeat; that year, he boxed in the Eastern Olympic Trials. The rules stated that a boxer had to be seventeen to box in international competition, so Leonard, only sixteen, lied about his age, he made it to the lightweight semifinals, losing a disputed decision to Greg Whaley, who took such a beating that he wasn't allowed to continue in the trials and never boxed again. Sarge Johnson, assistant coach of the US Olympic Boxing Team, said to Dave Jacobs, "That kid you got is sweet as sugar"; the nickname stuck. However, given his style and first name, it was only a matter of time before people started calling him Sugar Ray, after the man many consider to be the best boxer of all time, Sugar Ray Robinson. In 1973, Leonard won the National Golden Gloves Lightweight Championship, but lost to Randy Shields in the lightweight final of the National AAU Tournament.

The following year, Leonard won the National Golden Gloves and National AAU Lightweight Championships. Leonard suffered his last two losses as an amateur in 1974, he lost a disputed decision to Anatoli Kamnev in Moscow, after which, Kamnev gave the winner's trophy to Leonard. In Poland, Kazimierz Szczerba was given a decision victory over Leonard though he was dominated in the first two rounds and dropped three times in the third. Leonard won the National Golden Gloves and National AAU Light Welterweight Championships in 1974; the following year, he again won the National AAU Light Welterweight Championship, as well as the Light Welterweight Championship at the Pan American Games. In 1976, Leonard made the U. S. Olympic Team as the light welterweight representative; the team included Leon and Michael Spinks, Howard Davis Jr. Leo Randolph, Charles Mooney, John Tate. Many consider the 1976 U. S. team to be the greatest boxing team in the history of the Olympics. Leonard won his first four Olympic bouts by 5–0 decisions.

He faced Kazimierz Szczerba in the semifinals and won by a 5–0 decision, avenging his last amateur loss. In the final, Leonard boxed the great Cuban knockout artist Andrés Aldama, who scored five straight knockouts to reach the final. Leonard landed several good left hooks in the first round. In the second, he dropped Aldama with a left to the chin. Late in the final round, he again hurt Aldama, which brought a standing eight count from the referee. With only a few seconds left in the fight, a Leonard combination forced another standing eight count. Leonard was awarded a 5 -- the Olympic Gold Medal. Afterward, Leonard announced, "I'm finished... I've fought my last fight. My journey has ended, my dream is fulfilled. Now I want to go to school." He was given a scholarship to the University of Maryland, a gift from the citizens of Glenarden, Maryland. He planned to study communications, he finished his amateur career with a record of 165–5 and 75 KOs. 1973 National Golden Gloves Lightweight Champion, defeating Hilmer Kenty 1973 National AAU Light Welterweight Championship runner-up, losing to Randy Shields 1974 National Golden Gloves Light Welterweight Champion, defeating Jeff Lemeir 1974 National AAU Light Welterweight Champion, defeating Paul Sherry 1974 North American Championships Gold Medalist, defeating Robert Proulx 1975 National AAU Light Welterweight Champion, defeati

Lev Kulidzhanov

Lev Aleksandrovich Kulidzhanov was a Soviet film director and professor at the Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography. He was the head of the Union of Cinematographers of the USSR, he was a People's Artist of the USSR. He directed a total of twelve films between 1954 and 1994. Born on 19 March 1924 in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR, his father Aleksandr Nikolaevich Kulidzhanov was an Armenian revolutionary who served as a high-ranking Communist Party official. He was disappeared without a trace. Kulidzhanov's mother Ekaterina Dmitrievna was either of Armenian descent, she was arrested along with her husband and sentenced to five years in the Akmol labor camp in Kazakhstan. She returned home only in 1944. All those years Kulidzhanov spent with his grandmother Tamara Nikolaevna. From 1942 to 1943 he studied at the Tbilisi State University. In 1944 he traveled to Moscow and enrolled in the All-Union State Institute of Cinematography to study film direction under Grigori Kozintsev, but left it in just a year because of the poor living conditions and returned to Tbilisi.

In 1948 Kulidzhanov became a VGIK student again, with Sergei Gerasimov and Tamara Makarova as his teachers. He graduated in 1955 and started working at the Gorky Film Studio, releasing his first short film Ladies co-directed with Genrikh Oganisyan, his first success happened with a movie The House I Live In co-directed with Yakov Segel. It became one of the 1957 Soviet box office leaders, reaching the 9th place with 28.9 million viewers. Not only it was the first cinema role of the acclaimed Russian actress Zhanna Bolotova, but Kulidzhanov himself played one of the characters, it was his only big screen role in the entire career. His next film A Home for Tanya turned to be another success and competed for the Palme d'Or at the 1959 Cannes Film Festival, but his real breakthrough happened with the 1961 drama film When the Trees Were Tall that introduced such actors as Yuri Nikulin, Inna Gulaya, Lyudmila Chursina and Leonid Kuravlyov in their first serious roles. While not as successful with Soviet viewers at the time of release, it turned into a cult classic with years.

In 1962 it was selected for the 1962 Cannes Film Festival. In 1969 Kulidzhanov directed the first Soviet adaptation of the Crime and Punishment novel with many acclaimed Soviet actors involved. Although it failed at the box office and left some of his colleagues unimpressed, it was praised by critics and intelligentsia; the movie was selected for the 31st Venice International Film Festival, the filming crew was awarded with the Vasilyev Brothers State Prize of the RSFSR in 1971. In 1965 Kulidzhanov was elected as the head of the Union of Cinematographers of the USSR, substituting Ivan Pyryev at this post; as the head of the Union he helped to preserve a lot of films, founded the Cinema Museum and saved the archive of Sergei Eisenstein. He held this position for 20 years straight, up till the scandalous 5th Congress of the Soviet Filmmakers in 1986 when a group of activists started booing the lecturers, accusing Kulidzhanov and other leading directors of «nepotism» and «political conformism» and demanding a reelection of the whole board.

All this led to restructuring and a quick demise of the Soviet cinema. After Kulidzhanov left the Union, he wasn't able to direct anything up until the 1990s when he made his two final films. Both of them symbolized a return to his earlier days of film making and were written by his wife Natalia Anatolievna Fokina, a professional screenwriter whom he met during the 1940s, they had two sons: Alexandr, a cinematographer, Sergei, a historian. Kulidzhanov was buried in Moscow at the Kuntsevo Cemetery. People's Artist of the RSFSR People's Artist of the USSR Hero of Socialist Labour Two Orders of Lenin Order of the Red Banner of Labour Order of Merit for the Fatherland, 3rd class - for an outstanding contribution to cinema and at his 75th birthday Lenin Prize - 1982 State Prize of the RSFSR Vasiliev brothers - 1971 Margarita Kvasnetskaya. Lev Kulidzhanov. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 120 pages. Natalia Fokina. Back Then the Trees Were Tall. Lev Kulidzhanov in his Wife's Memories. Yekaterinburg: U-Fakrotia, 292 pages.

Natalia Fokina. When the Trees were Tall. Dedicated to Lev Kulidzhanov. Part 1. // The Art of Cinema journal, № 11, 2003 Natalia Fokina. When the Trees were Tall. Dedicated to Lev Kulidzhanov. Part 2. // The Art of Cinema journal, № 12, 2003 Lev Kulidzhanov on IMDb The Observer. 90 years since Kulidzhanov was born talk-show by Russia-K

Hurricane Irene–Olivia

Hurricane Irene–Olivia was the first tracked tropical cyclone to move into the eastern Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic basin. It originated as a tropical depression on September 1971, in the tropical Atlantic; the cyclone tracked nearly due westward at a low latitude, passing through the southern Windward Islands and over northern South America. In the southwest Caribbean Sea, it intensified to a tropical storm and a hurricane. Irene made landfall on southeastern Nicaragua on September 19, maintained its circulation as it crossed the low-lying terrain of the country. Restrengthening after reaching the Pacific, Irene was renamed Hurricane Olivia, which attained peak winds of 115 mph. Olivia weakened before moving ashore on the Baja California Peninsula on September 30. In the Atlantic, Irene produced moderate rainfall and winds along its path, although impact was greatest in Nicaragua where it moved ashore as a hurricane. A total of 96 homes were destroyed, 1,200 people were left homeless; the rainfall resulted in widespread flooding.

In neighboring Costa Rica, Hurricane Irene caused more than $1 million in damage to the banana crop. The remnants of Hurricane Olivia produced rainfall in the southwest United States. Flooding was reported near Yuma, which closed a major highway, the moisture produced snowfall in higher elevations in the Rocky Mountains; the origins of the hurricane were from a tropical wave that exited the west African coast on September 7. It moved westward, developing into a tropical depression on September 11 about 800 miles east of the Windward Islands, it was one of seven active tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin that day, one of the most active single days on record. It existed at a low latitude and failed to intensify due to the unfavorable combination of Hurricane Ginger and a long trough to its northwest. On September 13, the depression passed just south of Barbados and subsequently entered the Caribbean Sea. Interacting with the terrain of South America, the center became broad and ill-defined, although Curaçao reported winds of near tropical storm force as it crossed the island on September 16.

It moved near or over northern Venezuela and Colombia. As it approached the western Caribbean, the depression was able to organize more, with less influence from landmass or the trough to its north. At 0000 UTC on September 17, it is estimated the depression attained tropical storm status; the storm was expected to track west-northwestward toward the northwest Caribbean, similar to the track taken by the destructive Hurricane Edith two weeks prior. Tropical Storm Irene intensified as it continued across the southwestern Caribbean Sea. Late on September 18, the storm attained hurricane status a short distance off the coast of Central America, with 80 mph winds, its peak intensity in the Atlantic Ocean; as it strengthened, it developed an eye and spiral rainbands that extended across Panama into the Pacific Ocean. Hurricane Irene weakened as it approached the coast, although its pressure dropped to 989 mbar. On September 19, the hurricane made landfall in the Nicaraguan South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region.

Irene weakened, deteriorating to tropical depression status within 18 hours of moving ashore. The circulation remained organized over the low-lying terrain of southern Nicaragua due to it crossing Lake Nicaragua. After reaching the Pacific Ocean on September 20, the depression restrengthened to attain tropical storm status, it was the first time an Atlantic hurricane was tracked as a tropical cyclone while crossing Central America into the Pacific Ocean. As an Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone, Olivia maintained well-defined inflow, it intensified as it paralleled the southern Central America coastline. Late on September 21, a Hurricane Hunters flight reported winds of 80 mph and an eye 23 miles in diameter. For several days, Olivia moved west to west-northwestward off the coast of Mexico, although its exact intensity fluctuations were unknown, due to lack of significant observations. On September 25, the eye became pronounced on satellite imagery, based on a report from the Hurricane Hunters, it is estimated Olivia reached peak winds of 115 mph, about 245 miles southwest of Manzanillo, Colima.

The Hurricane Hunters reported a pressure of 948 mbar, the lowest reported pressure during the 1971 Pacific hurricane season. The intensity of Hurricane Olivia fluctuated for two days as it turned westward away from land, due to a blocking ridge over northwestern Mexico. Early on September 26 it weakened to winds of about 105 mph, before it restrengthened to its previous peak intensity. Subsequently, dry air became entrained in the circulation, Olivia began to weaken as it moved over cooler waters; the eye became disorganized and dissipated. Late on September 28 it weakened to tropical storm status, after beginning a turn to the northwest and to the north. About 24 hours Olivia weakened to tropical depression status as it approached the coastline of the Baja California Peninsula. Most of the thunderstorm activity dissipated by the time the depression moved ashore on September 30.

Carousel of Light

The Carousel of Light was created by Lance Shinkle, an artist from Falmouth, Massachusetts. It features. Shinkle began the process of carving the horses in 1988, it took some five years to complete enough horses to set up the carousel. Along with the horses, he carved two wheel-chair accessible chariots and a mermaid sculpture which blows bubbles- thus she has the name, Bubbles. In 1993, Lance purchased a 1947 Allan Herschell carousel to hold the horses; the panels on the mechanism were painted to reflect scenes of Cape Cod. The carousel debuted in July 1993 at the Barnstable County Fair; the next season, Shinkle operated it there for two years. It stood on the Main Street of Hyannis, Massachusetts. For a summer; the carousel operated in Grand Central Station for Christmas season. Shinkle moved to California in 1999 and brought the carousel with him because his father was ill and needed his care, it fell into disrepair. In 2013, Lance brought together a group of civil minded people who had formed a committee to help him with the carousel back in his early days.

Thus, The Carousel of Light, Inc. was established as a non-profit 501 organization. Founding board members of the Carousel of Light, Inc. include Troy B. G. Clarkson, President; the mission of the board is to "bring joy to children of all ages by protecting and preserving the Carousel of Light for generations to come." The carousel was returned to Falmouth by the non-profit in February 2014. After an extensive renovation, In the summer of 2014, the Carousel of Light had its inaugural season located on the grounds of the Mullen-Hall School. Over 15,000 riders enjoyed the carousel that year; the Carousel of Light has continued at that location during the summer seasons since

Patience Harris

Patience Glossop Harris, was a British costume designer for the theater best known for her work with the actor Ellen Terry. Patience Glossop Harris was the daughter of Augustus Glossop Harris, an actor and theater manager, Maria Ann Harris, a theatrical costumier, she had two sisters and Maria, two brothers and Augustus, an actor and theatrical manager. Harris oversaw the actor Ellen Terry's costumes during the first decade of Terry's career at the Lyceum Theatre, from the late 1870s to the late 1880s During this period, Harris designed elaborate, heavy costumes in luxurious fabrics for Romeo and Juliet, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, among other plays. In 1882, Terry brought the costume designer Alice Comyns Carr on board as a consultant. Harris and Carr worked together until 1887, but their tastes differed, with Carr favoring simpler, more flowing designs in the Aesthetic dress style, their disagreements reached a head in 1887 over designs for the plays Henry VIII and The Amber Heart, Harris resigned.

Carr succeeded her as Terry's head costumer designer. Information is lacking about the succeeding decade of Harris's career. At the time of her death, she was working under the company name Auguste et Cie. Costumes bearing this label were worn by both Terry and the actor-manager Henry Irving; the circumstances of Harris's death provoked an inquest, it was suggested that she may have died of alcoholism

Donald M. Grant

Donald Metcalf Grant was an American publisher. He was born in Providence, Rhode Island in 1927 and graduated from the University of Rhode Island in 1949. Grant's interest in fantasy and science fiction started when he began reading the stories of Edgar Rice Burroughs at age 10, he has two children. Grant was involved in the founding of several science fantasy small press publishers, he co-founded Grant-Hadley Enterprises in 1945, The Buffalo Book Company in 1946 and Centaur Press in 1970. He founded Grandon, Publishers in 1949 and Donald M. Grant, Inc. in 1964. 1976, World Fantasy Special Award: Professional 1979, Balrog Awards: professional achievement 1980, World Fantasy Special Award: Professional 1983, World Fantasy Special Award: Professional 1984, World Fantasy Convention Award 2003, World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement. Chalker, Jack L.. The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Bibliographic History, 1923-1998. Westminster, MD and Baltimore: Mirage Press, Ltd. Eshbach, Lloyd Arthur. Over My Shoulder: Reflections on a Science Fiction Era.

Philadelphia: Oswald Train. OCLC 10489084. Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago, IL: Advent. P. 192. ISBN 0-911682-20-1